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Full text of "Cayuga in the field : a record of the 19th N. Y. Volunteers, all the batteries of the 3d New York Artillery, and 75th New York Volunteers"

Gc 

973.74 
N42hak 

Vol 

1764764 



REYNOLDS r'-:rTORlCAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01479 4819 



CAYUGA IN THE FIELD. 



A RECORD 



OF THE \ 



19tl\ jNf. Y.Volui\teef^, 



ALL THE BATTERIES OF THE 



3D NEW YORK ARTILLERY, 



AND 

75TH NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS, 

COMPRISING AN 

ACCOUNT 07 THEIR ORGANIZATION, CAMP LIFE, MARCHES, 

BATTLES, LOSSES, TOILS AND TRIUMPHS IN THE 

WAR FOR IHE UNION, WITH COMPLETE 

ROLLS OF THEIR MEMBERS, 

BY 

HENRY HALL AND JAMES HALL. 



AUBURN, N. Y. 
1873. 



1764764 



/. 



F Hall, Henry, IS'IS- % 

8349 i 

.537 Cayuga in the field. A record of I 

the i9th N.Y. volunteers, all the. bat- ^ 

terles of the 3d New York artillery, and ^ 

75th Nev; York volunteers, comprising an i 

. account of their organization, canp life, f 

•Hn-pcARo marches, battles, losses, toils and tri- \ 
umphs in the war for the union, with | 
complete rolls of their members, by Ken- ! 
ry Hall and James Hall. Auburn, N.Y., ; 
1873. 2v.in /-^ 1. I 



147909 NL 32-400 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by 

HENRY and JAMES HALL, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United Sutes for the 

Northern District of New York. 



TRUAIR, SMITH & CO., 

Printer*, Stereotypers and Bock Bind-r-, 

a] and Z4 Eaot Wash'n.ton St., 

Syracuse. N. Y. ' 



PREFACE. 



Bright and honorable as is the record of Cayuga county in 
the war for the Union, it has never yet been presented, even to 
the soldiers themselves, in anything but a fragmentary and dis- 
jointed form. The much felt and oft expressed necessity for its 
embodiment as a whole has led to the undertaking of Cayuga 
in the Field. The 19th Volunteers, the 3d New York Artillery, 
which was organized from it^ and the 75th New York Vol- 
unteers, having been raised during the first year of the war, 
have historical precedence, and are naturally taken up first. 
It is proper to state at the outset the fact that these regiments 
were not composed exclusively of men from Cayuga county 
With the fame of Cayuga's sons is indissolubly linked that of 
many comrades from other localities. In this story of the origin 
and services of these organizations, we have sought to make no 
discrimination, but to do justice to all. 

To prepare a mere chronicle has not been our only object. 
In a war of any magnitude, ultimate victory is attained by the 
scientific, systematic combination of the forces at command. 
Owing to the secresy with which commanders veil their plans 
the soldier rarely understands the part he is bearing in the 
whole scheme. He knows not what he is accomplishing, hut 
rather how he is accomplishing something. We have striven 



6 PREFACE. 

therefore, to present the services of our men in their relation of 
a part to a whole. 

It has also been our aim to depict to those who remained at 
home the scenes in which our volunteers participated, and to 
correct any misapprehension that may have existed at home in 
regard to them. 

In digesting and embodying the mass of material collected 
for this work, it has been necessary to generalize to a large 
extent, and, without neglecting minor details of camp life, the 
march and the siege which are of special interest only to those 
participating, to dwell with greater emphasis on the more im- 
portant actions and events in the story of the regiments. It is 
quite likely that the perusal of these pages will suggest to the 
soldier many pleasant memories which have not found a place. 
Yet, as the trellis lifts to the gaze and cherishing sunlight the 
fragile vine which might otherwise be crushed by the foot or 
choked by sturdier vegetation, so, it is hoped, this more substan- 
tial frame work of history may rescue and even clothe itself with 
fragmentary, clinging recollections. 

The information afforded by this record has been derived 
from innumerable sources. The authors have had access to 
regimental records of the 75th ; the private and official papers 
of Col. Babcock, and his unfinished manuscript history of the 
Louisiana campaigns; the regimental records of the 19th and 
3d, in possession of Col. Stewart ; the records and papers of 
many batteries ; a large number of private diaries, letters and 
copious personal recollections of officers and men of all three 
commands ; the war records of the State and National govern- 
ments ; besides receiving valuable correspondence from com- 
manders of the departments, corps and brigades in which these 
regiments served. With an earnest purpose to justly value 



PREFACE. 

personal services and all events and circumstances in the ex- 
perience of these organizations, and to attain the utmost possible j 
accuracy of statement, this chaotic mass of material has been j 
reduced to order, the chaff carefully sifted out, and apparent i 
differences reconciled ; and the result of twenty months of in- | 
dustrious and conscientious labor is now submitted to the public. | 

Of the varied assistance and personal encouragement which ! 
has been so generally and generously extended to this work, the j 
authors herewith make their grateful acknowledgments, | 

Soldiers and officers who discover inaccuracies in this work 
will confer a personal favor by furnishing to the authors the 
data to correct them. 

Auburn, N. Y., June, 1873. a, ^ > 



BY 



CAYUGA IN THE FIELD. 



A RECORD 



OF THE 



19tl\ ]N[. Y. Voltiqteef ^ 



AND 

3D New York Artillery, 

COMPRISING AN 

ACCOUNT OF THEIR ORGANIZATION, CAMP LIFE, MARCHES, 

BATTLES, LOSSES, TOILS AND TRIUMPHS IN THE 

WAR FOR THE UNION, WITH COMPLETE 

ROLLS OF THEIR MEMBERS, 

BY 

HENRY HALL 



AUBURN, N. Y. 
1873. 



CONTENTS. 



19TH INFANTRY AND 30 ARTILLERY. 
I. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE I9TH N. Y. VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 

The War Foreseen in Cayuga County — The County to Furnish 
a Regiment — Forming the Companies — They Gatlier at El- 
mira — The Old Barrel Factory — rOrganization — Col. Clark — 
How the Colonel Bore Dispatches to Butler — Camp Happen- 
ings — Muster In — Some One Blunders — The Shoddy Uni- 
forms — Colors Presented — Orders to March. 

IL 

ON KALORAMA HEIGHTS. 

Departure of the Army — Gen. Patterson's Telegrams — Gen. 
Scott's Counter-orders — Gloomy Reception in Baltimore — 
Washington — In Camp of Instruction at Kalorama — Camp 
Routine — New Muskets — The Shoddy Uniforms Wearing 
Out — Review of New York Troops — Ordered to Join Patter- 
son. 

IIL 

IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

The 19th New York leaves Kalorama — By Train to Hagerstown 
— The First March — Fording the Potomac — March to Mar- 



12 -'^'^ CONTENTS. 

tinsburg — Kennedy's Exploit — Curiosity to See a Rebel — 
Webster and Tobias See too Many — The 19th New Yorl< has 
a Skirmish — Col. Clark Relieved of Command — Advance to 
Bunker Hill — Forajjing — Anxious for a Fi^ht — Patterson's 
Inertness — Sandford's Activity — The Flank March to Charles- 
town — Patterson's Dramatics — Feeling in the Army — Capt. 
Stewart Reports Johnston's Movement — Mementoes of John 
Brown — Ledlie Shot At — At Harper's Ferry. 

IV. 

ALONG THE POTOMAC. 

Patterson Relieved by Banks — Retreat to Pleasant Valley — On 
Mar\-land Heights in Ambush — New Uniforms Arrive — Ken- 
nedy's Raid on Lovettsville — The Talk About Going Home — 
The Regiment Turned Over for the Whole Two Years — Poli- 
ticians Keep Back the News — Seward's Order — To Kyatts- 
ville — August 2 2d — Brutal Treatment by the Authorities — 
The Recusants — Guarding the Division Supply Train — (Con- 
solidation Talked Of — Desertions — Col. Clark Resigns — Con- 
version to Artillery — At Frederick — Sent to Hancock — 
Stalker's Case — To Washington. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE 3D N. Y. VOL. ARTILLERY. 

The New Companies of the 3d New York Artillery — The Old 
and New Join — Proceed to Fort Corcoran — The Fort, Camp, 
and Locality — Organisation of the Regiment — Kennedy's 
Battery — .Accident- Arresting the Administration — Sick of 
Porter's Division on Dr. Dimon's hands — The Regiment to 
go to North Carolina — Marches to Annapolis — Embarks — 
Arrival at Newbern. 



VI. 

AT NEWBERN. 

Burnside's C<">ist Division — North Carolina's V.ilue to the Con- 
fcdt-racy — Arrival of the 3d ,-\rtiIle.-y in Ncwhern — Fortifying 
— Dct.'iil for Special Service — Sciienck's Scout — Mouniingthe 
Light B.itlcr;es — Exploits — A Grand Expedition Ordered — 



CONTENTS. 13 

Burnside Called Away — The Fortifications — Stewart, Chief 
.Engineer — Paying the Contrabands — The Health of the Regi- 
ment. 



VIL 

FORT MACON, WASHINGTON, AND RAWLES' MILLS. 

Amnion Ordered to Fort Macon — The Fort — The Siege — Death 
of Dart — Macon Surrenders — Testimonials to Battery I — 
Battery G goes to Washington, N. C. — Prevalence of Malaria 
— The Rebels Surprise the Town — Desperate Fight — Sudden 
Advent of Battery H — Our Victory — 'i'he Losses — 'J'he Tar- 
boro Expedition — Rawles' Mills — A Grand Scare. 

VIII. 

poster's expedition to goldsboro. 

Foster's Orders — Organization of the Column — The Advance — 
Obstructions at Deep Gully — Capture of a Redoubt at South 
West Creek — Lieut.-Col. S'lewart in a Hot Place — Battle of 
Kinston — Saving the Bridge — M9rrison's Prisoners — Advance 
into the Town — Dash at the Blockade — The Spoils — Advance 
to Whitehall— The Battle— Mercer^au's Shot— Dea:h of Hack- 
ett and Ryan — On to Goldsboro — Burning the Bridge — Axmy 
Commences to Return — Attack on the Rear Guard — Morri- 
son's Splendid Achievement Sundry Cavalry Dashes — Wad- 
ing a Mill Stream — 'I'hrough Burning Woods — Return to 
Newburn — Foster's Thanks. 



IX. 

north CAROLINA IN 1S63. 

Current Events— -Ammon on Recruiting Service— Capt. Howell— 
Ledlie Promoted — His Order— Stewart in Command — Attack 
on Newbern— Rebels Kepulsed — They Attack Washington — 
The Siege — Incidents — Enemy Again Foiled — 1 wo Years' 
Men Go Home — Schenck and Hov.-ell in New York in the 
Riots— Reception in Auburn — Col. JStewart Recruiting — Cur- 
rent Events. 



14 CONTENTS. 

X. 

BEFORE CHARLESTON. 

Foster's Expedition to Charleston — The Artillery Brigade 

Hunter Absorbs Foster's Troops — In Camp on St. Helena 

The Tent with the Barrel in it— Du Font's Attack on Charles- 
ton — Batteries B and F on Folly Island — Return of the other 
Batteries to Newbern — Capture of Morris Island— Siege of 
Fort Wagner — B and F on the Lines — Battery B and the 
Regulars— B Builds a Breastwork at Night — Capture of Wag- 
ner — B and F Bombard Sumter at Night — The Two Expedi- 
tions to Johns Island — Incidents — The 3d Artillery Saves the 
Army — Battle of Bloody Bridge. 

XI. 

NORTH CAROLINA AGAIN. 

North Carolina has Thought of Returning to the Old Wavs 

Jeff. Davis Proposes to Crush that Spirit Out — Gen. Peck's 
Alarm — Attack on Newbern of February, 1864 — Mercereau 
in the Fight — Capture of the Underwriter — Kirby in a Ti^-ht 
Place— Fate of the Bay Section — To Virginia — Hoke Turns 

Up Again — The Union Cause Suffers— The Yellow Fever 

Death of Lieut. Col. Stone — Capture of Major Jenny — Arri- 
va! of Recruits— Battery A goes to Plymouth— The Night 
March — How a Prize was Lost — Battery I Joins Frankle— 
Chicken Raid — Other Raids. 

xn. 

CO-OPER.\TING WITH SHERMAN. 

Battery F at Jacksonville — Beauties of the Region — Titus's 
Thanksgiving Dinner— Foster to Co-operate with Gen. Sher- 
man — Getting Ready for the Eixpedition— At Bovd's Neck 

A Day Wasted — Advancing on Grahamville— Battle of Honev 
Hill— Death of Wildt— B and F in the Fight — Foster Tries 

Again— .Advance to Devaux Neck— F in a Hot Skirmish 

Shelling the Railroad— Sherman Heard From— B Comes Up 
— Evacuation by the Eneniv — Sherman's March to the North 
— H-atch Advances on Charleston— Bringing in Deserted 



CONTENTS. 



15 



Guns — The 3d Artillery in Charleston — Carrying out Flags of 
Truce — Capture of Gov. Magrath. 



XIII. 

WITH BUTLER. 

Generalities — K and M to go to Virginia — Butler Wants More 
Batteries — E and K Sent to Him — Major Schenck — The Ad- 
vance on Richmond — At Bermuda Hundreds — E Shells Fort 
Clinton — Tearing Up the Railroad — On to Richmond — Fight 
at Half Way House— On the Lines Before Drury's Bluff— A 
Telegraph Put to Good Use — The Army of the James Sur- 
prised — Charge on Battery E — A Bloody Fight — Out of Am- 
munition — Ashby Down — Driven Back — The Losses — Butler 
"Bottled Up"— M at Fort Powhatan, and Wilson's Landing— 
K at Spring Hill — Has a Fight — Gilmore's Attack on Pe- 
tersburg — Smith Attacks — K Shelling Batteries No. 11 and 
12 — The 1 8th Corps Carries the Works. 

XIV. 

SIEGE OF PETERSBURG AND RICHMOND. 

The i8th Corps Reinforced by the Army of the Potomac — E 
and K Shelling the River Batteries — The Walthal House — 
The Siege Begins-— E Throws Shells into Petersburg — Con- 
tinual Shelling — E and K Fire in Concert — K Moves at Night 
to the Page House — Arrival of Battery K— E Sends a Sec- 
tion to the Hare House— The Daily Battles— The Mine— K 
Fires the City— M on the Lines— The Batteries Sent Back to 
Rest— Again at the Front — The Works — The Countermine- 
Various Bombardments — Capture of Fort Harrison — Rebels 
Attempt to Retake It— K Saves the Fort— On the Richmond 
Lines — E's Fight with the Iron Clads — Events of the Winter 
— The End Near at Hand — Evacuation of Richmond — K"s 
Race — Occupation of Richmond. 

XV. ■ 

IN THE ARMY OF THE OHIO. 

Schofield in North Carolina — Sherman's Engineers Study the 
Bridge Question— Stewart's Map— Band-Box Artillery— Tiie 



r ;J .1 



l6 CONTENTS. 

Movement on Goldsboro — At Wise's Forks — Intrenching in 
the Woods — The Desperate Assaults of Hoke — The Band- 
box Artillery Repulsing a Surprise — In Kinston — Advance to 
Goldsboro — P^oraging — The Signal Guns — Sherman's Bum- 
mers — Junction with Sherman — Advance to Raleigh — Surren- 
der of Kinston — The Great Review — Return to Newbern — 
Schofield's Farewell. 

XVI. 

MUSTERING OUT — GENERAL STATISTICS. 

Muster Out Statistics — The Battles of the Regiment — General 
Reflections. 

XVII. 

MUSTER ROLLS. 



I. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE 19TH N. Y. VOL. INFANTRY. 

The War FoTeseen in Cayuga County — The County to Furnish a Regiment — 
Forming the Companies — They Gather at Elmira — The Old Barrel Factory 
— Organization — Col. Clark— How the Colonel "Bore Dispatches to Butler — 
Camp Happenings — Muster In — Some One Blunders — The Shoddy Uniforms 
Colors Presented — Orders to March. 

One of the most remarkable features of our late Civil War 
was the indolent apathy, with which the Northern States of the 
Union awaited the culmination of the secession of the South 
in an open rebellion against the laws and authority of the 
General Government. States seldom look with so much com- 
placence on the formation of such extensive and dangerous 
combinations against them on their own territory. In all the 
North this apathy was no where so great as in New York. The 
people believed there would be no war even after the secession 
The militia establishment of the State, long neglected, run down, 
half disbanded, only kept dully alive by the activity and the 
purses of a few martial spirits in the principal cities, therefore, 
received no general attention. The ranks of skeleton regiments 
were not replenished. No new regiments were organized. The 
few full regiments were not called upon to prepare for a possible 
demand upon them for active service. 

In the populous inland County of Cayuga, the possibility ot 
war had, however, been considered. Her people comprised 
many distinguished men, who mingled in public attairs, and were 
accustomed narrowly to analyze questions atfecting the weltare 

B 



1 8 I9TH NEW- YORK INFANTRY, 

of the nation. The city of Auburn, her capital, was the home 
of the great statesman, Wm. H. Seward, who had proclaimed 
the doctrine of the '' irrepressible conflict " between Freedom 
and Slaver}', and with whom the leading minds of Cayuga 
County were in constant intercourse. As early as December, 
i860, Benj. F. Hall, Esq., of Auburn, editor of a Republican 
daily newspaper, the Union, an intimate friend of Gov. Seward, 
of his own accord went before the Supervisors of the County, 
then in session, and invited them to anticipate the expected con- 
flict by taking some action that would secure military prepara- 
tions. This act was historical. It was the first of the kind in 
the State. In January following, Solomon Giles, Esq., a lawyer 
of the village of VVeedsport, and Capt. Terence J. Kennedy, of 
Auburn, a paint merchant by occupation, and an artillery officer 
in the militia of long standing, tendered their services to the 
Governor of the States for raising troops. No affirmative action 
was taken in these cases. The necessity of it was doubted. 
The suggestion of Mr. Hall was ridiculed by the people and 
press of the whole State. 

A memorable Saturday in April, 1861, awoke the people of 
the North from their long dream of Peace. Fort Sumter had 
been attacked by the rebels and captured. 

On Monday, April 15th, President Lincoln proclaimed the re- 
bellion, and called the country to arms. 

The North was required instantly to detach from its militia 
forces 75,000 men to serve as infantry, or riflemen, for three 
months, and dispatch them with all haste to the National Capi- 
tal, to capture which next, it was supposed, the rebels would 
make a rush. The State of New York was to furnish towards 
this army the large proportion of 13,260 men, or 17 regiments, 
each 780 strong. An immense reaction took place in the North 
at the call. A wave of enthusiasm swept every State, obliterat- 
ing for a moment all party distmctions, and it was the cry of men 
of all classes, politics and creeds, " The Union of States must 
and shall be preserved, whatever the hazards." In three days, 
battalions and regiments were rushing on express trains from all 
quarters to the defense of Washington. 

There then existed in Auburn the headquarters of a regiment 
of militia, designated as the 49th, commanded by Col. John A. 
Dodge. It had once been a large, strong, well-trained organiza- 
tion of wide celebrity, but now boasted the possession only of 
four active companies. In addition to the regular companies of 
the regiment, there had been attached to it, in previous years, a 
battery of light artillery, under Capt. Kennedy, a splendid 



RAISING THE CAYUGA COMPANIES. I9 

officer, and a cadet company under command of Capt. John H. 1 
Ammon, but both at this time were practically disbanded. Be- ] 
fore the sun had set on April 15th in Auburn, friends of Gov. | 
Seward had given expression to a wish that, in honor of that ' 
great statesman, Cayuga County might send out to the war, un- I 
der the call for 75,000 men, a complete regiment. The patriotic i 
idea was caught up with the greatest enthusiasm and flew like I 
wildfire through city and county. The first proposition was to \ 
recruit the 49th Militia to 1,000 men immediately and tender it j 
to the Government as Cayuga's loyal offering. A meeting of the \ 
officers of the 49th, April i6th, formally resolved on this course. | 
But our Legislature, that same day, passed a law requiring the \ 
organization in this State of a force of 30,000 volunteers, inde- \ 
pendent of the Militia, to be enrolled for two years, from which \ 
force should be detached the regiments called for by the Gov- i 
emment, and as many more as should be needed. Militia regi- j 
ments already sent forward were to be withdrawn as last as the | 
volunteers were organized. Mobilization of the 49th was i 
abandoned the day after it was begun. Its officers and the peo- I 
pie of Cayuga resolved spontaneously on the formation of a reg- 
iment of volunteers. On April 17th, enlistment offices were 
opened in the State Armory, at Auburn, followed in a week's 
time by others in the villages of Moravia, VVeedsport and Union 
Springs. In twenty-three days- the regiment was raised. 

Before recounting further details, let historical justice be done 
to the 49th Militia. That organization never took the field 
against rebels. Yet it must be remembered, that the Caj'uga 
volunteers received from it, at the very outset, six captains, sev- 
eral lieutenants and staff officers, and a numerous contribution 
of men, highly trained and of invaluable military experience. 
The 49th Militia was the military parent of Caj'uga's first regi- 
ment of volunteers. 

Capt. T. J. Kennedy, of Auburn, tendered his services to Gov. 
Morgan for the enlistment of troops, Jan. nth, 1861. Thank- 
ing him for the patriotic offer, the Governor declined the ten- 
dered service on the grounds that troops were not then needed. 
Our newspaper press of the North, in January 1861, scouted the 
thought of war, and it required more heroism than the Governor 
possessed to authorize what Capt. Kennedy proposed. The 
Captain, however, was a close student of public affairs, and was 
convinced that he was right. He resolved to act, though 
unauthorized. March 12, he began the formation of an artillery 
company in Auburn, to be held in readiness for service in case 
of an outbreak in the South. An enlistment paper was pre- 



;c 



20 IQTH NEW- YORK INFANTRY. 

pared in these words : "We, the Undersigned, hereby pledge 
our Words of Honor to associate ourselves together, for the pur- 
pose of forming a light artillery company, to serve as long as the 
war shall last." It was signed by Kennedy first, then by John 
Poison. In the course of twenty days, five men signed it. Then 
enlistments began to come in briskly. After the capture of 
Sumter, an office was opened in the Armory. By April 17th, 
Kennedy had 130 men. Next day he heard by letter from Gov. 
Morgan, that the State could accept infantry only. Disbanding 
his company, he began again. Forty of the artillerymen re-en- 
listed. By the 22d of April, such was Capt. Kennedy's reputa- 
tion and the esteem in which he was held, he had the honor of 
reporting again to Albany the enrollment of Cayuga's first full 
company of volunteers. He lost the full benefit of the achieve- 
ment, however, by delay in making out correct, formal papers, 
which resulted in his muster into the State service second, in- 
stead of first, of the Cayuga companies. Brig.-Gen. Jesse 
Segoine, of the Militia, had been designated as the Mustering 
Officer of Central New York. By him, April 24, Kennedy was 
legally accepted and sworn in, with Lieutenants John Poison and 
Henry C Day, and a company of 74 men of magnificient physi- 
que and appearance. Seventy-four men was the maximum 
then allowed by law. The surplus went into other companies. 

John T. Baker, Captain of the Auburn Guard in the 49th New 
York M., began enrolling volunteers, April 17th. He was a 
dashing, handsome officer, portly, dark featured, very popular, 
and had seen service in the U. S. Navy, on the frigate " Poto- 
nuu" and in the Patriot war. His company filled rapidly. 
Little effort was required to obtain men, and less expense. No 
bounties were ottered. Very little personal solicitation was re 
sorted to. The men enlisted from a sense of duty, prompted 
somewhat by a love of novelty and adventure. They comprised 
some of the best blood of Auburn and Cayuga County, and, as 
a class, were intelligent and industrious men. This was true of 
all the companies of the Cayuga regiment. Capt. Baker, with 
Lieuts. Chas. White and Martin Laughlin, and a full company 
was mustered in April 24th, by Gen. Segoine. 

James E. Ashcroft, dentist, of Seneca Falls, had for some time 
commanded a celebrated independent Zouave organization in 
that village, of such remarkable proficiency in the light infantry 
tactics, that it was accustomed to give public exhibitions of its 
skill. In November, i860, Capt. Ashcroft tendered his company 
to the Governor, to go into the field in case of war. It was not 
accepted. In April, 1S61, these Zouaves had been to Geneva 



RAISING THE COMPANIES. 21 

and Canandaigua giving exhibitions, when, on reaching home, 
they heard of the capture of Fort Sumter. Their popular and 
brave commander immediately began to raise a company of vol- \ 
unteers. Some of his Zouaves went with him in the patriotic i 
undertaking, and on April 26th he was mustered into the State ] 
service with a full company of men. His lieutenants were j 
faithful soldiers — S. Clark Day and Charles B. Randolph. i 

In Auburn, an Irish company was enrolled by sturdy Owen 1 
Gavigan, one of the fighting captains of old Cayuga. It was i 
obtained in one day, on that memorable Sunday, April 21st, { 
That day Auburn was filled with almost tumultuous excitement i 
and patriotic ardor. War meetings were held in the streets, i 
some old six-pound cannon in the Armory were dragged out \ 
by Kennedy's men and fired, and flags floated from stores, houses j 
and spires all over the city. The clergy preached strong ser- ] 
mons on the duty of preserving the Union. At the Church of \ 
the Holy Family, that true patriot and talented preacher, Father i 
Michael Creedon, made a powerful address, and exhorted Irish- \ 
men to enroll themselves among the defenders of the Union and ] 
upholders of Liberty. This was in the old church on Chapel 1 
street. After mass, sixty-five men went to the new church and | 
enlisted, and afterwards marching to the Armory in a body they I 
elected officers and organized. Wm. H. Boyle and Luke Bran- 1 
nick were made lieutenants. I 

The next company was enrolled in Auburn by a rising young j 
member of the bar by the name of Theodore H. Schenck, a^en- 1 
tleman of fine talents and education, who made one of the most j 
gallant and efficient soldiers in the regiment, and was a decided \ 
acquisition to its corps of officers. The company organized in \ 
five days. It was mustered in April 25th, with Lieuts. David | 
A. Taylor and E. C. Burtis. At Elmira Lieut. Burtis resigned, \ 
and was succeeded by Lieut. J. Fred Dennis. | 

The loyal rural towns of south Cayuga now contributed a com- t 
pany to the regiment, raised through the exertions of two able j 
and influential nren. Nelson T. Stephens, Esq., a lawyer of rep- ] 
utation, and Watson C. Squire, a scholarly gentleman, principal 1 

of the Moravia Acadefny. Moravia had held many war meet- \ 

ings with great enthusiasm, but there were no enlistments. One j 
night, Mr. Squire was chairman of a war meeting, Mr. Stephens j 

acting as secretary. Sitting at arable together in the hail, these \ 

gentlemen remarked the hanging back of the young men, Tliey J 

saw an example was needed. They agreed to enlist, and an- ] 

nounced the fact to the meeting. The effect was miLjicil. 
Forty of the best young men of the town signed the enlistment 



22 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

paper forthwith, and in a very few days Moravia had a full com- 
pany. On May 6th the company took the oath of service with 
Mr. Stephens as Captain, and Lieuts. W. C. Squire and Edward 
D. Parker. For a time the choice of the Captaincy wavered be- 
tween Mr. Stephens and Mr. Squire, but the latter withdrew 
from a contest with a man of the culture, ability and experience 
of his colleague, and the choice was made as stated. 

And now the volunteers were reinforced by a War Democrat 
of Auburn — that sturdy soldier and patriot, Capt. Charles H. 
Stewart, commanding the Willard Guard, Company D of the 
49th Militia. The Willard sustained at this time, as they have 
ever since, the reputation of being the crack company of the 
regiment, and Capt. Stewart wanted to lead the corps to the war 
intact, as, had the regiment gone en masse, he would have done. 
Since it was not to be, he called the company under arms April 
24th, paraded it in the streets of the city, and made a speech to 
it from the old Exchange Hotel steps. He told the men he 
proposed to volunteer. Any or all his old comrades that wanted 
to go he should like to have join him. 

Then marching to the Armory, he began recruiting. Some of 
the Willards joined him. Before night he had organized a 
splendid company of men. He was mustered in with it. May 
6th, with Lieuts. John Wall and Antoine K Robinson. 

Capt Solomon Giles, a lawyer of the village of Wesdsport, 
gave to the regiment its eighth company. He was the second 
Cayuga county man who tendered his services to the Governor 
in expectation of war. His tender was about January 20th, 186 1. 
The Weedsport company was mustered in May 7th, with Capt. 
Giles and Lieuts. Augustus Field and Marquis D. Nichols. 

Capt John H. Ammon's company raised in Auburn, with Geo. 
W. Thomas and R. B. Kimberly as Lieutenants, was mustered 
in May 7th. 

Last but not least, a splendid company organized under Capt. 
James R. Angel in Union Springs, with A. H. Carr and Lester 
W. Forsting as Lieutenants. It mustered in May loth, com- 
pleting the Cayuga regiment. 

In the organization of these companies loyal citizens actively 
aided by all the devices ardent patriotism could suggest. War 
meetings were held in all parts of the county. VVar sermons 
were preached. Swords and uniforms were presented to officers, 
revolvers to the men. Volunteers were subsisted by citizens 
without expense while they were awaiting orders to march. In 
Auburn nearly $6,000 was subscribed for the benefit of families 
of volunteers \ $3,000 in Port Byron, and large sums in other 



LOYAL CITIZENS HELP ON THE WORK. 



23 



places. Among the most zealous in this patriotic work were 
Geo. Humphreys, Mayor of Auburn; Gen. Segoine, Benj. F. ) 
Hall, Charles P. Wood, Theo. M. Pomeroy, Wm. C. Beardslev, 1 
Dr. Theo. Dimon, Wm. Allen, E. A. Thomas, Rev. Dr. Charles \ 
Hawley, Rev, Henry Fowler, Rev. B. I. Ives, Dr. S. Willard, \ 
Father Creedon, Benj. B. Snow, Geo. P. Letchworth, Richard I 
Steel, C. Morgan, Rev. Day K. Lee, Geo. O. Rathbun, Theo. l\ \ 
Case, Geo. Rathbun, Wm. P. Robinson, E. G. Storke, A. H. \ 
Goss, C. H. Merriman, J. R. Cox, E. H. Avery, of Auburn ; ! 
Henry Morgan, Edwin B. Morgan, of Aurora ; H. V. Rowland, 1 
W. A. Halsey, F. M. King, of Port Byron ; John L. Parker, of \ 
Moravia ; Rev. S. S. Goss, and others. \ 

When volunteering began, many of our citizens desired to j 
encamp the Cayuga regiment in Auburn until organized, clothed | 
and equipped. A gloomy chapter in its history would have j 
been avoided had this been done ; but the volunteers were 1 
opposed to it. The law designated Elmira as the rendezvous j 
and our soldiers were ambitious to be there among the foremost. j 
Companies hurried thither in consequence as fast as formed. ] 

Capt. O'Brien with an Oswego company was the first at the 1 
Elmira rendezvous. Close at his heels was Capt. Ashcroft, j 
arriving April 27th, at eleven p. m. For a day or two these two j 
small, gallant bands of men enjoyed the distinction of being the j 
only volunteers in a city, which, ere long, would resound with | 
the tramp of whole patriotic brigades. i 

Cayuga's first three hundred reached Elmira, by cars from l 
Auburn, late at night, Monday, April 29th. Baker commanded, j 
as senior Captain, his company, with those of Kennedy, Gavigan { 
and Schenck constituting the detachment. Tumbling from the j 
train as it came to a halt in the Erie depot, the men formed in | 
column under the escort of the Auburn Brass Band. There was i 
little of an impressive character in its appearance as this | 
detachment, tired, sleepy and straggling, stumbled through » 
gloomy and deserted streets in the direction of the quarters | 
assigned it by Gen. VanValkenburg, commanding the post. Cl.id | 
in citizen's dress, no two alike, with hats slouched over their heavy j 
eyes, pants tucked in their boots, and equipped with nothing more j 
warlike than bundles tied up in bandanna handkerchiefs, carpet 1 
bags and clay pipes, they bore no promise then of that splendid | 
reputation for discipline and efficiency, that made their regiment 
famous from Virginia to Florida later in the war. The officers 
only wore uniforms and arms. 

Under the guidance of a staff officer, the detachment marched 
to the junction of Fifth Street and Railroad Avenue, two blucks 



24 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

west of the depot Here loomed dimly up to view in the enfold- 
ing darkness, that renowned and ancient pile entitled the 
Old Barrel Factory of Elmira, known in military circles as 
Barracks No. One. Two stories and a half high, large, long 
and roomy, it stood in a large enclosure, on the east side of, and 
facing the street, and at right angles to the Erie railroad track,, 
which ran along by the north side of the yard. Here the new 
comers found the Oswego and Seneca Falls men, who had sat 
up to welcome them, and now turned out in great excitement 
and joy to give them a hospitable reception. 

A soldier's ration of cold meat, mush, bread and coffee was 
speedily issued and eagerly eaten, for the men were famished. 
Double blankets were then given out. Straw shaken down on 
the floors made bedding, and Capt. Baker was directed to make 
his men comfortable for the night. It was rough accommoda- 
tion for those who had left lu.xurious feather beds and snowy 
sheets the day before, but the straw was dry and abundant and 
the volunteers were tired, and they betook themselves to it with 
great satisfaction. Gen. Van Valkenburg and Chas. B. Walker, 
his Adjutant General, saw all arrangements made in person. 
They did not leave till 2 a. m.,' when the last Cayugan had 
pulled his dark brown blanket around him and nestled down to 
dreams in the straw, with the proud reflection of having beaten 
the whole of Western New York at the rendezvous, excepting 
only his comrades from Oswego and Seneca Falls. During 
the night, train after train thundered by on the railroad, with 
clang of bell and roar of wheels, shaking the building till it 
rattled^ but that was a music all soon became accustomed to, 
and it ceased to disturb them. 

Capt Baker, placed in command of Rirracks No. One, next 
day drew on the Quartermaster of the post for lumber, and pro- 
vided the barracks with all needed appointments. Bunks were 
built, partitions were put up to separate company and officer's 
rooms ; rough sheds were erected in the yard for mess houses, 
and a guard house and other buildings were introduced, as they 
came to be needed. Everything was roughly bulk, but answered 
the purposes they were intended for. Troops were pouring into 
Elmira so fast, that the General commanding could but barely 
provide accommodations for them, even in the most general 
manner. By May ist, he had eight regiments on his hands and 
volunteers were arriving by hundreds every day. 

May 9th, Capts. Stewart, Giles and Ammon arrived to the 
great joy of the Cayugans, who impatiently awaited the time 
when the regiment would be organized. The new companies 



ARRIVAL OF MORE COMPANIES. 2$ 

were quartered in Beecher's church several days before rooms 

could be provided for them at the Barrel Factory. Capt. Stephens 1 

arrived on the loth, was quartered a short time in a public ] 

hall, and was then transferred to the barracks of the Cayugas. | 

Capt Angel arrived on the nth. j 

Companies from other counties were crowded into the Barrel • j 

Factory also for a short time. Among them was one from Wa- j 

terloo. It lodged in the loft of the Barracks, next the roof. j 

The lower story men called it "The Swallows." At one time, | 

Capt. Baker, as commandant of these Barracks, had 900 men | 

under his supervision. 1 

Capt. Ashcroft did not at first design entering the Cayuga j 

regiment. He was solicited to join a command being organized I 

under Adj.-Gen. Townsend, and was promised a field officer's 1 

commission. He was finally persuaded to join our reg- | 

iment. At one time, a Lima company proposed to go in, in \ 

Ashcroft's stead. But the Lima Captain heard an Auburn officer \ 

swear. His men would not serve among those from whom there | 

was danger of hearing profanity. So they went into the regi- \ 

ment of Col. Joe Chambers. It was hard luck for them. j 

Chambers afterwards, in his stuttering manner, alluded to them | 

affectionately as " those darned pious cusses." This Chambers, j 
by the way, tried to get some of the Cayuga companies into his 
regiment, Stephens' particularly. He promised Stephens a Ma- 
jor's commission. 

May 14th, the State Military Board, in session at Albany, re- 
solved on motion of the Attorney-General : — 

" That the companies commanded by Captains John T. Baker, 
Owen Gavigan, Thomas H. Schenck, Charles H. Stewart, J no. 
H. Ammon, Solomon Giles, Nelson T. Stephens, J. E. Ashcroft, 
T. J. Kennedy and J. R. Angel, be severally accepted and formed 
into a regiment to be numbered No. 19, and that orders be forth- 
with issued for the election of regimental officers thereof." 

This put an end to Col. Chambers's figuring for any of the 
Cayuga men. 

The election took place at the headquarters of Gen. Van Val- 
kenburg, in the Brainard Block, preliminary to which a caucus was 
first held in a private room. Captains O'Brien, Chambers and 
others were present. Several citizens of Auburn, also, 1 heo. 
M. Pomeroy, Wm. C. Beardsley, Benj. F. Hall, Dr. Dimon, Wm. 
H. Carpenter, Geo. VV. Peck and others. A general discussion took 
place. Many names were proposed, especially for the Colonelcv. 
Col. John A. Dodge, of Auburn, had the honor of being promi- 



26 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

nently spoken of. Horace V. Rowland was also named. Some 
of the officers thought of that staunch old war horse, Gen. Segoine, 
who, they believed, was capable of taking the regiment like a 
whirlwind through rebeldom to the Gulf. Captains O'Brien and 
Chambers had aspirations to the command, but they were hope- 
lessly wrecked in the discussion. Captains Stephens and Giles 
presented the name of John S. Clark, which received the earnest 
endorsement of the committee from Auburn. 

Major Clark was a native of Cayuga county, resident at 
Auburn, a "civil engineer of experience. He was tall, stalwart, 
rugged- Energy, positiveness of character and iron will were 
written on every feature of his bold countenance. He wore no 
beard and was stern, imperious and peculiar in manner, though 
possessing a kindly heart. In April, happening to be in Wash-^ 
ington, he shouldered a musket in Cassius M. Clay's famous 
battalion for the defense of the Capital in that hour of anxiety 
and peril. He served therein till, upon the arrival of troops, it 
was disbanded. Magruder's regular battery of artillery was for 
a time the only other defense of Washington. One day, Major 
Clark learned from Hon. Fred. W. Seward, Assistant Secretary 
of State, the painful anxiety of the Government at being cut off 
from the North. No tidings had been received for several days. 
Baltimore rebels had cut off the telegraph wires in all directions, 
and stopped the trains. Of eleven messengers sent out by the 
Government, ten had been turned back and one captured. Major 
Clark promptly offered to attempt any service for the Govern- 
ment and said he thought he could get through. Mr, Seward 
was very much pleased. After consultation, he brought Major 
Clark verbal orders from the President to Gen. Butler, to come 
through, by any route, as quick as he could. Leaving his valu- 
ables with D. C. Littlejohn, then in Washington, Major Clark 
drove at sunset out to Bladensburg, Then he struck across the 
country on foot Reaching the Patuxent, he found rebels at 
each bridge with bonfires. Crossing the river on a log, the 
wafer being ice cold, nearly freezing him, he pushed on, and 
reached Chesapeake bay at daylight, having walked forty miles. 
A negro took him to the frigate Constitution. Commodore Rod- 
gers at once sent him in a barge to Annapolis, where he found 
Butler, and delivered his orders. He returned to Washington on 
foot with the 7th New York, carrying a musket all the way. The 
arrival of Butler was hailed with rapture in the Capital, and 
Major Clark's courageous service was the themeof every tongue. 
The proposition to place him at the head of the Cayuga regi- 
ment was acquiesced in by the officers in session at Elmira. The 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 27 

Other field officers were then quickly agreed upon. When the 
caucus closed, the officers repaired to Gen. Van Valkenburg's | 
office and deposited their formal ballot. Clark was elected ] 
Colonel, three voices dissenting. The choice was then made j 
unanimous by acclamation. ^ 

For Lieutenant-Colonel the choice fell unanimously on Liar- | 
ence A. Seward, Esq., of New York, a scholarly and affable j 
gentleman, a lawyer and a nephew of Secretary Seward. No j 
man in the regiment ever enjoyed a more thorough popularity j 
during his stay in it than he. j 

For Major,' the choice was unanimous for James H. Ledlie, ] 
of Auburn. Major Ledlie boasted an Irish descent. He was j 
a young man of medium stature, well proportioned, graceful, | 
with a dark, flashing eye, possessing an active mind and bril- \ 
liant talent as a civil engineer and a politician. His most strik- | 
ing characteristics were his remarkable affability and dignity. j 
The Cayuga regiment always loved and warmly admired him. j 

Special Order, No. 195, A. G. S. N. Y., May 17th, conftrmed j 
the field officers designated above. Col. Clark arrived on | 
the i8th. The staff of the regiment was then appointed as 
follows : — ui I 

Surgeon— Theo. Dimon, M. D., of Auburn; a thoroughly | 
competent Surgeon, and a gentleman of unusual ability and j 
force of character. He had had the previous experience ot , 
service on Gov. Burnett's staff in California, and in the Physi- | 
cianship of Auburn Prison. The men always found him a kind j 
and true friend. ' -> f 1 

Assisfani-Surgt:m—Ben]2imin Howard, M. D. ; a Surgeon ot j 
extensive practice in New York city, London and Paris. | 

Quar/er-masfer— John Chedell, of xVuburn ; a dashing, ener- j 
■ getic, popular fellow, of good qualities socially and otherwise. \ 

Quarter-mast€r-Sergeant—V>tx\x\\% Sheil, of Auburn ; a young j 
and able Irishman, a faithful and good soldier. j 

Sergeant- Major— Ch^xX&s Tomlinson, of Auburn ; a popular, 
hard-working and competent officer. j 

Chaplain— ^^w Henry Fowler, of Auburn ; a man that all j 
loved for his ability and e.xcellence of character. \ 

State Paymaster— ?2m\ C. Woodruff, of Auburn ; one of the 
most popular fellows in the regiment at all times, but especially j 
on pay day. 

Drum-Major — John Bingham. 

Fife-Major — Hiram Adle. 

With field and staff thus constituted, the regiment felt a great 
and general satisfaction. Nearly all were novices in war ; but 



28 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

the men felt safe and strong in the leadership of officers of such 
known ability and intellect, especially since it was generally 
believed that Secretary Seward approved the choice made and 
would do all he could to help the regiment commanded by them. 
The 19th at once dubbed itself "The Seward Regiment," and 
resumed its work of training. 

Camp life in Elmira had many singular experiences — some 
dismal enough, yet interspersed with little gilt-edged occurrences 
that enlivened the gloom and revive in memory to this day only 
to give pleasure. 

It must be confessed that the drilling was gloomy work, anx- 
ious as all were to learn. On taking command of Barracks No. 
One, Capt. Baker ordered two drills, at 8 1-2 a. m. and 2 p. m., 
respectively. But the Barracks had no proper parade ground. 
The companies, therefore, took to the fields, those adjoining the 
Female College being a favorite resort. This would have been 
agreeable in the extreme had not the weather, in early May 
especially, been cold, raw, rainy and muddy, which made drilling 
dreadfully drear}', unattended as it was with the cheering beat of 
the drum, the flash of arms, the self-respect inspired by soldierly 
uniforms and the proper paraphernalia of war, none of which 
were connected with the 'first month's experience at Elmira. A 
general lack of sufficient clothing made the bad weather doubly 
irksome. The men had mostly left overcoats and changes of 
linen at home, supposing the Government would issue clothing on 
arriving at the rendezvous. Not getting any, they grew uncom- 
fortable in a fornight. In this emergency, thoughtful and patri- 
otic hearted ladies of Auburn and of Elmira made donations to 
the men of towels, linen and clothing, which proved a great 
relief and elicited heartfelt blessings on the gene*rous spirits 
who supplied them. It is surprising how little it takes to make 
a soldier — whose lot is generally a hard one — happy, and to 
enliven his spirits ; and the kindnesses of the ladies to the old 
19th while at Elmira will never be forgotten by its members. 

While the Cayuga men bore mud, bad weather and thin cloth- 
ing without a murmur, one item in their experience they revolted 
at Fresh from comfortable homes and tables spread with the 
snowiest of linen, bountifully supplied with appetizingly cooked 
meats and vegetables and fragrant decoctions of Java and Young 
Hyson, with cream and a more or less wide array of delicacies, 
the volunteers found the transition to corned beef, salt pork, 
boiled potatoes, soft bread, mush, clear coffee and machine made 
hash, which formed their soldier's ration, rather severe. It was 
a forty-five cent ration, too, — a princely one for soldiers. Many 



RAID ON THE HASH MACHINE. 29 

a time afterwards were the men thankful to stay raging hunger 
with even a five cent handful of inhabited hard-tack. But in 
Elmira they were slow in getting used to it, even with appetites 
sharpened by long drills. 

Hash was one of the staple articles of food. It was prepared 
in the shanty in the corner of the Barrack yard, used as a cook 
house by the contractor. What old 19th boy does not remember 
the hash machine ? That devourer of scraps was going, with 
noisy clatter, day and night ; trains would thunder by on the 
railroad with a roar ; brass bands would fill the air with martial 
strains ; the cheers of the soldiery would shake the ancient 
buildings ; but nothing would ever drown the steady music of 
the hash machine. 

For some days the meat, and occasionally the hash, had been 
of a character to excite the alarm of olfactories. The hash 
was sometimes burnt. One day a volunteer discovered in his 
ration something which he swore was the end of a dog's tail, 
the fur still on. Waving the obnoxious chunk aloft on his fork, 
he went down the mess room showing it to his comrades. The 
yard, soon after, was full of excited soldiers. Several circum- 
stances occurred to fan the rising flame of discontent against 
the contractor. A moihent more and there was a terrific shout. 
The cook house was tumultuously invaded. An avalanche of 
men sprang in through the delivery windows, amongst the cheers 
of a crowd outside, driving out the occupants pell mell. The 
hash machine was banged and smashed to flinders, and then 
there followed a general raid on the whole establishment. 
Stumbling, as he came in through the window, one volunteer 
plunged feet first into a barrel of eggs. Covered with yolk to 
his ears, he emerged a fearful looking apparition, but, undaunted, 
made for three other barrels of the same commodity. These 
also he overturned and smashed. A huge darkey stuck his 
head in the door. A volley of eggs and chunks of meat saluted 
him ; he retreated precipitately. Two barrels of soft soap were 
tipped over, and beans, mush, hash, potatoes and meat flew in 
every direction. The establishment was completely turned 
topsy-turvy and the volunteers returned to their quarters. Some 
of the men were sent to the guard house for this afiair ; but the 
regiment had better rations after it. 

The deprivations of camp life in the ration department were 
sometimes relieved from home. Barrels of goodies came some- 
times from Auburn. Once there came a plum pudding, aro- 
matic with spices, which created a sensation. Huge cakes came 
now and then. One royal specimen was inscribed "If any man 



30 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." 
Sums of money, the gifts of patriotic friends, aided to replenish 
a poor larder and provide comforts. Dr. Willard gave the sol- 
diers $50 ; Theo. P. Case and Clarence Seward each $100 ; E. 
B. Morgan sent $500. The thankfulness of the men found ex- 
pression, as gifts were announced, in hearty hurrahs, and reso- 
lutions of thanks. 

Muster into the United States service took place May 22d. 
The companies formed into line, one at a time, in the barracks 
yard, and were carefully inspected by the United States Muster- 
ing Officer at the Post, Capt. W. L. Elliott of the U. S. Mount- 
ed Rifles. The roll of each company was called over, the men 
were counted, and then the company took the oath of allegiance 
and swore to serve its officers and the government faithfully till 
discharged the service. 

The period for which they were so sworn in was three months. 
This was a miseraole error. The call for troops of April 15th was 
indeed for men to serve three months, the North at that time 
being unboundedly confident that war was to be only a ninety 
day afl"air. But in a fortnight's time, that delusion had faded 
entirely from the mind of the Government. 

On the first of May, the Attorney General of New York wrote 
to the Secretary of War : — 

" Such is the patriotic zeal of the people of the State, that it will 
be a great disappointment to them if they are not permitted to 
raise thirty-eight regiments for the public service instead of seven- 
teen. * * The Military Board therefore respectfully requests, 
that the United States Government will receive from the State of 
New York, at such depots within the State as the United States 
Government may choose to indicate, thirty-eight regiments of 
. volunteers /t?r tivo years' service, unless sooner discharged, of such 
arm of the service as it may require, and assume at the depots 
the instruction, pay and subsistance of such troops." 

May 3d, the Secretary of War replied : — 

" I have the honor, in behalf of the Government of the United 
States, to inform you, that this offer will be accepted on condi- 
tions named." 

On the same day, the President issued a new call for troops, 
asking for 60,000 men for three years' service. May 6th, the 
Secretary of War telegraphed Gov. Morgan, asking that all New 
York regiments be mustered in for three years. Under the law 
of April 15th, this was impossible. Gov. Morgan so informed 



MUSTER IN. 



3' 



the Secretary of War. But the circumstance is valuable here, as 
showing that the idea of subduing the rebellion in 90 days, on 
which the first call for troops was based, had now been exploded, 
and the Government desired and intended to have its army sworn 
in for a term of years. It is definitely known, also, that this was 
also the intention of the Governor of New York, for, when ten 
regimental organizations had been perfected in Elmira, he defi- 
nitely ordered their muster in for two years. Capt, Elliott, entirely 
unauthorized, mustered five of them, the 12th, 13th, 19th, 21st 
and 26th for three months. He was stopped right there and 
sent out of the State. 

The men of the 19th expected to serve for two years. On 
the day of muster, they learnt for the first time that they wore 
to be received for three months only, and several of them 
doubted as to whether the proceeding was right, and wished to be 
lure. They begged leave, and were permitted to ask Capt. El- 
liott, before swearing in, distinctly how long they were to be held. 
He said distinctly, " Three months, my men ! The Government 
is not so hard up for troops as to want you for two years. It won't 
take you for two years." The men were satisfied. They were 
willing to go for any length of time, long or short, and cheer- 
fully took an oath, which was kept, to serve their country faith- 
fully for three months. 

The companies were enrolled in the order following : Com- 
pany A, Capt. Baker ; Company B, Capt. Kennedy ; Company 
C, Capt. Ashcroft ; Company D, Capt. Gavigan ; Company E, 
Capt. Schenck ; Company F, Capt. Stephens ; Company G, 
Capt Stewart ; Company H, Capt. Giles ; Company I, Capt. 
Ammon ; Company K, Capt. Angel. 

Uniforms were issued, Friday May 24th. It was a day of 
excitement A neat uniform is the pride of a good soldier. The 
men were eager to don the army blue. They were furthermore 
suffering for warm and comfortable clothing. When the boxes, 
containing the suits, were delivered at the barracks, the joy of 
the regiment knew no bounds. That feeling sufiered an early 
demise. There was tossed out to each volunteer a cap, jacket, 
pair of pants and overcoat. They were tiot of army blue. The 
great Empire State had seen fit to clothe the 19th regiment in 
a shabby gray. The brave fellows, however, anxious to get 
suits of any description, donned them good naturedly. Then 
came out the whole truth. The uniforms had been made of a 
coarse, fluffy, flimsy material, called shoddy, full of fine flocking, 
which on shaking sifted out, filling the eyes, irritating the skin, 
and covering the floor with refuse. A heartless fraud had been 
perpetrated. 



32 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRV. 

On the 23d of April, the Military Board at Albany advertised 
for proposals for 12,000 uniforms. In response, Mr. F. L. 
Griswold, an honorable and esteemed merchant of Auburn, 
proposed to furnish those required by the Cayuga regiment, in 
furtherance of the plan for equipping and training that command 
at Auburn, He sent a sample suit of his make, the cloth 
being purposely better even than the State required. State 
Treasurer Dorsheimer raised the quibble that the color of the 
jacket varied a shade from regulation blue, and also objected 
that the suits could not be made in time in Auburn. A contract 
was refused Mr. Griswold. The whole 12,000 suits were awarded 
to be contracted for by Brooks Bro's of New York city. The 
senior Brooks assured the State, positively, that he could furnish 
the whole number of regular army blue cloth within the specified 
time. A few days after the contract was signed, he cooly notified 
the Military Board that his firm could not comply therewith 
unless permitted to use cloth other than agreed upon. Inter- 
views and consultations followed. At last, so urgent were the 
necessities of the hour, the contractors carried their point and were 
authorized to substitute " gray cadet mi.xed satinet " for army 
blue for 7,500 uniforms. These were promptly furnished, most 
of them being sent to Elmira. 

How thoroughly " mixed " the goods were, the Czyuga. volun- 
teers can testify. Stripes of dark gray ran through them, with 
streaks of butternut intermingled. Patches of green, spots of 
brown, and splashes of other colors, dotted their surface, and no 
less than eighteen different hues were counted in them by an 
inquiring volunteer. Shabby in color, uncomfortable from the 
gritty dust in them, flabby in texture, they were also ungainly in 
cut. Few were able to get a suit that fitted them. Neariy all 
of them were too large. Two men could button around them 
one overcoat. Many men could button up their folded over- 
coats in their pants. 

These outrageous uniforms were issued to the 12th, 13th and 
a6th regiments also. They had a most depressing effect on all. 
Men, wanting furloughs to go home to bid farewell to dear ones, 
before marching to the seat of war, were ashamed to show them- 
selves and went to the front without seeing the friends they so 
longingly desired to. 

The affair created great excitement in Auburn. A public 
meeting was held to secure redress. VVm. C. Beardsley, Theo. 
M. Pomeroy and C. L. Underwood were sent by it to Albany to 
demand proper uniforms for our brave men. On the 3d of June, 
they telegraphed Col. Clark : — 



THE COLORS PRESENTED. 33 

' "The Military Board promises the regiment new uniforms. 
Hold on." 

The regiment could not "hold on," however. As Col. Clark 
remarked: "The Cayuga boys were bound to go if they went 
in their shirts." They could not wait, and great mischief was 
done before the promised uniforms ever reached them. * 

The regiment received flags, whereon to inscribe its victories 
in the field, on Tuesday, the 4th of June, by presentation from 
the ladies of Auburn. The National color was made in Auburn • 
the State color, a blue silk, decorated with the State coat of 
arms and the name of the regiment, was made to order in New 
York, — both being paid for by subscriptions obtained by Mrs. 
C. H. Merriman and Mrs. Fanny Barker. It is interesting to 
note, so little did we as a people know about war then, that the 
material first provided for a National banner was cut by Capt. 
Kennedy who spoilt it. Dr. Dimon was the only one that could 
be found that knew the proportions of the banner. The one 
given the regiment was cut by him. At 10 a. m., June 4th, the 
19th formed a hollow-square in the Barrack yard. A platform 
in the center held Col. Clark and the officers of the regiment, 
C C. Dwight, B. F. Hall, D. P. Wallis, Wm. C. Beardsley, Gen. 
H. R. White of Utica, Gen. VanValkenburg, E. B. Morgan, Mrs. 
VVnu H. Seward, Jr., Mrs. Geo. Underwood, Mrs. Theo. Dimon, 
Mrs. B. F. Hall, Mrs. John Bostwick, Mrs. Sam'l Titus, Mrs. 
Henry Morgan and others. Mr. Hall presented the National, 
and Mr. Dwight the Regimental colors. Col. Clark responded 
and consigned the flags to the color guard amid the deafening 
cheers of the regiment. Many a silent oath was registered among 
those brave men at that moment to die ere those silken ensigns 
should ever be dishonored in the presence of the armed enemies 
of our country. 

Next day the regiment drew muskets, old flint locks, model of 
1840, altered and supplied with percussion locks. Also "A" 
tents, knapsacks, canteens and camp equipage. 

On the 30th of May, Col. Clark applied to the War Depart- 
ment for marching orders. Promptly came the following, May 

"To the Commandant at Elmira, N. Y. : — 

Col. Clark's regiment and one other regiment ready to march 
will proceed immediately to Harrisburg. 

Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War." 



34 IQTK NEW-YORK INFANTRY, 

This order was modified, June ist, by the following r — 

" Col. John S. Clark, 19th Regt., Elmira r— 

Your letter of the 27th to Gen. Mansfield is shown to me. I 
desire your regiment to come to this city via Harrisburg and 
Baltimore, as soon as it is ready. 

WiNFiELD Scott." 

Gen. Patterson, who was then collecting an army at Cham- 
bersburg, Pa., had applied to the War Department to have the 
Seward Regiment sent to him. Hence the first order above. At 
Col. Clark's request, the Lieutenant General of the Army 
ordered him to Washington, 



DEPARTURE FOR THE ARMY. 35 



1764764 



II 



ON KALORAMA HEIGHTS. 

Dcpirture for the Army — Gen. Patterson** Telegrams — Gen. Scott's Counter-order 
— Gloomy Reception in Baltimore — Washington — In Camp of Instruction at 
ICalorama — Camp Routine — New Muskets — The Shoddy Uniforms Wearing 
Out — Review of New York Troops — Ordered to Join Patterson. 

The Caj-uga volunteers left Elmira for Washington, Thursday, 
the 6th of June, 739 strong. A special train of twenty-one 
freight cars, drawn by two engines, was furnished them for 
transjwrtation. Into four cars was loaded the baggage and camp 
equipage, which was bulky and weighed over 25,000 lbs. The 
regiment stowed itself away, on rough board seats, in the other 
cars. At 1 1 A. m., the train moved off with shriek of whistle 
and clang of bell, running as a special. Thousands of citizens 
and several companies of soldiers, gathered at the depot and at 
Barracks No. One, gave hearty hurrahs at parting. 

.\l Williamsport, Pa., which we reached at 2 P. ml, patriotic 
citizens had spread a substantial dinner for the refreshment of 
the hungry men. On halting, the cars were emptied in a mo- 
ment Speeches of welcome were made and the volunteers re- 
ceived an invitation to fall on and make a dinner, whicb they 
did. Hunger staying ham, biscuits, cheese and sandwiches of 
dainty preparation burdened long tables in profusion, and 
pretty maidens brought to all generous cups of the good cheer a 
soldier loves, rich, pure coffee. Cakes, pies, and fragrant Ha- 
vana cigars also proved abundant. After a huge repast, the 
lads in gray grew surfeited and, withr pockets crammed, they 



%.*' '■ » ^ ^ % 



36 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

climbed back to their board benches, to resume the journey, 
smoke their cigars and bless with heartfelt unction the kindly 
ladies of WilliamsporL 

The whole ride through Pennsylvania was exceedingly grati- 
fying to the feelings of the volunteers. Attentions were lavished 
upon them at every station. Crowds gathered everywhere to 
cheer them, while ploughmen in the fields and farmers on the 
cross roads paused to swing their hats as the train tlew by. In 
the evening, bonfires blazed in their honor in the villages. 
These things and the enchanting scenery of the region throu^^h 
which the railroad ran made a deep impression on the minds of 
the volunteers, and their patriotism and enthusiasm in the cause 
of their country were deepened by it, and their rough jolting 
and shaking up in the freight cars it made them forget. 

The train thundered into Harrisburgh about midnight. Here 
a dispatch was handed to Col. Clark, reading as follows : 

"Chambersburgh, June 6, 1861. 
To the officer commanding the troops from Elmira, N. Y. 

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Scott, you have been placed under 
my orders. Proceed at once to Chambersburgh. 

R. Patterson, Major-General, 
Commanding Department Pennsylvania." 
Col. Clark hesitated to obey this order. He had other plans. 
Detaining the train, he telegraphed both to Gen. Patterson and 
Gen. Scott for further information. Gen. Scott answered 
quickly : 

" Col. John S. Clark, 19th N. Y. Infantry : 

Come to Washington. Winheld Scott." 

Gen. Patterson replied : — 
« Col. John S. Clark : 

Gen. Patterson was order^ to turn the first Elmira regiment 
to this place. Has received no countermanding ordeTs. If 
you have been ordered to Washington, since you were first 
ordered here, go there. 

Frrz John Porter, A. A. G. 
Chambersburg, June 6th, 1861." 

A council of officers assembled to consider the matter. It 
was decided to go to Washington. After a two hours' delay, the 
complication being solved, the train was ordered on and sped out 
of Harrisburgh for Baltimore. Patterson remembered Clark's 
reluctance on this occasion to join him. It was afterwards a 
source of trouble. 



GLOOMY RECEPTION IN BALTIMORE. 27 

Glimpses of the destruction of war became visible at daylight. 
Blackened ruins of noble bridges encountered the eye, betoken- 
ing the presence of bands of armed rebels. Soldiers with can- 
non now guarded the crossings at every stream. To witness 
these things, the volunteers crowded car doors and windows. 
From a passing train, word came that the regiment's first baptism 
of fire was probably near at hand. Baltimore, the northern out- 
post of rebellion, was in a state of riotous disquietude. The 
city lay under the guns of Port McHenry, on Federal Hill, where 
in 1814, floated the first original " Star Spangled Banner," con- 
cerning which the song was written. Yet, danger existed that 
an attack might be made on the regiment in marching through, 
just as, on April 19th, there had been on the 6th Massachusetts. 
The tidings were received with joy. Though rather deficient in 
such matters as street firing and battalion drill, the Cayuga boys 
felt their souls burn with valor and they ardently longed for an 
attack. They only wanted the proper provocation to clear the 
city at the point of the bayonet of every traitor that dwelt there- 
in, and avenge the recent insults offered there to our flag. The 
Quarter-Master distributed three rounds of cartridges, each carry- 
ing an ounce ball and three buckshot Every musket received 
one in readiness for the expected fray. 

Debarking from the cars at the head of Eutaw street, the regi- 
ment formed in column by half companies. While this was 
being done, disorderly crowds gathered around in the street, 
composed of ugly looking desperadoes, some of whom had coun- 
tenances that would have made the fortune of an African gorilla. 

" D those infernal Yankees ! " " Hurrah for Jeif. Davis ! " 

and similar remarks were shouted on all sides. Everything 
looked ripe for a first-class disturbance. Before starting, Col. 
Clark gave the order ** Fix Bayonets ! " With a loud clash, 730 
gleaming points of steel sprang to their places. The decidedly 
business-like air of this proceeding, and the wicked looking eyes 
of the Cayuga boys rather staggered the Baltimorean nerve, and 
when, with a squad of policemen in the advance, and with colors 
proudly flying, the regiment took up the line of march for the 
Washington depot at the foot of the street, the crowd gave way 
for it respectfully. Soon, however, the roughs grew bolder, and 
• renewed their profanity and evil remarks, and jostled the regi- 
ment continually. Richly dressed beauties came out upon bal- 
conies and waved little secession flags and hissed as the command 
marched by, as though to urge on the excited populace to riot. 
But it did not work. The manifest coolness and determination 
ol the regiment and its capped muskets, bluffed the turbulent 



38 igrru new-york infantry. 

element completely, checking every violent demonstration. The 
steadiness and nerve of the 19th was commented on admiringly 
by the police, who said that it saved the volunteers from the 
home of Seward from an attack. 

Passing the Eutaw House, the regiment halted to give three 
tremendous cheers at the sight of a large National banner flying 
over it. Reaching the Washington depot a train came up after 
a short halt. By noon, the men were aboard and rattling over 
the rail to the Capital. 

Camps and detachments of artillery and picket guards were 
passed, strewn numerously along the way, guarding .the road, 
every rail of which between Washington and Baltimore was 
precious beyond computation to the Government at this time, 
and was protected by either a musket or a cannon the whole 
distance. A few miles from Washington the loaded pieces of 
the regiment were discharged. The firing created a panic in 
the locality. Pickets, scattered through the field, thought there 
was a descent by the enemy and came running in. An alarm 
was sounded in some of the camps. The commotion partly 
arose from the recollection of a recent attempt on the railroad 
at this point. 

Washington was reached at 3 p. m. The regiment was full of 
enthusiasm. It had reached the National army and was now 
among the defenders of the Capital. The general hope was 
that orders to go across the Potomac at once and encamp on 
the sacred soil of the Old Dominion would be received. In 
view of the undisciplined state of the command, it was ordered 
into camp of instruction instead, and, pending the selection of 
camping ground, it was thought best to quarter it in the city. 
The 8th and 9th of June were accordingly spent in a tall brick 
building on Pennsylvania Avenue, within a few blocks of the 
President's house, known as Woodard's Hall. Seven rooms 
were occupied. They were unclean apartments and the regi- 
ment was glad, when, on the evening of the loth, the command 
cam^to vacate them and go into camp. 

North of Washington, within two or three miles of the 
heart of the city, a range of verdant hills 200 feet in height 
bounds the plain on which it stands. Further on, the surface 
swells into hills of greater elevation, on which, afterwards the , 
northern fortifications of the city were located. On the crests of 
the first range of hills, were built many a number of fine man- 
sions, surrounded by elegant and extensive grounds. Just back 
of Georgetown, on the eastern bank of Rock Creek, stood the 
loveliest of these places, once the home of the poet and pjitriot, 



IN CAMP AT KALORAMA. 39 

Joel Barlow, author of the " Columbiad " * and "Hasty Pud- 
ding," named by him Kalorama. In 1861, its occupant, a true 
patriot, had tendered it to the Government for a camp without 
cost To this spot, on the loth of June, a warm, genial sura- . 
laer's day, the favored 19th had been ordered to proceed. 

The regiment left the City of Magnificent Distances in the af- 
ternoon, passing the President's House and other noted edifices, 
and reached the heights at 8 p. m. Leaving the main road, it 
turned to the left into the fields, and marched to a meadow, nine 
acres in area, in a retired situation, on the top of the banks of 
the romantic and richly wooded glen of Rock Creek. Glen and 
woods surrounded the field on three sides. On the fourth, the 
old mansion stood, now used as a hospital. It was too late and 
too dark to pitch camp. So the men stacked arms, and bivou- 
acked on the ground under the open stars, some sleeping on 
boards and all either softening the asperities of their bed with 
their blankets or using that article as a pillow. The lovely 
night invested their first taste of genuine campaigning with an 
air of romance. Sleeping on the ground was a novelty that all 
relished then. 

Next day, the baggage wagons came up from the city. They 
were speedily unburdened and the regiment pitched its first 
camp, which was forthwith dubbed Camp Cayuga. The tents of 
the field and staff officers were located in a row under the shade 
of the locusts and cedars, on the southern side of the field, that 
of Col. Clark being distinguished from the rest by the colors of 
the regiment planted in the ground in front, one on each side. 
The companies encamped in wedge, or " A " tents, four men in 
a tent, on the western side of the field, in ranks, in the same or- 
der and on the same ground, which they would severally have 
occupied if they stood there under arms, formed in regimental 
column for the march. The tents of each company were located 
in this camp in two parallel rows, facing inwards on a company 
street, which all took pride in keeping in the neatest order. In 
later camps, the rule was for companies to arrange their tents in 
single ranks, but that was when they had Sibley tents, holding 
fifteen men. Captains and Lieutenants habitually camped on 
the right flanks of their companies. 

After a few days all tents were floored with boards, partly 
obtained from the leavings of a regiment which had previously 
occupied the field. The camp was cleared up then and made 
to look fteat 

When comfortably settled, camp routine was announced and 
sel forth in special order^ so that camp business might be earned 



40 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

on systematically and smoothly. Hard study and training then 
began and continued without remission for a month. The 19th 
was in Maj.-Gen. Charles W. Sandford's division of New York 
•troops. It resolved to be the best disciplined regiment in it. 

The camp awoke daily at break of day, or 5 a. m. ; the drum 
corps beating the reveille on the parade ground. All aroused 
thereat from morning dreams, dressed and washed. The com- 
panies then formed for roll call. At 5 1-2 a. m. company drill 
took place. The duties of the day began thus early to avoid 
the excessive heat of the middle of the day. This early drill 
often, and at first generally, took place under West Point cadets, 
three of whom — Lieuts. Barlow, Redding and Meagher — were 
sent up by Gen. Mansfield from Washington to teach the man- 
ual of arms and the company tactics. At 6 a. m. breakfast was 
served, consisting of salt pork, salt beef, bread, crackers, pota- 
toes and cotTee, varied sometimes with mush and beans. 

At 9, squads of from six to ten men, detailed from each com- 
pany at morning roll call, were assembled on the parade ground 
by the Sergeant-Major, under command of the Adjutant, to do 
the guard duty of the day in and around the camp. Arms and 
equipments being inspected by the Officer and Sergeant of the 
Guard, who were appointed daily for the day, the guard was 
divided into three reliefs, or divisions ; one relief was then im- 
mediately marched off to do general guard duty in the camp 
and to be posted in a circle around it, relieving the old sentinels 
of the day before. Each guard in the relief was given a certain 
part to guard on a certain portion of the circle, upon which he 
must pace back and forth and allow no one, on any account, to 
pass without the countersign, or password, for the day, given out 
each day from headquarters. This relief was kept on duty one 
hour and was then relieved by another, and this, in an hour's 
time, by the third, and that again by the first, so that each relief 
had alternately through the day one hour of duty on and two 
off. The headquarters of the guard was the guard house, which 
always stood at the entrance to the camp. There was only 
one entrance. In it the prisoners of the camp were always 
confined. At 9 a. m. the companies were again drilled by their 
commanders for one hour. Then occurred several hours of 
leisure, broken only by dinner. 

The drums beat for battalion drill at 3 p. m., and again for 
dress parade and battalion drill at 6. This latter, in the cool 
edge of the evening, sometimes taking place under the soft 
moonlight, was the most agreeable of the day. Muskets and 
equipments were highly polished for it, and every uniform was 



CAMP LIFE AT KALORAMA. 4I 

required to look its best. Visitors were always present to wit- 
ness it There was a talismanic influence in that title of 
"The Seward Regiment." It brought out to Kalorama Heights 
Senator, Congressmen and distinguished people generally. 
The President, also, and Secretary Seward came several times. 
Mr. Seward had always a cordial smile and a cordial grasp of 
the hand which endeared him to all. 

At 9 1-2 P. M. the drums sounded tattoo, or retreat, in the en- 
campment It was the signal for every man to repair to his 
quarters. At 10 o'clock, taps beat, when lights were extinguish- 
ed, except at the guard house, for the night At midnight, the 
Officer of the Guard made the Grand Rounds, to see that the 
sentinels were faithful and all things were safe. 

Rapid and great improvement was made in the discharge of 
these duties. A spirit of emulation became rife among the com- 
panies, and though mistakes were often made, these four weeks 
caused the 19th to become one of the most proficient of the raw 
regiments of the division. At battalion drill. Col. Clark gener- 
ally commanded. He always made lively work. His favorite 
practice was to draw the regiment up in line of battle, or regi- 
mental front, and send it flying across the field on a double 
quick, as though in the act of storming imaginary works. Once 
a charge, not properly halted, stormed the camp. Another time, 
the line charged into the woods, with a terrific yell, which so 
drowned the command to halt that the regiment drove the field 
officers into the woods at the point of the bayonet. 

June 15th, the regiment marched to Washington and ex- 
changed "those trusty muskets" for Harper's Ferry smooth 
bores. They were a better arm than the old ones. Great pride 
was taken in them, the old ones having been so rickety, that, 
after firing a volley with them, a basket full of locks and pieces 
might be picked up in the grass, blown off by the discharge. 

Delightful weather prevailed at Kalorama. Once a thunder- 
storm soaked the tents and gave everybody a wetting, but rains 
seldom came and nothing occurred to interrupt steady drilling. 
The health of the camp was also generally good. The only 
affliction was the measles. Measle patients filled three tents at 
one time, but Dr. Dimon's faithful care brought them through all 
right 

The first death in the regiment befel it on June 26th. A 
drummer boy of Company C, Joseph Winters, was drowned in 
Rock Creek, while bathing. He was buried in an old grave 
yard near by with military honors. 

June i8th, a very important event occured. The Pay Master 



42 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

arrived to pay off the men. Privates received $5.50 a piece. 
Nothing creates more excitement in camp than the coming of 
the Pay Master. When paid off, the men first lay something 
aside to send home, and then rush for the tent of the camp sut- 
ler where goodies, tobacco and luxuries of every description are 
eagerly bought, and outstanding accounts are squared up. The 
commanding officers in Camp Cayuga made no objection to the 
^men indulging in these luxuries if they chose to. They only 
required that the men abstain from beer and wine. Rules against 
intoxication and liquor selling were strict. Col. Clark, in orders, 
prohibited them positively. A vigorous attempt was made to 
enforce the rule, and once, when Capt. Kennedy was Officer of 
the Day, that officer caused the camp sutler's shanty to be torn 
down for violating it Unfortunately, these practices could not 
be and never were entirely broken up. 

The regiment began to watch about this time the rapid wear- 
ing away of the three months, for which it had taken the oath of 
service, with no little anxiety. The men unanimously regarded 
the prospect of carrying their banners back to Cayuga county, 
unbaptized in the smoke of the battlefield, with dismay. One 
day, there came to camp two important rumors. 

Visitors at headquarters brought the first unofficially from 
Washington. It was said that the State of New York had 
turned the regiment over to the United States Government for 
the whole period of its original two years' enlistment. It im- 
pugns neither the courage nor loyalty of the Cayuga boys to say 
that some were disconcerted by this quite positively unexpected 
intelligence. They supposed as a matter of course they were 
going home at the end of the three months. The Government 
had not in any manner intimated a desire for their ser\'ices longer 
than that time. They knew nothing of the official correspond- 
ence between the Governor and the War Department. They had 
not been consulted about staying beyond the term for which 
they had mustered in, and many had already laid out plans 
for fall and winter work, in anticipation of going home on the 
22d of August. 

The rumor of being held for two years, naturally created a 
lively sensation. Col. Clark was appealed to for his opinion of 
the matter. He replied that he had no official information on 
the subject His individual opinion, based on the needs of 
Government and the probabilities of protracted war, was that 
the Government would demand the full two years' service of all 
three months regiments, and would be entitled to receive it. The 
men were inclined to be rather indignant at what they consider- 



ORDERS TO MARCH. 43 

ed, if the rumor was true, the treacherous and unwarrantably 
arbitrar)- treatment of them by the authorities. j 

Many of them, doubtless, regarded a long service with pleas- I 

ure, and all would, had it not been for the infamous shoddy \ 

uniforms. At home, the men had dressed in comfort and ele- | 

gance. Now, they were clad in insufferable rags. Scarce a | 

uniform in the regiment was without patches. And this disgrace | 

existed in the midst of a splendidly equipped army. It mortified I 

the pride and wounded the esprif du corps of the regiment more | 

than words can tell. The feeling was, as a natural consequence, ; 

that the Empire State manifested a disposition to sacrifice and 
degrade her sons, and if it did not cease at once they should de- 
sire to quit her service. 

These thoughts, entertained in a vague sort of way, vanished, 
however, for a while, in the excitement caused by the second ru- 
mor, above alluded to, which was that the regiment had at last 
been ordered to engage in active operations. There was no re- 
pining at Kalorama after that Leaving the term of service 
question to be settled by time, all thoughts were bent towards 
preparation for the march. 

Fourth of July was celebrated in and around Washington 
joyously. The grand feature of the day was the review of the 
New York troops, then under the command of Gen. Sandford, 1 

who had obtained permission to receive a marching salute from } 

the twenty-three regiments of his division and had issued orders I 

accordingly. 1 

At 7 A- M., the 19th, with full canteens, fell into line, and- j 

marched to Washington. Regiments simultaneously pressed in 1 

from every direction, their rifle barrels flashing in the bright 
sunlight and colors proudly floating on the morning air. All I 

gathered on the great Pennsylvania Avenue leading up to the 
Extjcutive Mansion and formed into a column of great length. j 

Other shoddy uniforms were there, besides those of the 19th, I 

that day, and Gen. Sandford had the rare privilege of calling the \ 

attention of the men who held the destinies of America in their | 

hands, to the manner in which the opulent commonwealth of j 

New York clad her volunteers. Near the White House, stood I 

a beautiful pavilion, sheltering from the overpowering heat of ; 

the sun, the President and his family, Gen. Scott, Secretaries \ 

Seward, Cameron and Smith, Gens. Dix, Mansfield, Sandford, | 

and other high dignitaries and commanders. Past this point, j 

the column was finally put in motion. It was an hour and a 
half in passing. 

The 19th marched, in its proper place in column, from Con- 



44 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

necticut Avenue to 6th street, and then turned off and returned 
to camp, devoting the rest of the day to high festivity. In the 
evening, the officers of the regiment collected, by invitation, in 
the street of Company B, which was decorated with greens for 
the occasion, where they spent the evening in speech-making and 
feasting. Speeches were made by Col. Clark, Lieut.-Col. Sew- 
ard, Capt. Kennedy, Capt. Stephens, Hon. Theo. M. Pomeroy, 
M. C, and others. Fireworks and bonfires illuminated the 
scene, and the band of Col. Ernstein's Philadelphia regiment 
was present with inspiring music. Some of the men engaged in 
dancing, and there were games and general merriment and 
hilarity throughout the catnp. 

Late in the day, July 5th, the long expected orders to march 
came and threw the camp into a state of excitement. 

Government had resolved on an advance upon Richmond of 
the Army of the Potomac, then encamped under Gen. McDowell 
opposite Washington. The plan was, while McDowell struck 
Straight out for Richmond from Washington, Gen. Patterson 
should advance into Virginia from the village of Williamsport 
and demonstrate upon the rebel army of Gen. Joe Johnston, 
encamped in the Shenandoah Valley around Winchester. Johns- 
ton was to be met, beaten, captured, or at any rate to be held 
in check and kept from joining the rebels in front of Washing- 
ton, so that the latter might fall an easy prey to McDowell. But 
Patterson did not move with any very extensive alacrity. He 
crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, June i6th, but re-crossed 
on the i8th. Again had he entered Virginia, July 2d, but was 
wasting his time in idleness. Gen. Scott concluded to reinforce 
Patterson as a gentle stimulus to action. Gen. Sanford, of the 
New York troops, an active, wide-awake commander, consented 
to waive his rank and go on this mission. He was directed, 
therefore, to proceed immediately with the best four regiments 
he had to assist the lagging General of the Upper Potomac. 

Gen. Sand ford selected for this service the 5th and 12th 
Militia and 19th and 28th Volunteers. 

Col. Clark, on the afternoon of July 5th, received the follow- 
ing order : — 

" Col. Clark, 19th Regiment, New York Volunteers, is directed 
to be in readiness by noon, to-morrow, to march his regiment 
on special service, with three days' cooked provisions and three 
days' raw, which he will prepare forthwith. He will leave all 
extra baggage in his camp with sick and disabled men and suffi- 
cient tents for their use. Wagons for transportation will be at his 



ORDERS TO MARCH. • 45 

camp at 12 o'clock at noon. Col. Clark will draw forty rounds 
of ammunition early to-morrow. He will have all his tents and 
ordinary baggage packed by 12 o'clock. 
By Order, 

Maj.-Gen. Charles W. Sandford. 
Geo. W. Morell, Div. Inspector." 

Communicated to the regiment, the orders were joyfully re- 
ceived, and the camp fell vigorously to packing and preparing 
for the march. Letters were hastily written home ; knapsacks 
were packed ; rations of meat were cooked j surplus baggage 
was disposed of and everything made ready for an early start 
next day. The larger part of the night was devoted to this 
work. 



46 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 



Ill 



IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

The 19th New York Leaves Kalorama— By Train to Hagerstown — The First 
March — Fordiag the Fotomac — March to Martinsburg — Kennedy's Exploit 
—Curiosity to Sec a Rebel — Webster and Tobias See too Many — The 19th 
New York has a Skirmish — Col. Clark Relieved of Command — Advance to 

Bunker Hill — Foraging — Anxious for a Fight — Patterson's Inertness 

Sandford*s Activity — The Flank March to Charlestown — Patterson's Dra- 
matics — Feeling in the Army — Capt. Stewart Reports Johnston's Movement 
—Mementoes of John Brown— Ledlie Shot At— At Harper's Ferry. 

Pursuant to orders of the President, the 19th and 28th New 
York Volunteers set off July 6th, 186 1, from Washington, to re- 
inforce dilatory Patterson, then supposed to be at Williamsport, 
Md, Gen. Sandford followed in person, with the 5th and 12th 
Militia, ne.xt day. 

At 6 A. M. of the 6th, " Strike tents " was proclaimed in Camp 
Cayuga. The once orderly camping ground became a scene of 
bustle, confusion and uproar for an hour or two, and the folded 
tents, with baggage and camp equipage, then lay packed on the 
ground and arranged in piles ready for loading into the wagons, 
which were to take them to the railroad depot, A small guard 
remained to watch the baggage and load the wagons. At 10 1-3 
A- M., the regiment filed away from beautiful Kalorama and 
hastened in a pouring rain storm to the depot in Washington. 
Dr. Howard remained with ten sick in a hospital tent. 

The depot was in confusion, owing to the embarkation of the 
28th New York. This regiment was from Niagara county, N. 



ANOTHER RECEPTION IN BALTIMORE. ^J 

Y., and commanded by Col. Dudley Donnelly, a brave and 
competent officer. It had rifled muskets and good regulation 
uniforms. Delay arose at the depot, but finally, at 6 p. m., the i 

28th regiment had gone on, and the 19th was under way for ] 

Baltimore. I 

The day before, a thirty pound rifled Parrot cannon left this I 

depot on a freight car, labeled " Capt, A. Doubleday, Williams- | 

port, Md." It was part of the impedimenta of the 19th New j 

I'ork- . I 

A cordial reception in Baltimore awaited the regiment on this 1 

occasion. The aspect and spirit of the rabid old city had mate- 1 

rially changed since the 7th of June. Gen. Banks's cannon on ! 

Federal Hill had done a marvelous work. Cheers were repeat- ! 

edly given by the populace, and fluttering handkerchiefs now 5 

waved graceful greetings from balconies. Freight cars were j 

supplied at the Harrisburg depot, and, jammed unpleasantly 1 

tight in them, the regiment rattled away at nightfall at a fearful i 

rate of speed toward the capital of Pennsylvania. There was ! 

little chance for "nature's sweet restorer" that hot night. The | 

cars were packed to oppression, while the fearful rumbling and i 

jolting so banished slumber from the eyes of the more volatile that | 

they sat up, sang " John Brown," " Hail Columbia," and every- i 

thing else an inventive imagination could suggest, and cracked 1 

jokes and plagued the sleepy, so that it would have defied Dick- 
ens's Fat Boy himself to catch a nap the duration of a wink. Fresh, j 
coo! air, the perspiring occupants of these veritable din mills ob- | 
taincd by jamming pointed Gothic windows through the car sides • I 
with their muskets. Other obstacles to repose could not be 
oercome. 

The train made its shrieking entry to Harrisburg early Sun- 
day, July 7th. 

Here began a series of kind attentions which the inhabitants ' 

of every stopping place lavished upon the far from coy volun- 
teers. These generally took the form of presentations of first 
class food. No delicacies were too good to be lavished on the 
brave but insatiate defenders of our country. It is to be feared 
that the 19th left behind it a trail of empty larders in Pennsyl- 
vania. At Chambersburg, a church meeting dissolved for no 
other purpose than to bring a meat offering to the volunteers. 
Travel gave the Ca^-uga boys a wonderful appetite for luxurious 
fare. They took all that come. Salt pork and hard tack were 
shied at passing telegraph poles, and distended haversacks and 
tight belts told the tale of Pennsylvania hospitality. A stock of 
turkey, ham and cake was laid in for future emergencies. 



.nr. 



4^ I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

At 5 1*2 p, M., the train halted at the terminus of the railroad 
in the village of Hagerstown. The companies debarked. Gen. 
Patterson's Quarter-master here supplied Col. Clark with wagons 
for the transportation of camp equipage and officers baggage. 
While five men from each company were loading up, the regi- 
ment stretched its limbs in the village, where fresh attentions 
from the citizens made it happy and put strength into it for the 
march now before it. 
• Col.; Clark ascertained here that Gen. Patterson had crossed 
the Potomac at VVilliamsport and advanced to Martinsburg in 
the Shenandoah Valley, sixteen miles from Winchester. All 
reinforcements he had left orders for, to follow him thither. 
Before departing en route to the front. Col. Clark received instruc- 
tions to bring on to the army under the protection of his regi- 
ment, Doubleday's thirty pound rifled cannon before spoken of. 
As it had not come, up to eight o'clock, the Colonel ordered 
Capt Kennedy to remain with Company B, until it did come 
and bring it on. The regiment was then assembled and put 
under way to reach Williamsport, six miles distant, that night. 

A soldier on the march is a curious looking object. Baggage 
dangles from every part of his person. Knapsack and haver- 
sack, blanket, cup and canteen, added to the regular equipment 
bf musket, belts, bayonet scabbard, and cap and cartridge boxes, 
give him a singular appearance. The weight of this parapher- 
nalia is considerable, seldom less than 40 lbs., and as much more, 
ranging as high as 70 or 80, as the soldier chooses to make it. 
Green soldiers invariably carry all they can stagger under and 
such was the case with the 19th on this occasion. A thousand 
unnecessary knick-knacks and a heavy surplus of provisions in- 
cautiously laid in, fairly burdened the men down, and to such 
an extent, that when, after a hot and dusty march, they reached 
Williamsport at 10 1-2 o'clock, they were thoroughly fagged out. 
They learnt discretion very rapidly after that experience. 

Reaching a pleasant hill, back of the village, a halt was or- 
dered for the night. The 28th N. Y. lay there in a large mea- 
dow, by the side of the road. The 19th went into bivouac on a 
grassy campus opposite them. Filing into the field, the order, 
habitually given when preparing to camp, was uttered : " By 
companies ; by the right flank ; to the rear, into column ; 
march." The head of each company broke off, that is turned 
square to the right, and marched off a few rods at right angles, 
then, halting, faced to the front, forming the regiment into col- 
umn by companies. The weary men stacked arms and dropped 
to the ground and slept soundly in their places pillowed on their 



ON THE ** SACKED SOIL. 49 

knapsacks and blankets, while a guard kept watch over tiie 
bivouac. I 

The drums beat an early reveille next morning. Blankets ! 

were hurriedly rolled up. " Sling knapsacks," commanded the 1 

Colonel. A long march being in prospect, some of the men, I 

rather than carry those weighty knapsacks another day, did sling i 

ihcm with a vengeance — over the fence. A few were fortunate \ 

enough to obtain permission, as a special favor, to have them | 

carried in the wagons. As fifteen wagons only were allotted to | 

ihe regiment, many permissions of this sort could not be | 

granted. 

The 28th New York took the advance as usual and marched | 

on down through the village and crossed the river ; the 19th 

New V'ork followed. Between verdant and romantic banks, the 

Potomac flows here in .a current half a mile wide — not over 

three feet deep. Adjutant Stone leaped into the stream first ; 

the column followed manfully in after him, and strode through 

the gurgling water with the nonchalance of regulars. A f«w 

look off their shoes, that they might resume the march with dry 

feet. Others rolled up their baggy pants. All held up their 

cartridge boxes. Emerging from the Potomac, the 19th New 

York stood on the " sacred soil " of rebeldom and at the entrance 

to one of its fairest regions — the far-famed Shenandoah Val- 

Iry. It was a lovely vale — broad, gently undulating, dotted with 

i;r-jves and farms, and yielding such prolific crops of grain and 

rich fruit, that it was called the granary of Virginia. On either • 

»:de, ranges of blue mountains stretched away into the rerftore 

distance till lost in view in the gathering haze which perpetually 

overhangs this region, giving it magical beauty and making its 

mountain ranges of so soft and ethereal blue that they seem the 

creations of enchantment. The silvery Shenandoah wound 

through the valley, gleaming between dark groves. 

On the bank of the Potomac a halt was ordered, and the 
dripping regiment improved the opportunity to wring its gar- 
ments and eat breakfast. At noon Capts. Schenck and Stewart 
with their companies were left at the ford to wait for Kennedy 
and Doubleday's gun, and the regiment went on towards Mar- 
tinsburg. At Falling Waters, six miles on the way, the scene of 
the late brush between Patterson and the rebels, a pause was 
n»ade. The havoc of war, present on all sides, was viewed with 
curious eyes. Fences were, for miles, down ; trees shattered 
with cannon shot ; crops trampled to the earth ; farm hous^is 
Nvcre in ashes ; here and there dead rebels dotted the fields : 
arms and equipments were scattered everywhere. One farm 



50 IQTH NEW- YORK. INFANTRY. 

house had a cannon shot hole in it. A Federal flag fluttered 
from a stick projecting from the hole. 

While waiting here, the volunteers piqked up many mementoes 
of the fight to carry with them. A sabre and a revolver from a 
dead rebel, who lay with pallid, upturned face in the grass, were 
among them. 

At 2 p, M. Schenck and Stewart were ordered up, and Lieut- 
Col. Seward was dispatched to Hagerstown to ascertain the 
cause of Kennedy's delay. Col. Clark then put the regiment 
in motion again for Martinsburg, nine miles distant. Company 
A, the leading company, pushed rapidly ahead and caught up 
with the 28th regiment three miles ahead. The others followed 
briskly, marching a large part of the way on the double-quick, 
the men in good spirits and singing *' John Brown's body lies a 
mouldering in the grave," " Star Spangled Banner," and other 
patriotic choruses. As the day was hot and marching swift, the 
heavy equipments of the volunteers again oppressed them. 
They endured it as long as they could and then scores threw 
a^ay knapsacks, others blankets, and some pairs of fine boots, 
anything for relief. It was a severe thing for green soldiers to 
march fifteen miles under a hot sun. The manner in which 
they endured its discomforts showed their excellent grit. 

On this march, as in all others when not in presence of the 
enemy, the regiment moved in loose, open order, the men tak- 
ing the sides and middle of the road as they chose, and carry- 
ing their arms at will. This is called taking the "route step'" 
It is only required that companies maintain their relative posi- 
tions and distances. At the command "Attention," the men 
run together and form in compact order, the drums beat giving 
them the cadence, and in less than a minute's time the apparent 
chaos resolves itself into the beautiful, orderly, regular column 
of warfare. A regiment on the march is always a magnificent 
spectacle, and whether in open or compact order, impresses the 
beholder with its moral power. The field and statf, we might 
say here, always ride at the head of the column. Further in 
advance, is the Officer of the Day with a guard to close taverns 
and liquor stands. In rear are the wagons and provost guard 
to pick up stragglers. 

The regiment entered Martinsburg at 11 p.m. Camp fires 
burnt in all directions. Passing through the village by Gen. 
Patterson's order, the regiment marched out on a road easterly 
about a mile, and then climbed a steep bank and a stone wall, ar- 
riving in a field, on the extreme right fiank of Patterson's army. 
The men were excessively tired. As they jumped over the stone 



i)( ; . 'I- 



JOINING PATTERSON. 5 I 

wall, some of them knocked off stones which rattled down 
amongst those behind. Some murmurs were uttered at this. 
At Kalorama, some disorderly spirits had once groaned at Col. 
Clark. The Colonel on this occasion is said to have made an 
uncharitable remark about their groaning at the stone wall, as 
having now something to groan for. After stacking arms, the 
men fell immediately to the ground and slept, such as could 
sleep. The excitement of the situation kept some awake. They 
were in the presence of an army of 20,000 rebels, commanded 
by a General of consummate ability. The picket guards of the 
Union army not far away, out in the fields, were firing all night, 
firing at nothing as it proved, but still stimulating the imagina- 
tions of the soldiers bivouacked around Martinsburgand making 
them think gravely of the possibilities of the morrow. 

Gen. Patterson was informed in the night that the 19th New 
York was uniformed in gray. He sent, forthwith, to have strips 
of white cloth tied around the arms of the men to distinguish 
them from rebels, in the event of a night attack. Patterson was 
always partial to white rags. The 19th was not. It is singular 
how many of these disgusting badges were " lost" next day. 

Next morning, the baggage wagons came. Tents were pitched 
and ihe Cayugas made their second camp on rebel soil. Strong 
pickets were thrown out all around the camp to guard its front 
and the right Hank of the army. 

Capt. Kennedy's brave company, proud of the distinction con- 
ferred on it of being detailed to perform the first dangerous 
service of the regiment, remained at Hagerstown awaiting the 
arrival of Doubleday's gun and ammunition stores, two nights 
and one day. It bivouacked at night on sidewalks and in the 
depot The gun came, on the 8th, on a platform car. Ten horses 
being hitched to it, it took its place in a train of 70 wagons, 
which, the Quarter-Master at Hagerstown informed Capt. Ken- 
nedy, he was required to escort through to the army. Lieut.- 
Col. Seward was present to facilitate matters. About 7 p. m. all 
was in readiness. Kennedy gave the order " forward," and the 
ojlumn pushed out of the village and made a rapid march to 
Wiiliamsport, designing to ford the Potomac that night. It 
moved on a double quick nearly the whole distance, reaching 
the village at 10 o'clock. The officers went forward tO' inspect 
ihe crossing. They found the bridge over the Ohio & Chesa 
pt'.ike canal near the river to be unsafe. The train bivouacked 
till morning. Meanwhile the bridge was repaired by soldiers 
iru-^niing the ford. At 4 A. M. bivouac was broken. A hasiy 
breakfast was snatched. The river was forded at sunrise and a 



52 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

forced march was madethroufrh the enemy's country to Martins- 
burg. On passing Falling Waters, it was ascertained that 300 
rebel cavalry, Stewart's, had laid there in the woods, the night 
before, awaiting the arrival of Kennedy and expecting to capture 
him and the train, which they could easily have done, had he 
crossed the Potomac as he had intended in the night. The 
train was half a mile long and a single company of soldiers only 
guarded it. Arriving at Martinsburg at 6 p. M., the cannon and 
wagons vyere turned over to the Quarter-Master, Company B's 
boys went on to camp, proud of their achievement but tired as 
they were never before in their lives. This meritorious little 
affair called attention in Patterson's army to the 19th New York 
Volunteers, and was one of the many acts which gave it its great 
reputation for daring. Old army officers shook, their heads, 
however, over it, for its venturesomeness. 

Later in the war, a rebel Captain told Capt. Stewart that the 
rebel cavalry were still actually in that vicinity when Kennedy 
passed. Concealed in a piece of woods they saw the train pass 
by. They were only deterred from pouncing on it by the belief 
that a large force of Union infantry must be following close at 
hand, which would have prevented them getting away with their 
booty. 

Just as day was breaking on the roth of July, Gen. Sanford 
arrived at Martinsburg with the 5th and 12th New York Militia. 
He had marched all night to come up from Williamsport. 
Filing into a lane to the lett of Camp Cayuga, the 12th pitched 
tents in the next field. The 5th followed suit near by — camping 
near the 28th New York. 

These four regiments, viz : 5th New York Militia, Col. 
Schwarzwalder ; 12th New York Militia (Zouaves), Col. Dan 
Butterfield ; 19th New York Volunteers, Col. Clark, and 2Sth 
New York Volunteers, Col. Dudley Donnelly, with a Rhode 
Island Battery of six 12 pound guns, were brigaded on nth of 
July as the 8th Brigade, under the command of Col. Schwarz- 
walder. This brigade, with the 7th, under Colonel, afterwards 
Gen. Stone, killed at Ball's Bluff, comprising the forces from 
New York, 8,000 strong, constituted the 3d division of Patter- 
son's army, and were under the command of Maj.-Gen. Sand- 
ford. On the r3th of July, Col. Schwarzwalder was relieved 
from command of the 8th brigade, owing to ill health. He was 
succeeded by Col. Buttertield, under whom the 5th, 12th, 19th 
and 28th New York went, shoulder to shoulder, on the North 
Virginia campaign. 



CURfOSITY TO SEE A REBEL. 53 

The army of Patterson comprised thirty regiments, 23,000 
sironj;, and two batteries. It lay at this time in the fields and 
on the hills south of Martinsburg, with a front to the enemy a 
mile in length. It confronted 20,000 rebels under Gen. Joe 
Johnston, encamped at Bunker Hill, a little village a few miles 
up the valley towards Winchester. The rebel pickets were in 
our immediate front, and small bodies of the cavalry scoured the 
country on all sides, occasionally making a dash at a^ Yankee 
picket post they thought they could capture. 

C.imp Cayuga, on the extreme right flank of the Federal army, 
held the post of danger. It was compelled, therefore, to be in 
constant readiness for emergencies, particularly at night, when 
the rebel pickets stealing up under cover of the gloom would 
keep up a perpetual succession of alarms by firing on our lines. 
The position of the camp required heavy scout and picket duty 
in front of and around it, and the 19th New York did more of 
this duty in this campaign than any other in the brigade, and 
|>crh.ips than any in Patterson's army. In spite of guard duty 
and wakefulness at night, however, the regiment enjoyed several 
jjfKxi days' rest and recovered from the fatigues of its late ardu- 
<)U> march. 

Civiit-ral curiosity was felt by the newly arrived regiments to 
wv a rclxfl and any effects of the war. Of the latter, there was 
rt^Mj^h in M.artinsburg, where, previous to the evacuation, Gen. 
f'-hjivton had destroyed a large quantity of railroad cars and 
l'<i;niotivcs and a splendid bridge. All who could obtain a 
l-o.** from the camp, went down and inspected these. 

The field officers of the 19th were not only anxious to see the 
rclxrls, but to capture some. The men were lured out beyond 
trie picket lines by this feeling, sometimes, and went on their 
own roponsibility, hoping to come across a stray gray jacket, 
nnd capture him. One day, the nth of July, Corporal Martin 
Wc-bstcr and private S. J. Tobias, of Company I, were out in 
this way, foraging, and were captured by a squad of fourteen of 
S:cwart's cavalry. The men were returning to camp on the 
highway. The cavalry rode up from behind and ordered them 
10 hah- They ordered arms when the cowardly rebels fired on 
them, wounding Tobias in the hip. Webster returned the fire 
xnd dropped a rebel from his horse, and then both the Cayugas 
fan f>r the fence which was of stones, and got behind it. 
1 he rebels charged on them ; for a few minutes there was a lively 
ni'-'cc, both parties thrusting and slashing fiercely, but without 
d 'in;; much damage. The rebels jumped their horses over the 
ftncc and the r9th boys had to surrender. Ropes were put 



54 I9"^H NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

around their necks and they were dragged along at a rapid pace 
toward Bunker Hill. Afterwards they were put on horses. 
Tobias was made to support in the saddle in front of him the 
rebel who was killed, and took advantage of the circumstance to 
pick the dead man's pockets of everything valuable they con- 
tained. Webster was taken before Gen. Johnston. He was 
sharply questioned as to the strength of Patterson's army, but no 
threats could extort satisfactory answers from him. Both were 
then lodged in Winchester jail and finally sent to Richmond and 
put in Libby prison. Sept. 26th, Tobias died from the wound in 
his hip. Soon after, Webster went with a batch of 500 prison- 
ers to Tuscaloosa, Ala., remaining there three months. After 
that he experienced confinement in Salisbury, N. C, and being 
at length exchanged rejoined the regiment in June, 1862, in 
North Carolina. 

While at Martinsburg, Col. Clark sought and received permis- 
sion to lead out strong foraging parties towards Bunker Hill to 
scour the country and obtain army supplies of the farmers. On 
these expeditions, the Colonel was conspicuous for the red shirt 
he almost always wore and the big horse he bestrode. Had 
there even been a close collision with a rebel scouting party, as 
the Cayuga boys, who were spoiling for a fight, hoped there 
would be, that red shirt would have made a famous target and 
been a source of hazard to its wearer. These chronicles omit 
to dwell on the mistvike made one day of firing at a boy with a 
bag of meal on a horse in the distance, under the supposition 
that he was a secesh vidette. It is too painful ! Let it be said, 
however, that the boy was not hit. We turn to a better theme. 

(-0I. Clark hoped to catch some rebel cavalry yet. On the 
nth he took out, five miles towards Bunker Hill, a foraging 
party, composed of four companies of the 19th New York and 
three of the 28th. The detachment halted at the house of a 
rich valley farmer, known to have a store of the prime objects 
of the expedition — corn and hay. The agricultural wealth of 
the rebel was promptly seized upon and transferred to the 
wagons. While this was going on, preparation was made by 
Col. Clark to entrap any unwary party of secessionists that 
might come that way. A company of the 2Sth was sent up the 
road and placed in ambush in the fields, with orders to permit 
any that came, to pass, and cut off its retreat. Into this trap 
a part of forty of the rebel Stewart's cavalry came riding directly 
after. Some of the 28th had strayed ahead of the out post. 
They were discovered and fired on. The 28th boys plunged 
into a corn field and escaped. The cavalry did not even then 



THE IQTH's skirmish AT MARTINSBURG. 55 

%Q*pect, but came on down the road. The main party of the 
»avance guard, instead of letting them pass, gave them a volley 
of musketry. At this juncture, Col. Clark, who, on hearing the 
fifNt firing had formed the reserve companies, was coming up 
mi!h ihcm on a hard run. The gray jackets did not wait whtn 
they saw the glistening bayonets of this fresh party. They 
tircii a vollev, sending a shower of balls whistling among the 
Vjnkccs to make for their edification that peculiar music they 
4f{cfw.»rds knew so well, a swift, fluttering, whistling hum, and 
thc-n Med precipitately. Doubtless, there were some, who, when 
ihc rebel " singing birds " flew about their ears, dodged, never 
havmg heard of the maxim of immortal Gustavus Adolphus, 
•-that there is as much likelihood of dodging into the bullet as 
a*av from it." Yet the Cayuga men were cool and intrepid and 
their conduct advanced their name as a fighting regiment. In 
thii anair, Isaac Fly, of the 28th, was killed, and the sword- 
belt of a Lieutenant in the 19th was cut off hya. bullet. Three 
of the rebels were wounded. 

On "the 13th of July, there occurred in the regiment a memor- 
able event. This was no less than the suspension from com- 
mand of Col. Clark. 

Col. Clark had been selected as commander of the regiment 
»::lutut his solicitation or knowledge. It will be remembered, 
• e stalcvl that his election had been generally acquiesced in. 
I: hi. I indeed even been hailed with enthusiasm by the majority 
u< f 4nk and tile, who believed that under a man of his intellect 
4*:d physical power, they could serve the country with efficiency 
xni honor. Some of the regiment had, however, more for po- 
l.f.cal reasons than anything else, failed to give the Colonel their 
I'rank and hearty support from the outset. This was exceedingly 
unfortunate. To break a regiment of civilians into disciplined 
»<>Id;ers, especially at a time when haste is of vital importance, 
»», though necessary, an offensive business to men, who, under 
'>ur democratic form of government, have never known the iron 
rcv.ramt of military despotism. It must inevitably tend to de- 
vel-j-H: any latent germs of discontent against an energetic com- 
maii'lcr. Well says Kinglake, speaking of an eminent oflicer in 
ir.c llritish army, " Energ}' is a disturbing and not ahvays popu- 
lar quality." Such was the case in the 19th regiment, and, long 
Scfure le.iving Washington, Col. Clark had become unpopular. 
fhis unfavorable sentiment was nourished by the Colonel's de- 
^.:e to av.iid favoritism, which, being overdone, led him to intuse 
-■•It unperiousness into his manner as to repel the very men on 
*h u\ ho relied for the warmest support. The feeling became 



$6 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

SO Strong that, while at Kalorama, the line officers of the regi- 
ment (Capts. Schenck, Stewart and Baker and their Lieutenants 
excepted) drew up an accusation against him, alleging incom- 
petency to command, harsh and ungentlemanly treatment of 
officers and men, profanity, &c., &c. On reaching Martinsburg, 
they presented it to Gen. Patterson. 

Patterson lent a willing ear to the charges. He did not love 
fighting Colonels nor fighting Generals. He recalled Clark's 
refusal to join him at Chambersburg, June 6th. He remember- 
ed the failure to escort Doubleday's gun with the whole regiment. 
Accordingly, on July 13th, an order was issued, relieving Col. 
Clark of command, and putting him under arrest to be tried by 
Court Martial. 

The command of the regiment was immediately assumed by 
Lieut.-Col. Seward. Clark accompanied the subsequent marches 
of the regiment in this campaign, riding in its rear, after which 
be demanded a ^^rial on the charges. No trial, it may be here 
said, was ever had, however, the military authorities regarding 
the charges as frivolous and beneath notice. Of the Colonel's 
final and complete vindication, we shall speak in another chapter. 

Patterson's strong, high spirited, well equipped army began 
to be impatient at the delay at Martinsburg. It could not 
understand why it was not launched forward to crush Johnston." 
The rebel army would have crumbled before a bold attack, and 
our troops, feeling this, awaited the signal for the rush that 
should carry the flag up the Valley to Richmond with chafing 
and irritation. That the campaign would eventuate in noth- 
ing less than the reduction of that haughty capital was the 
conviction of every volunteer. That the task would be easy 
was suggested by the apparent fewness of rebels in our front. 
A staff officer of the 19th spoke the current thought of the army 
in a letter home, when he wrote : " If we resume our search 
after rebels, we shall probably find them at Richmond. Our 
hopes are strong that we shall soon visit that beautiful city." 
Martin Webster and the unfortunate Tobias however, were 
destined to be the only Cayuga men to realize that hope till the 
glorious week in 1865 that saw the final collapse of the Con- 
federacy. 

The hours of waiting at Martinsburg were spent m reducing 
superfluous baggage, in picket and forage duty and regular 
drills. 

The long expected advance was at length ordered on the T4th, 
the day of a review of the New York regiments by Gen. Sand- 
ford. Next rooming, at an early hour, the army broke camp 



t' : 1 ■■ fi 



ADVANCE TO BUNKER HILL. 57 

and formed for an advance to Bunker Hill, eight miles distant, 
and nine from Winchester. There were three divisions in the 
arnjy. The ist, under command of Maj.-Gen. CadwalJader, 
»n<l the 2(1, Maj.-Gen. Kiem, were composed of Pennsylvania 
tnjiitia, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Indiana and other volun- 
tccrv Among them marched a regiment which had fought in 
\Vc>:crn Virginia and captured its transportation appliances, 
conMstinjj of hacks, stage coaches, lumber wagons, c-c. The 
,Vi lii^i'jion was that of Gen. Sandford, comprising the 7th and 
iih ()ri;;adc3. The ist and 2d divisions marched on the Win- 
chester turnpike. They formed a column with their wagons 
»<-\c«ior eight miles long, whose van reached Bunker Hill before 
the rcir left Martinsburg. Gen. Sandford's division was assem- 
ble*! on the Winchester turnpike, but, a short distance out, took 
a iivic road to the left and marched in an independent column 
on the left of the army, though in communication with the main 
1<h!v across the country by a line of skirmishers. The infantry 
«f the division moved in a column on each side of the road, 
• ith the artillery and baggage train, guarded by a detachment, 
in the center on the road. The division was five miles long. 
The 19th New York brouglft up and guarded the rear. 

In the early part of the day, as the 19th was hastening to 
fxih itN place in line, it passed a number of regiments of the 
oihcf dr.isions formed on the road. It was then that the shoddy 
«').' tins l>}rc with weight on the pride of the men of Cayuga. 
A Miwarhusctts regiment stood in the road, splendidly equipped 
4» «rrc .iJI the forces in the field of that patriotic State. It wore 
Kar;Jvin)e uniforms, and had strong, elegant wagons, with every- 
tK^n^ cmplete for comfort. As the 19th New York passed, 
.-i^^hs of derision were heard and a soldier called out, " Where's 
«•••»: regiment from?" A volunteer in Angel's company put a 
{:>^h1 l.ice on the matter and raised a laugh by replying, that "it 
»A» a regiment of convicts from Auburn, let out of prison on 
co-ivii'jon thu they would serve." He pointed'out various officers 
<'. %!riking appearance as notorious robbers, thieves and forgers, 
ir.d Hound up by indicating his Colonel as a famous murderer. 
I r.'.- pleasantry was harmless, though rough, but the appearance 
w ihc K^th gave plausibilitv to his ffrim joke. 



r>n approaching Bunker Hill, at night fall, the sound of firing 
, f!->4:td m from the advance. The rebel Stewart, with 600 cav- 
*'•':•'. *.is preparing to dispute the road with our leading regi- 
f^-rnrs. whrn the Rhode Island battery taught them a lesson and 
^^^' ''•'■'" frying in disorder. The firing electrified the Federals, 
*••' ■•;'• lung, dark columns of men pushed forward in haste, but 
«..c u^hi was over before any could come up. 



58 IQTH NEW-i'ORK INFANTRY. 

Passing through the village, a place consisting of three or 
four mills and a few houses, the 8th brigade marched out a 
short distance and went into camp on the extreme left of the 
army, within eight miles of Winchester, and near the turnpike. 
The scenery of this region proved to be of the most picturesque 
and lovely description. The husbandmen of the valley were 
just gathering the wheat harvest, and the dark green of groves 
and the deep blue of distant mountains mingled in singular 
beauty with the golden yellow of broad fields of grain, in the . 
prospect. It was the good fortune of the 19th New York to 
encamp in a capacious wheat field, where the grain had just 
been cut and placed in shocks. The wagons being miles be- 
hind, the New York Division had no tents that night and these 
wheat sheaves softened the asperities of the bivouac most 
acceptably. 

It was contrary to the stringent orders of the tender-hearted 
Patterson to forage upon the inhabitants of the Valley. A great 
deal of it took place, notwithstanding. The army believed in 
the maxim of subsisting on the enemy. Undoubtedly, however, 
high military reasons existed for putting the practice under per- 
emptory ban. A month before, Beauregard had, in a blatant 
proclamation, asserted that the South was invaded for ravage, 
for " beauty and booty," as he expressed it. It became desira- 
ble, at this stage of the war, to convince the South of the un- 
truth of the assertion. Hence Patterson imperatively forbade 
foraging in his army, and tried to stop it. Lieut. Col. Seward's 
very first order, issued on arriving at Bunker Hill, was on this 
subject. Said that document : "The object of the journey of 
the Army of the North is to protect the property of the United 
States, not to plunder the property' of citizens." 

But when the Cayuga men stacked arms on the afternoon of 
the 15th of July, and broke ranks for supper, there was that 
pressing on their attention, which then was of far greater present 
importance to them than the ease and convenience of Virginia 
rebels. They were hungry and almost supperless. Their com- 
missary only afforded a scant allowance of hard-tack and salt 
pork, and the gnawings of empty stomachs prompted them to 
cast their eyes upon the forb'idclen poultry and cattle with which 
the farms all around swarmed. The temptation was irresistible. 
On various excuses, with permits and without, the men managed 
to send out foragers — ^jayhawkers, as they were then and there- 
after called — and there was a general ransacking of the neigh- 
borhood for fresh provisions. Chickens, turkeys, several sheep, 
cows and calves, and other domestic game, soon found their 



PATTERSON HANGS BACK. 59 

wav into camp. Not only that night, but the following day, the 
t9th New York feasted on the fat of the land. Jayhawkery, 
once bei^in, took in other things than provisions. Some of the 
men caiipht horses, and made the field roar with their frantic 
and riiiiculous equestrianism, while an old lady's wardrobe was 
made to do scarecrow dutv on the facetious but scandalous volun- 
teers. One fellow seized' on a quantity of what he supposed to 
be Hour, to regale his mess with pancakes and gTa\7 for a turkey 
stew. To his speechless astonishment, on seeing his pancakes 
stitfen and his gravy refuse to run, he found his treasured bag of 
rtour to be plaster of Paris. 

Foraging was common in all the Federal regiments. Yet Pat- 
terson, who bore ill will toward the regiment of Col. Clark, 
searched the camps and had several tons of dressed mutton, 
veal, bams, and other foraged provisions, brought in army 
w.i^'ons to the camp of the 19th and there buried, to affix a repu- 
tation for javhawking, especially on that regiment. The event 
Is of historical importance, as Patterson afterwards gave, as one 
of the reasons why he did not attack Johnston, that his com- 
mand was short of provisions and could not get up his supplies 
and attack Johnston too. 

On the 1 6th tents were pitched, but struck next morning. 
Kach night at this place, the regiment was called under arms 
and slept with equipments strapped on and muskets stacked 
within reach. 

Gf n. Scott's orders to Patterson were of a nature to warrant 
fhe expectation of an immediate attack on Johnston. The 
Lieutt-nantGeneral hoped to meet the rebel army under Beaure- 
K.ird. near Manassas Junction, and tear it to pieces. Then, by 
a r.ipid movement, advance upon and capture Richmond. To 
etffct this, it was required of Patterson to operate heavily on the 
trait' >r horde of Johnston at Winchester, destroying it, or, at any 
rate, by threatening demonstrations keep it in check and prevent 
it from going to help Beauregard out in his battle with Scott. 
Sco!t gave Patterson specific instructions on this point. He 
%.iid, in an order to that General : " If not strong enough to 
Ix-at the enemy, make demonstrations so as to detain him in the 
vallry of Winchester." But Patterson hung back. His tardy 
advances were only the fruit of repeated, peremptory orders 
frr.m Washington. And when the decisive moment arrived, 
*lu-n his magnificent army hung threateningly on the very out- 
r-»sts of the rebel force, and the Union and Confederate armies 
ri^r.xT Manassas were gathering for the bloody battle of Bull Run, 
he time to a dead halt- 



60 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

Old Gen. Sandford was a man of different stamp. With all 
the fire and activity of a young commander, he reconnoitered 
the country towards Winchester, incessantly urged an advance 
upon the enemy and offered to lead any attack with his Division. 
He did not propose to assault Johnston in his fortified camp at 
Winchester, armed, as it was, with heavy guns from Norfolk. 
He wanted to place his Division between Johnston and the 
Shenandoah, which would have compelled him to fight us there, 
on our own ground, or remain in camp, either of which was what 
the Government desired. On the night of the i6th he had a 
new road cut through the woods to the Opequan creek, a small 
stream with romantic wooded banks, running here parallel with 
the Shenandoah, east and south of his camp, intending to send 
his Division down on side roads, next morning, to seize upon 
the roads leading out from Winchester to Snicker's and Ashby's 
Gaps in the Blue Mountains, which the rebels would have to 
take to escape. Three hours would have sufficed to make the 
movement, the New York soldiers would have won undying 
honor and made Bull Run a gjorious triumph for Federal arms. 
A forward movement of some kind was expected that night in 
the camp of the 19th New York. Gen. Patterson rode up in 
front of the camp in the afternoon. He stopped a moment near 
a crowd of Cayuga men. He said he expected an engagement 
next day, and asked if the Cayugas would stand by him. They 
shouted Yes ! and gave three tremendous cheers. The General 
then said, " I can trust that regiment. A soldier who cheers 
well, fights well." He then rode away. The boys felt flattered, 
no doubt, but they soon knew that this affair was all mummery, 
and a deliberate act of deception. 

During the night or the i6th. Gen. Sandford received orders to 
march at daybreak. But not on Johnston. The ist and 2d Di- 
visions were to move first. Sandford's Division was to bring up 
the rear and proceed to Charlestown, a village twelve miles dis- 
tant, towards Harper's Ferry, on a line exactly at right angles 
to that which it was necessary to take to fight Johnston. It was 
a very polite manner of opening the gate to the cornered John- 
ston, and inviting him to walk out of the fix he was in and hie to 
the assistance of Beauregard. Gen. Sandford, with agonized 
feelings, called up his regiments under cover of the night, though 
he did not give out where they were going. About 3 a. m. the 
army began the movement of the 17th of July. The pickets of the 
19th New York were called in about 4 o'clock, to find their 
comrades under arms, eating breakfast. The Sth Brigade moved 
almost immediately, bringing up the rear of the array. The 19th 



! O 



THE FLANK MARCH TO CHARLESTOWN. 6l 

New York fjuarded the extreme rear, occupying as usual the 
jx)>t of danger and honor, the rear being only secondary in 
honor to the advance. The men began this march joyfully. 
Thi-y dreamed of no other destination than Winchester, being 
given to unilerstand that a circuitous route was taken because 
the ro ul direct was barred by felled trees, earthworks, &c. The 
tun WIS rising on a day, they felt, when the heroes of New York 
ci|>rct<-d to make a glorious history. They were full of ardor 
and rnthusiasm. Gen. Patterson and staff stood in the road on 
h<)f-»<'b.ick, as the long dark-blue columns passed, bristling with 
j;!r4ming steel, with battle flags and banners waving gaily on 
the freeze, and hope and fight beaming from every eye. Each 
f'^imcnt as it passed greeted the group of horsemen with deaf- 
ening cheers. Doubleday, speaking of the spirit of the men, 
»4ys : " They seemed as eager for action as men could be, ex- 
cjt«-d in the highest degree at the idea of getting a fight." 

Ik-fore the sun was two hour's high, enthusiasm had died out 
of the army. It had comprehended the cowardice and incom- 
{^•Jrncy of its dramatic commanding General. This was no 
movement on Winchester. The road, leading to that place, had 
l<jng U-en passed by the head of the army. The dejection of 
thr ic^ih New York was extreme. "Retreat," "retreat," was 
• h'.\5H;rf:<| from rank to rank, and some very strong expressions 
»-ft.*c jorth from officers and men. Those who had a talent for 
»?ft,;i^ t.ilk give their friends some very lively samples of what 
itxy r.tu'.U cli» in the way of rapid, red-hot verbal coinage. 

ihc ^^^^e^.lls found themselves closely watched on this march 
i'V X trxly of rebel cavalry, which followed them on parallel 
f»'jdi .it)d would occasionally wheel out into distant fields and 
i^\y^ «[> within easy range of observation. As the rear of the 
j!my p.i^sed over a hill at Smithfield, a country village halfway 
to Ch ulcstown, the cavalry made its appearance in a piece of 

• vh'.s opjx)site to it and so near that it was thought to indicate 

• <ir>,ign to attack. The 8th Brigade was accordingly formed on 
tJ-.e hill in a line of battle, displaying its entire front, four regi- 

• tnr-Ms long, toward the enemy. The 19th New York came up 
I'-r hill a mile on a run to take its place in line. It occupied a 
jjT4'>sv field sloping down toward the obnoxious piece of woods, 
an<i as usual was called on when fighting was expected. Com- 
p.inv (I, Capt. Stewart, was sent out to the front and deployed 
»H sWirniishers, with orders to advance into the woods and find 
'Mj; •.vhit was in them. But the vnlorous chivalry was too nim- 
'.«• I'vl rode Off in a great hurry with some of Doubleday's shells 
••..ii'g .liter them and Company G found the woods empty. No 



62 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

more rebels were seen that day, though in the distance the flash 
of arms was visible and clouds of dust. A short halt on the 
hill allowed the men rest, when the march was resumed. It was 
a fearful tramp for green soldiers. The distance, being twelve 
miles, with the alternate fording of streams and march over 
dusty roads, under a blazing sun, proved very exhausting. 

At sundown, the army bivouacked at Charlestown. The 19th 
New York occupied a wheat field south of the village, adjoining 
that in which John Brown was executed and only a few rods 
from the very spot where the historical tragedy took place. As 
the enemy was supposed to be m the neighborhood, a strong 
picket line was thrown out all around the army. The 19th New 
York sent out its whole right wing of five companies. The far- 
ther Patterson was from the enemy, the more alarmed he was. 
It was an intensely dark night, and under its cover our scouts 
ranged as far as the Blue Ridge, five miles away. In Company 
A, Lieut. White, which was posted out on the Winchester road 
in a piece of woods, that night, there was a sensation. A cav- 
alry patrol came riding up the road. The picket cried, " Hah." 
The cavalry could not be seen in the darkness, but Company A 
heard a host of sabers hurriedly leaping from their scabbards 
^nd the cavalry preparing to charge. Before any harm was 
done, it was discovered they were friends. 

During the night, Capt. Stewart and others on the picket line 
heard a distant, steady murmur in the direction of Winchester. 
The Captain considered it his duty to find out what it meant. 
Taking Lieut. Wall, Corp'ls Sidney W. Palmer, S. A. Bates and 
'two or three others, he went far out to the front, across fields 
and through woods, some miles, till the nebulous murmuring 
sound distinctly resolved itself into the rumbling of cannon and 
wagons, while the clash of sabers and rustle of infantry indicat- 
ed the passage of a part of Johnston's army. Whither it was 
bound was shrouded in mystery deep as the pitchy darkness of 
the night ; but, that rebels were astir at this hour was important 
intelligence, and Capt. Stewart sat down under a tree and imme- 
diately wrote a dispatch to Lieut.-Col. Seward in reference to it, 
using a hat for a table, while Corp'l Palmer burnt nearly a box 
of matches to afford the required illumination. The dispatch 
was sent by a cavalryman to headquarters. No attention, how- 
ever, was paid to it. In thti morning, Stewart again reported 
the march of Johnston's forces and the tidings sent to Patter- 
son, through Col. Butterfield, commanding the brigade. 

On July 13th, Gen. Scott had telegraphed to Patterson : " If 
the enemy retreats in force towards Manassas, and it would be 



STEWART DISCOVERS JOHNSTON's MARCH. 6^ 

h-vzardous to follow him, then consider the route via Keyes's 
Ferry, Hillsboro, Leesburg, (Sec. ; " meaning, that Patterson 
should rush to the assistance of Scott. When Capt. Stewart's 
tdinj^s were brought in, contirmed as they were by advices dur- 
iit!» the day, of liie march the morning of the i8th, of John- 
ston's iiifantr)', it was supposed Scott's orders would be carried 
cput. That afternoon. Major Doubleday, of the artillery, was 
d;mng with the regimental headquarter's mess of the igrh New 
Y'jrW. While smoking, after dinner, one of the staff officers 
A»kcd iJoubleday why Patterson did not march to join Scott or 
McDowell at Centerville. The Major replied, turning to the 
l«jc kidge and pointing to a gap in it, "Through rhat gap lies 
the road to Centerville. By forced marches we can get to Ma- 
r.A'.sas as soon as Johnston. Before daylight to-morrow you will 
be in that gap on the march." The Major was mistaken, how- 
ever. The army remained at Charlestown, and anger and mor- 
tinc-uion were rife throughout the regiment and the whole com- 
Bund. (We are indebted to Surgeon Dimon for this and other 
viiucd items in relation to this campaign.) 

While at this place, the Cayuga volunteers visited the scene of 
I' hn Ifrown's last hours; the court house, with its four white 
bfu k p:ilars, the jail, the church on whose spire the old man's 
r\c\ rvNted on that bright December day, when he stood upon 
t>-c JjT.d ^caffold, Everybody secured mementoes. A tree, 
i^i.-d n^ near the scene of execution, was literally carried away 
I «•' rmcul. A table in the jail, used by Brown, suffered a simi- 
U.' JiJc. ^^ A tenacious clay in the field of the execution, forming 
in ctfcl'cnt substitute for meerschaum, was carried away in 
q-4it!ti:icv and wrought into capital pipes. 

^ Cjiitp regulations were strictly enforced at Charlestown. No 
. .'4^in- was permitted. The men subsisted on rations of five 
r-Jf i tacK, i\\e ounces of salt pork or beef, and cotfee. 

i»:e ni-hi, while here, Major Ledlie's life was attempted by a 
fcU-1 tarmcr. While posting pickets on a hillside, the farmer 
J-^r.l .u him with a shot gun, but fortunatelv missed his aim. 
Our pi.-kcts promptly arrested him and sent him to camp. 

The army broke camp earlv Sundav morning, |ulv 21st and 
marched to Harper's Ferry. It felt the degradation' of this re- 
<:c«; tieeply. On arriving at Harper's Ferrv. Gen. Patterson, 
»!5:.e p.isMng the camp of a Pennsvivania regiment, commanded 
J»v his own son, was loudly groaned. He was also groaned bv 
v,nic of the New York troops. That dav Bull Run' was fou-ht 
''> thr I nion army under Gen. Scott, and lost, owing directly to 
* -»:ttr>tjn s delinquency. 



^U .1 Vi 



64 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY, 

The 8rh Brigade went into bivouac on a range of steep, partly 
wooded romantic hills, crossing the promontory, at the point of 
which Harper's Ferry stands, called Bolivar Heights. The 
range extends from the Potomac to the Shenandoah river, 
several miles in length. Midway from river to river, there is a 
depression in the range through which runs the turnpike to 
Charlestown. The first hill north of this turnpike was crowned 
by an earthwork thrown up by the rebels under Johnston, a few 
months previous, and evacuated by them in June. Six heavy 

■ cannon had been mounted there, their black muzzles -pointing 
westward, to cover and guard the Charlestown road, through open- 
ings cut in the woods. These guns now lay on the ground, 
spiked, with their carriages burnt. It was to this position that 
the 19th and 5th regiments were sent, and they camped where 
the 2d Mississippi rebels had camped before them. Love letters 
and sick reports of the Mississippians littered the ground. 

Heavy scouting and picket duty was required of the 19th here. 
' f'^^. Its promptitude on all occasions won the remark from Major 
. Doubleday, that " he would rather have the ragged 19th New 
York at his back, than any regiment in the army." On the 23d, 
the regiment was sent to occipy a position on the heights, on 
what was called Rattlesnake Hill, a mile or more to the left and 
in advance, to cover and protect a party of engineers, who were 
tearing up the Winchester and Harper's Ferry railroad. Inces- 

■ sant vigilance was demanded here. Picket duty was done by 
companies. The regiment remained well together. Straying 
was not tolerated. Water was brought from a babbling brook 
in a deep ravine on the rear, and here, on the stubble of a v.heat 
field, without tents, and part of the time without blankets, the 
regiment lay ready to spring to arms on a moment's warning, 
should a disturbance on the picket line indicate an attack by the 
enemy. The rebels were known to be in the vicinity, their scouts 
being occasionally seen in the front. The regiment was called 
under arms at night fall, and slept in the open field in line of 
battle. 



■'■\ 



P ATTEkSON RELIEVED BY BANKS. 6$ 



IV. 



ALONG THE POTOMAC. 

^*nrfV>« relierH by Binlci — Retreat to Pleasant Valley — On Maryland Height? 
■ Atnlmtk — New Uniforms Arrive — Kennedy's Raid on Lovcttsville — The 
T«lk tbomt Going Home — The Regiment Turned Over for the Whole Two 
V»jr» — Politiciani Keep Back the News — Seward's Order — To Hyattstown — 
A«(wt ti4 — Brutal Treatment by the Authorities — The Recusants — Guard- 
•■•I ik* DivUioB Sipply Train — Consolidation Talked Of — Desertions — Col. 
C'.uk RrtifU — Conversion to Artillery— r At Frederick — Sent to Hancock — 
UMkntCUae^To Wajkington. 

Thf rijffirmw policy of Maj.-Gen. N. P. Banks at Baltimore, 
r '! iwin;» that of Gen, Butler, produced the most beneficial eltect 
«;»->n th*i foul nest of traitors and commended him to the ap- 
f'.'vir.jj consideration of Government. The failure of Patterson 
ir'juirinj; an instant change in the commander of the Union 
amjy on ttw opper Potomac, Government relieved Patterson and 
v-o! hira home. It then sent Gen. Banks to Harper's Ferry lb 
-^TiTnand in his stead, and he arrived at the Ferry, July 25th. 
He made an immediate tour of the camps to acquaint himself 
• iJh the situation. A large body of Pennsylvania militia having 
^v thu time gone home, on the expiration of their sixty days 
I'lm of service, Gen. Banks had but few troops left besides the 
»»o New York brigades. He momentarily expected an attack, 
f<-T the rebels were breathing fury at him for his course at Balti- 
ni-^rr, and it was in their power now to hurl nearly their whole 
ajn^y suddenly upon him, and envelope him. Acting on old 
Kr\uluiionary General Greene's maxim, "calculate that your 



66 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

enemy will always do what he ought to do," Gen. Banks resolved 
to cross the Potomac and establish his army on the Maryland 
side. 

Supply and baggage trains went across on the 26th. The 
Rhode Island battery went up to strengthen the outer line 
guarded by the 19th New York, and, on the 28th, the army 
withdrew from Harper's Ferry across the Potomac, the move 
ment protected by the strong rearguard of the 8th Brigade. 

The Cayuga regiment received its orders for the march about 
midnight of the 27th. Capt, Kennedy was ordered by Gen. 
Banks to take his company and those of Gavigan, Schenck and 
Stewart and move at once on special service. Leaving Rattle- 
snake Hill at 2 p. M., the detachment was joined by two guns of 
the Rhode Island battery, and marched rapidly to the rear, 
passing through the little village of Bolivar and then the 
silent streets of Harper's Ferry to the Potomac. Fording the 
river near the ruined railroad bridge, burnt by the Vandals un- 
der Johnston, the detachment was confronted on the other side 
by the abrupt, defiant, stony precipices of Maryland Heights, 
which, tufted with trees and vines, tower to the sky almost per- 
pendicularly from the river side. At the base of these gloomy 
heights, there is only space enough for a wagon road and the 
Ohio and Chesapeake Canal. Getting out on the wagon road, 
the detachment moved up the river a short way and then by a 
steep, winding, stony road reached the Heights, to a point about 
half way up. The guns were dragged up by hand by superhuman 
exertions and placed in a position to overlook and command 
Harper's Ferry and the region towards Bolivar Heights. The 
infantry companies were disposed around the battery, with 
orders to lie quiet and concealed until relieved. Gen. Banks 
had ordered this service for the purpose of seizing and holding 
Mar)-land Heights and covering the withdrawal of the army 
from Virginia. Major Stebbins of Banks's staff visited the spot 
•during the day to enjoin perfect secrecy on the ambush. 

The movement of the army began early and was a fine sight. 
The mountain side, where the little detachment of Cayuga and 
Rhode Island men were perched, commanded a perfect view of 
the region around and beyond Harper's Ferry, the village itself 
and the ground beyond which the Federals were evacuating be- 
ing in the immediate foreground. Loudon Heights rose with 
steep, craggy, picturesque front, across the river, separated by 
the blue current of the Shenandoah from the Ferry. It was a 
huge, bold mountain, the abutment of the Blue Ridge on that 
bank of the Potomac — just as Maryland Heights were on the 



t./..L ra-fi: 



IN CAMP IN PLEASANT VALLEY. ^J 

oorth side of the river. Looking towards Harper's Ferry the 
round top of Bolivar Heights rose up behind and beyond the 
Shenandoah Valley sketched away into hazy perspective, 
bound by distant blue mountains. As the sun rose, a long 
procession of infantry, wagons and artillery gathered from the 
hill and vales at Bolivar, and came down the steep, dusty hill to 
the Ferry. It slowly forded the river, ascended the bank and 
djsappe.ired from view of thosQ on the Heights, as it wound 
around the base of the frowning cliffs and pressed its march to- 

• ariis the broad valley on the south side of the mountain. The 
pa;;cant appeared strikingly beautiful in the golden sunlight of 
ihe bhpht, warm day. A soft murmur floating up from the host, 
ail intermingling of tap of drum and note of silvery bugle, the 
rufnbling of wagon wheels and splashing of water, increased the 
romantic effect of the movement. As some of the regiments 
forded the river, however, they discharged their loaded rifles at 
the iupfoscd vacant Heights. The sharp rattle of musketry 
rrcalleil the party in ambush thereon from romance to reality, 
and this fusillade became very annoying to it. A hail storm of 
bulicts crackled through the woods all day. Many flew danger- 
o«%ly cIdhc with angry hiss. 

Hy nipht, the army had crossed and gone into bivouac in 
I'l'-ivant Valley, a romantic and lovely region, lying between two 
Vi.iv r4n;;rs of the Blue Mountains, and at and around Sandy 
\K '-K and Knoxville, two little places, a few miles apart, on the 
\f»t*:and bank of the Potomac, just below Harper's Ferry, 
>»r><f\ H<>-)k. the nearest, being only a mile from the Ferry, in 
l''.'->%an: Valley. 

T';e companies on Maryland Heights, being relieved at ntght- 
fai), rrjomcil their comrades in Pleasant Valley. The encamp- 
ment of the 19th New York they found a mile and a half from 
the nver, on the western side of the valley, on the side of a semi- 
c^rrular hill, with deep, cool wooded glens around it and 
Mir>jand Heights rising dark behind it. The 5th New York 

• a» rncami>ed on a hill west of the 19th. To the east, lay the 
ij'h. and all through the valley were scattered the snow-white 
ca:np<i of the rest of the army. 

Here the Cayuga regiment was encamped for three weeks. 
Wrir. also, it was rejoined by a detachment of sick and nurses, 

• h^ h had b*^en left at Kalorrima. The regiment was held under 
» K d •ii'wipline. and improved rapidly in steadiness and soldierly 
^""jf^rj. Guard duty along the Potomac, and the canal and 
Ti.r. j.j on its bank, from Sandy Hook to Berlin, required daily 
•i<-:A«.hmcnts from the companies. The upper Potomac at this 



68 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

time formed the frontier of war in this quarter. The Union 
forces, under Banks, held and acted on the north bank, from 
Williamsport, twenty miles above Pleasant Valley, to the Mono- 
cacy, twenty miles below. The rebels watched the fords and 
scouted along the river on the Virginia side. Our pickets 
pften talked with the rebel pickets, and met them half way in the 
stream and exchanged papers. 

During July, twenty-one men were discharged from the 19th 
for disability, used up by hard service. 

July 29th, Gen. Banks issued orders for the reorganization of 
his army. So many militia regiments had gone home, that the 
old brigades were all cut up, and now the new three years' regi- 
ments, raised under the President's second call, were arriving, 
sometimes five or six in a day. As the old 8th Brigade was, in 
a day or two, to lose the 5th and 12th Militia, a consolidation 
with other regiments of the army was effected, and a new bri- 
gade was temporarily formed, designated as the ist of the army. 
It embraced the 2d United States Cavalry, Col. George H.' 
Thomas ; 2d New York and 9th Rhode Island batterj' ; 19th 
New York Volunteers, Col. Clark ; 28th New York Volunteers, 
Col. Donnelly ; 28th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Lt. Col. Geary ; 
and the 2d Pennsylvania Reserves, Col. Mann. It was placed 
under the command of Col. George H. Thomas, afterwards one 
of the most renowned Generals of the armj'. Col. Thomas was 
a specimen of the perfect soldier. Of a fine personal presence, 
he was gentlemanly, considerate of the kind of forces he had to 
command, without a single bad habit, and a brave and daring 
officer. He was loved and respected by every soldier in his 
command. Green as the troops were, he could have led them 
anywhere, and they would have done their duty under him to the 
last man. 

July 30th, excitement and joy agitated Camp Cayuga. Regu- 
lation uniforms came. They had been following the regiment 
for a month. That night, on dress parade, the Cayugas wore 
for the first time the long sighed for, comfortable army blue. 
•The shoddy, worn and torn to rags, was cast off with a parting 
shudder. Gov. Morgan's shoddy shoes having worn out, leaving 
half the men barefoot, foot gear was next supplied by borrowino- 
five hundred pairs of new shoes from Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts regiments encamped in the Valley. New life for a while 
thrilled the whole command. 

The regiment again pined for active service. Opportunities 
for a fight with the rebels were eagerly watched for. About 
this lime, one presented itself. At a little cluster of houses on 



A , ilO' . i> : •' 



Kennedy's raid on lovettsville. 69 

the Potomac, called Berlin, a road comes down from the interior 
of Maryland, crossing the river at a ferry into Virginia, thence 
on to Leesburg, 20 miles away, where were stationed four or five 
rebel regiments. On our side, the ferry was guarded by pickets 
of the 28th New York. From information brought in by Union 
men, it was gathered that a cavalry patrol regularly came down this 
road from Leesburg, every day, to a little village called Lovetts- 
ville, three miles from the river. Capt. Kennedy of the igth 
devised the idea of making a dash at Lovettsville and capturing 
the patrol. His request was granted by General Banks. 
August 8th, by special orders. Company B, 35 men ; Company 
E, Lieut. Taylor, 24 men ; Company F, Capt. Stephens, 25 
men; and Lieut. S. C. Day, with 17 men from various com- 
panies, loi in all, were detailed and placed under Capt. Kenne- 
dy's command for this purpose. Proper preparations were made 
for the raid, and the party, in light marching order, with three 
days' rations in haversacks, and a plentiful supply of ammunition, 
crossed the Potomac in boats that night. Dr. Dimon going along 
as Surgeon. At i a. m. the men were formed in column and led 
rapidly by a rough and crooked road to Lovettsville, where they 
arrived before daybreak. No enemy then occupied the village and 
the party lay perdu in two barns till 8 a. m., snatching a nap to 
recover from the fatigues of the hard night march. An order to 
" fall in " was then given and they marched out of the town to a 
piece of woods, where they were figuratively posted in ambush, 
though in plain sight of everybody passing on the road. At 2 
p. M., no rebels appearing, Kennedy turned homewards. On 
the way, a long legged Union boy came running down breathless 
to say that a cavalry company was in Lovettsville. As the sun 
was scorching hot, the party threw off haversacks and coats, and 
then double-quicked back under cover of woods and corn fields. 
A halt was made behind a stone fence. The rebels discovered 
the enemy. " Mount, mount," shouted in sonorous tones their 
Captain, and away they went at the top of their speed, the 19th 
firing a volley to accelerate their retreat, and then charging into 
the village and forming a hollow square to resist cavalry attack. 
But the fast-footed Virginians, scampering for the distant re- 
cesses of Dixie, did not return. Had Kennedy divided his party 
and sent a detachment around to the other side of the village, 
before attacking, he probably could have captured them. Capt. 
Bowman came running up from the river on hearing the firing. 
As no enemy appeared, they all marched back to the Potomac 
They forded the river waist deep, swimming a little in pla'Ces 
uhere men got out of their depth, and reached camp the ncjtt 



w. 



70 igra new-york infantry. 

morning, with fagged out frames, many with bleeding feet. The 
spoils of the expedition were the wounding of seven rebels, the 
capture of a rebel carbine, hat and coat, the capture of a rebel 
Quartermaster with his team, and the bringing away of some 
loyal people of Lovettsville who wanted to go into our lines. 
This affair was celebrated in the papers, south and north, as a 
battle. It is a specimen of what war was to our inexperienced 
and unaccustomed people at the commencement of the rebellion. 
While at Pleasant Valley, talk gradually began again about 
the term of service of the regiment. The departure of the two 
organizations, brigaded with the 19th Volunteers in Virginia, viz : 
the 5th and 12th, forcibly suggested the topic. These were old 
existing militia regiments, like the 49th in Cayuga county, which 
.had, like the 69th, tendered their services to the State for three 
months, and being tolerably well-filled organizations, the Gov- 
ernor had accepted and sent them on in April to the seat of war. 
Their time was now up, and they had been ordered home. The 
former broke camp and marched away July 30th. The 12th de- 
parted August ist. The Cayuga boys crowded the parade 
ground of the encampment to see the 12th off, and experienced 
a sense of deep aggravation at hearing the latter's splendid band 
strike up, on starting, " Ain't I mighty glad to get out of this 
wilderness," which tune it played with intense furore, till the 
provoking strains died away in the distance. Going home then 
became the ruling theme for a while among camp messes. The 
Cayuga boys, feeling that they had been misused, played upon 
by politicians from the start, desired their discharge. Com- 
pelled to wear a scarecrow uniform, they felt deceived and hum- 
bled. They did not fear hardships common to all. Never 
were men more willing to meet them. Of this, their cheerful 
temper and untiagging hopefulness and zeal, in the camp and 
field, in storm and sunshine, and on many a long, weary march 
when, the shoddy shoes giving out, they trod the rough road 
with bare and bleeding feet, abundantly testify. Nothing that 
their commanders ever called on them to do did they ever hesi- 
tate to perform faithfully. Neither did the men wish to leave 
the service permanently. They simply wanted to go home and 
reorganize ; elect their own officers ; and come out again as the 
Massachusetts and Connecticut regiments had, equipped credit- 
ably to themselves and the State. Many of the men had devel- 
oped an unexpected degree of proficiency since they had entered 
the service. These hoped and souijht for an opportunity to ob- 
taiit commissions and higher rank in the formation of new com- 
panies at home, . . , - . 



''.1 q& 



THE REGIMENT TO BE HELD FOR TWO YEARS. 7 1 

And now here appears the folly of the politicians of New 
York State in keeping back from our patriotic volunteers the 
knowledge of their intended retention for two years. These 
politicians knew the decision of the Government in the matter 
before the regiment left Kalorama Heights. Why was it not 
candidly announced to the men then and there ? Had it been 
so proclaimed, accompanied with an explanation of the State 
law under which the first New York regiments had been enroll- 
ed, which not one in a hundred had read, with also an explana- 
tion of the imperative necessities of the country, not a man 
among the brave, self-sacrificing warriors of old Cayuga would 
have hesitated a moment to renew his engagement of service 
enthusiastically. But the politicians kept the truth segret. They 
held it back as a secret trap, until, uninformed and misled, the 
regiment had come to indulge in desires and expectations that 
illy prepared it to receive suggestions of a full two years' ser- 
vice under the then existing auspices. Nothing had reached the 
regiment but rumors. 

While encamped at Pleasant Valley, several officers of the 
19th sought to obtain some definite clue as to the fate of the 
command by consultation with Gen. Banks, The General gave 
them to understand it to be his conviction that no power could 
legally hold the 19th in the army, after the expiration of the 
term for which it was mustered into it. Army ofiicers generally 
thought the same. We shall see in time how McClellan himself 
thought so. Lieut-Col. Seward, on the 6th of August, gave 
official endorsement to the supposition that the regiment would 
be discharged on the 2 2d of the month, in an order to the regi- 
ment which forbade gambling and said : " It is earnestly recom- 
mended to the soldiers to retain their pay, as it niay be needed 
to defray the expenses of the journey home from Elmira." This 
seemed to settle the matter. All supposed they were going 
home. Preparations were made for the event and the mails 
bore from camp a heavy freight of letters, notifying friends to 
expect an early arrival. 

But this expectation was delusive. In the latter part of Julv, 
the War Department had made requisition on New York State 
for the full two years' service of the following two years' regi- 
ments which had been mustered for three months: 12th New 
York Volunteers, Col. Walrath ] 13th New York Volunteers, 
Col. Quimby ; 19th New York Volunteers, Col. Clark ; aist 
New York Volunteers, Col. Rogers, and 26th New York Volun- 
teers, Col. Christian. In response, an order was issued August 
2d from the General Headquarters of New York, at Albany, 
viz.; — 



72 rgXH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

" Special Orders, No. 323 : — His Excellency, the President, 
desiring the further services of the 19th regiment, New York 
State Volunteers, and having made requisition upon the Gover- 
nor of this State, therefore, Col. Clark is hereby directed, on 
the expiration of the term for which the regiment was mustered 
into the service of the United States, (August 22, i86i,) to re- 
port with his command to the Adjutant General of the army, for 
duty under the orders of the United States Government, for the 
remainder of the term of enlistment of the regiment into the ser- 
vice of the State of New York. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief. 

D. Campbell, 
Assistant Adjutant General.'^ 

* Col. Clark came into Camp Cayuga on the 12th of August 
with tidings of this order. For a moment the revulsion of feel- 
ing was great and the men characterized the proceeding as ar- 
bitrary and unjust. The commanding officer of the 19th there 
lost a golden opportunity. Had he proclaimed in camp, Sec- 
tion 3d of the act of New York of April 16, 1861, the men would 
have read their duty with a clear eye and promptly acquiesced. 
The Section provides that volunteers enlisted under it "shall be 
liable at all times to be turned over to the service of the United 
States, on the order of the Governor, as part of the Militia of 
the State, upon the requisition of the President, &c., &c." It 
would have settled the matter at once. The men would have 
seen the reasonableness of turning them over. What they re- 
volted at was the high-handed, arbitrary character of the pro- 
ceeding, the only feature of it they saw. The line officers shared 
the feelings of the men fully. A sentiment of loyalty ind honor, 
however, decided them to submit to the order voluntarily. 

August i6th, Col. Thomas received orders to move his brigade 
from Pleasant Valley to the valley of the Monocacy and encamp 

, at the village of Hyattstown, 10 miles south of Frederick. 

The 19th struck camp next day and with the whole brigade 
moved by short, though toilsome marches, over slippery, satu- 
rated roads, to the designated point, camping on the way at 
Jefferson and Buckeystown. On the evening of the 21st, the 
regiment pitched tents at Hyattstown on the slope of a verdant 
hil], in the midst of the camps of the brigade and army, which 
filled this beautiful portion of the valley. Near the hill was the 
headquarters of Gen. Banks. News reached the men here that 
the people of Auburn thought they ought to remain in the ser- 
vice and " show their manhood by fighting the thing through." 



AUGUST 22D. 7$ 

The regiment thought that people did not understand the ques- 
tion very well at home. It proposed, however, fo stay and fight 
it through, quite unanimously. Some grumbled, but the subject 
was pretty thoroughly canvassed that night and the majority re- 
solved to bury the remembrance of their wrongs and do what- 
ever the Government ordered. Little speeches by some of the 
Captains to their commands helped determine them. 

At 9 A. M., August 2 2d, the drum corps beat the signal for 
dress parade. Curiosity brought every man out on the green, 
where, in a few moments, Adjutant Stone had the line formed, 
and reported the same to Major Ledlie, commanding in the ab- 
sence of Lieut. Col. Seward. By the Major's direction, the right 
wing then faced to the right, and countermarched, which brought 
the two wings in parallel lines facing inwards. While this vyas 
being done, what was the astonishment, not to say mortification 
and anger, of the 19th, to perceive the 21st Pennsylvania, Col. 
Biddle commanding, come up the hill on a run, bristling with 
steel, and wheel round into line on the right of the 19th, but facing 
it. Col.Thomas's 2d Cavalry, dismounted, approached briskly to 
a similar position on the left, with carbines capped and loaded. 
And what lay there on the crest of the hill? Not thirty rods 
away, a battery of Parrot cannon, Perkins's Rhode Island, un- 
limbered, pointed its black, angry muzzles threateningly on our 
position, the artillerists lying or sitting on the ground in their 
places, ready to spring up and blow the regiment to atoms on a 
second's warning. Other regiments were under arms in camps 
around the hill. In line of the lane between the two wings of 
the 19th, stood Col. Thomas, stern, impassive, with folded arms, 
keenly watching the deportment of the terrible, but now wounded 
and mortified warriors from the peaceful hills and vales of 
far away Central New York, for whom all this muster of forces 
had been made. By him were his staff, Col. Clark, and several 
reporters. 

The meaning of all this was only too obvious, and many a 
brave man's eyes filled with tears in the regiment at the un- 
merited insult, as in silence all awaited what was coming next. 

Major Ledlie, attended by his starT, now came between the 
wings of the regiment, and addressed the men as follows: — 

"SoMiers of the \qth Regiment, New York Volunteers : 

" This is the 224 of August, the day on which your term of 
three months expires. But the President has made requisition 
for the further services of the 19th regiment, and the Governor 
has transferred you to the United States for the remainder of 



74 igrn new-york infantry. 

the term of two years, for which you enlisted into the State ser- 
vice, which will be one year and eight months." 

Adjutant Stone then read Special Order No. 323, and one or 
two Articles of War apropos to the occasion. The men, then 
stacking arms, marched a few paces to the rear and again faced 
inwards. No attempt was made to explain the matter to the 
men, nor was there any protfer of a new muster. Major Ledlie 
commanded all who were loyal to advance and take their guns. 
Every officer in the regiment stepped forward at the word. Ken- 
nedy's and Stewart's companies, B and G, were not a moment , 
behind. Smothering their feelings, they marched squarely up 
to the stacked arms. One man in Stewart's company only 
lingered behind. Companies C, H and K also moved up all 
but unanimously. The larger part of the other companies, 
however, resenting the fresh insult of the day, stood fast in their 
places. Their officers remonstrated without avail. Two hun- 
dred and eighty refused to serve a day longer. They declared 
that their time was out. It speaks well for the character of the 
19th regiment that, under the circumstances, more of it did 
not refuse. In Gavigan's company, one man only took his gun, 
and he did so because, having enlisted at Elmira specifically as 
a three months' man, his time would expire any way in a short 
time. Col. Clark came down and reasoned with Gavigan's men 
against standing out, but failed to shake their resolution. 
" Well, they show their true Irish grit," he said, as he turned 
away and left them. 

Col. Thomas at length put an end to the exciting scene by 
ordering the recusants under arrest. Capt. Stewart's company 
was ordered to guard them till he could bring up the cavalry. 
One of the company rebelled at this and threw down his gun, 
refusing to stand over his own comrades. The rest complied 
quietly but gravely. The cavalry then came up. The recruits 
hung their equipments on their guns and marched down hill to 
the camp of Col. Biddle's Bucktails, where they were quartered 
in the edge of a grove in the old "cow-pen." 

The recusants were from the several companies, as follows : 
Company .\, 27; Company C, S; Company D, 65; Company 
E, 31 ; Company F, 51 ; Company G. 2 , Company H, 6 ; Com- 
pany I, 17 ; Company K, i. Total, 203. 

After the parade, the residue of the regiment returned to 
camp. The morale of the 19th never fully recovered from the 
wrongs of that bitter day. It was little consolation to learn 
frpm the Rhode Island boys, that had they been ordered to fire 



-\ 



AUGUST 22D. " 75 

on the regiment, they would have put their cartridges shot first 
into their cannon. Our boys did not fear cannon shot. What 
they did feel was the moral wounds inflicted on ihem that day 
by distrusting their loyalty, and the brutal use of arbitrary 
power in place of reason and an appeal to pride. These gave 
them the keenest pangs. 

Col. Thomas sent for Capt. Kennedy and Capt. Stewart, dur- 
ing the day, to congratulate them separately on the conduct of 
their respective commands, and to ask them about the motives 
which had actuated those who stood out To Capt. Stewart he 
said, when he had heard the whole story of the regiment's hard- 
ships, "There is something wrong here. Captain. These men 
are not to blame. They have not been treated right." Stewart 
alluded to Thomas having placed him as guard over the recus- 
ants, and said it was " the hardest thing he had ever done in his 
life." Thomas replied, he "only did it to try his pluck." 

Gen, Banks treated the recusants considerately. He gave 
them plent}' of time to reconsider their action. On the 23d and 
24th, various officers of the regiment visited them and made 
speeches and remonstrated with them on their conduct at a time 
when the country stood in such eminent need of their services ; 
and e.xplanations were made, which should have been given to 
them at Kalorama, and, but for the imbecility of politicians,would 
have been. They were obstinate at first. They declared they 
would be sent to the Dry Tortugas, the prison pen of recusants, 
a fate which overhung them, rather than return to duty. They 
realized their position, however, gradually. Gen. Banks addressed 
them wisely and firmly on the 25th, and a hundred or more 
finally receded from their resolution and went back to camp. 
The endeavors of Father Creedon won back more. Others 
• came back from day to day. But twenty-three held out to the 
end. Nothing could move them. Even Father Creedon lav- 
ished argument on them in vain. They were retained in Col. 
Biddle's camp, under guard, until the latter part of September, 
when they were sent to Fortress Monroe, court martialed, and 
sentenced to hard labor for two years on the fortifications of the 
United States. At this place, through the agency of Gen. Wool, 
they were pardoned, in Special Order No. 107, Nov. 21, 186 1, 
" on condition of serving out the time for which they were en- 
listed, honestly and faithfully," in the 2d New York Volunteers, 
Col. Carr commanding, then at Newport News. The men ac- 
cepted and went into the 2d Cavalry, and made a good reputa- 
tion there as soldiers. Their names and companies were as fol- 
lows: Company D, Michael Barrett, Wm, Buckley, Thomas 



OJ- I 



76 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

Burke, Daniel Doyle, James Downell, James Dwyer, Wm. Gal- 
vin, Thomas Green, Thomas Head, John Hogan, Patrick Kella- 
her, Michael Lacy, Francis McCarthy, John McKean, John 
O'Brien, James Tracy; Company E, John L. Crounse, James 
Gaffney ; Company G, Morgan L. Joslyn ; Company I, Samuel 
Barr, John P. Barber, Walter M. Fowler, Morris Ryan. 

After the 2 2d of August, camp was changed to the banks of 
Seneca creek, south of Hyattstown. On the 28th, Col. Thomas, 
being called to an important command in the West, relinquished 
the ist Brigade to Col. Biddle, to the very general regret of the 
brigade. 

On the 24th of September, Gen. Banks ordered the Cayuga 
regiment on special service to Muddy Branch, near the village 
of Darnestown, to relieve Col. Mann's 2d Pennsylvania Re- 
serves, which had been directed to proceed to TenaJlytown. 
Marching to the point indicated, in a rain and over heavy roads, 
the 19th made its encampment just south of the turnpike, be- 
tween the village of Darnestown and Rockville, near Darnes- 
town, and within three miles of the Potomac river. The position 
was an important one. Over this turnpike were brought all sup- 
plies for Banks's army coming from Washington, and long wagon 
trains and bodies of troops were continually passing. On a side 
hill at Muddy Branch, a large brook crossing the turnpike 
half a mile from the encampment of the 19th, Gen. Banks had 
established a depot of distribution for the division. From 
one thousand to fifteen hundred loaded wagons were 
parked at this point all the while, and trains were arriving and 
departing every day. The ammunition and quartermaster and 
commissary stores contained in these wagons were immensely 
valuable. And as their nearness to the Potomac might tempt a 
raid upon them, from some of the 12,000 rebels congregated at 
Leesburg, it was essential to have a tried and steady regiment 
at hand to guard them. This was the duty imposed upon the 
19th Volunteers. In its discharge they remained at Muddy 
Branch till December. Every day a detachment of from sixty 
to one hundred men, was sent up to the train. More than 
once, while here, there were alarms, caused by rebel dashes at 
our picket lines, the long roll being beaten on these occasions, 
and the whole regiment being called under arms. One time was 
on October 20th, the day of the bloody battle and massacre at 
Ball's Bluff. The cannonading in that fight was heard plainly 
at Darnestown. Another alarm was on October 30th, when six 
rebel regiments, with a force of cavalry and artillery, came down 
to the Potomac, at Great Falls, a few miles below the camp, 



■'^^ 



V:--.' . •' '.h ' ;.,-' 



GUARDING THE SUPPLY TRAIN. Jf 

made a menace of crossing, and then came up opposite to 
Muddy Branch and repeated the demonstration. 

In addition to guarding the supply train, the regiment at 
various times while here performed other duties. A company 
was sent out to do provost duty in the village of Knoxville,— 
Capt. Ammon being made Provost Marshal of the place. On 
election day, November 6th, Capt. Schenck with fifty men went 
to Gaithersburg, four miles north- east of camp, to preserve the 
peace there. Lieut. Wall with fifty men was ordered to report 
to Ammon at Rockville for the same purpose. A taste of en- 
gineering duty varied the monotony, a few days in November 
and December. In obedience to orders. Major Ledlie took out 
one hundred men and repaired the roads towards Darnestown, 
Rockville and Frederick, filling the holes with stone, brush and 
earth. In one place a small bridge was built. 

As there was to be a long stay at Muddy Branch, camp was 
made as comfortable as possible. Floors were laid in the tents, 
trenches dug around them to drain off surface water, bunks 
made of poles on crotched stakes, and stoves and fire places in- 
troduced. The fire places were a great institution. The 19th 
regiment claims the honor of having invented those useful, 
though troublesome contrivances, and given them to the Army 
of the Potomac. The subject of having fires in the tents was 
often talked of by the principal officers, till finally, as cold 
weather came on, Dimon, Stewart, and others tried their hands 
at making fire places. They succeeded capitally. One day, 
Gen. Banks came into Stewart's tent. Major Giles was then 
the only one in. Spying the heating arrangement, hs said, " Well, 
well, you have a nice thing there. I wish I had one." Giles 
offered to make him one and next day went up with some men 
and a wagon and did so. The newspaper reporters then got 
wind of the invention and the news was scattered broadcast. 
Before long, every tent in the i9rh regiment, and in the armv, 
had its fire place. They were easily made. A covered ditch, 
constituting a sort of flue, ran from the back of the tent five feet 
to the rear. Inside the tent, a fire box was constructed in the 
ground at the end of the flue, partly excavated and partly 
raised, covered on top with a broad flat stone. At the outer 
end of the flue, a cob chimney plastered with mud, or a barrel, 
was placed, and the work was done. Fires in these drew per- 
fectly. An infinite amount of comfort was derived from them, 
although they did, once in a while, set tents on fire. 

During the month of August the regiment lost a number of 
men by muster out of three months' recruits, by desertions on 



1 rc; ' . Pi 



78 IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

furlough, and discharge on account of disability. By September 
ist it had been reduced to six hundred and thirty-nine men. 
September 2d, Capt. Kennedy was ordered home to Ca^oiga 
County on recruiting service. 

September 13th, Lieut.-Col. Seward, reluctantly compelled by 
ill health to resign his commission, announced the fact to the 
foment, to the general regret of the men, who had loved and 
admired him from the beginning. 

To fill the vacancy, an election was held by the line officers 
on the 14th. 

It was rumored at that time that Col. Clark had it in contem- 
plation to resign also. The election accordingly proceeded on 
the supposition that he would do so. 

For Lieutenant-Colonel, to become Colonel as soon as the 
way was open, there was but once choice. Major Ledlie re- 
ceived a unanimous vote for the office. For Major, to become 
Lieutenant-Colonel on Ledlie's promotion, five Captains were 
prominently thought of as candidates, viz : Captain Kennedv, 
second captain in the regiment, who, by good rights, should have 
been senior captain, an old, experienced, energetic drill officer, 
and in every way deserving the promotion ; Capt. Schenck, brave, 
studious, competent, and a disciplinarian ; Capt. Stewart, an old 
military man of Cayuga county, and Captains Giles and Ste- 
phens, men of ability and ambition. Owing to the operation of 
regimental rivalries, then all powerful in the 19th, the choice 
rapidly narrowed down, and Capt. Stewart, most unexpectedly 
to himself and to his entire surprise, was honored with election as 
Ledlie's lieutenant. After a sharp contest for future Major, be- 
tween Captains Gifes and Stephens, the former was designated 
for that office. 

Xext to the promotion of Ledlie, the choice of Capt. Stewart 
for Major was one of the most fortunate things that had hap- 
pened to the Cayuga regiment. Ledlie was away from camp a 
great part of the time. To Stewart was left the drill and gene- 
ral management of the regiment almost entirely. He was prac- 
tically its commander from September 15th to the end of the 
war. Promotion made him so in fact after the winter of 1862-3. 
Stewart was a cool, intrepid, devoted and excellent officer, and 
a disciplinarian with few equals in the volunteer army of the 
United States. He had the honor to command a regiment of 
intelligent men, not the riff-raff of cities, but the best blood of 
the Empire State, and his only ambition was ever their good. 
Resolving at the outset to make the regiment one of the best in 
the service, he brought to the work remarkable firmness and 



!■ \' f: .'■ 'iioh'. ■ 



THE BRIGADE RE-ORGANIZED. 79 

equability of temper and unusual executive talent, qualities that 
made him a valuable commander, and entirely successful in his 
work. In personal appearance, he was a plain appearing, rather 
thick-set man, with piercing blue eyes, sandy beard, and a face 
full of energy and determination. He always enjoyed the love 
and fullest respect of his command. 

These were the last promotions in the regiment, determined 
by the votes of the line officers. Thereafter, they came by ap- 
pointment and commission from the Governor of New York. 
Capt. Kennedy, who was home recruiting, finding his claims for 
promotion disregarded, resolved on the muster in of a battery 
of artillery he had been raising to be attached to the xgth as an 
independent command, with the design of severing his relations 
with the regiment. 

September 25, the ist brigade was reorganized and the 19th 
and 28th Volunteers were transferred to the 3d Brigade, under 
command of Col. Geo. H. Gordon, of the 2d Massachusetts 
Volunteers. The Brigade comprised the 2d Massachusetts, 19th 
and 28th New York ; 5th Connecticut, Col. Ferry ; 46th Penn- 
sylvania, Col. Knipe, and Tompkin's Rhode Island battery. 

The condition of the 19th regiment now required that some- 
thing should be done to bring up its spirit and discipline. 
Stewart began regular battalion drill at once. Reorganization 
and recruiting up to the full proportions of 1,000 men were pro- 
posed. A first step was taken towards this on the 28th of Sep- 
■ tnimber, by the consolidation of Companies F, H and K v/ith 
other companies, compacting the regiment to a battalion. The 
bulk of Company F went into A ; of H into I , of K into G. 
Capts. Stephens and Angell, and Lieuts. Squires, Parker, Carr, 
Forsting and Field were mustered out at their own request. 
Capt. Angell went home to re-enlist and raise a new com- 
pany, and in due time rejoined his comrades in command of it. 
Lieut. Squires, highly recommended by Lieut.-Col. Ledlie, went 
to Ohio and raised a regiment of his own, which did good ser- 
vice as sharp-shooters in other campaigns. 

A new spirit was infused into the 3d brigade, October 8th, by 
Gen. A. S. Williams assuming the command. He ordered ad- 
ditional battalion and skirmish drills and exerted himself ener- 
getically to improve every means to bring his brigade to a state 
of high efficiency. 

In spite of elibrts to the contrary, during October and Novem- 
ber, the 19th regiment rapidly ran down. Monotonous and irk- 
some duties in mud and rain, told on men whose elasticity of 
spirit was broken. They began to run away from camp for 



;nu b 



o :.!.. n. ,,p 



80 IQTH NEW- YORK INFANTRY 

home. Sixty-seven deserted in October. In November, after 
pay day had supplied the regiment with funds, fifty went in one 
night, " that fearful night " as ever after it was called. And 
though guards were vigilant and Major Stewart, Capt. Schenck 
and others scoured Maryland to head off those who had deserted, 
and did recover some of them, placing them under guard to be 
tried by Court Marshal, by December rst the regiment mus- 
tered only 542 men, with only 425 present fit for duty. Novem- 
ber 5th, Capt. Baker resigned the captaincy of Company A and 
left the regiment also. 

A proposition was made to consolidate with the 28th New 
York Volunteers. It came from Col. Donnelly. It was first 
heard of through Dr. Dimon. Major Stewart, who, since his 
promotion, had instituted battalion drills in the regiment and 
was rapidly fetching up its proficiency, and Lieut.-Col. Ledlie 
wrote to Gov. Morgan, Gen. Williams and others to stop it. 
Gen. Williams had never seen the 19th, and Stewart wanted him 
to come up and look at it. A few days after, when the regi- 
ment was out on battalion drill, Williams rode to a point near 
the camp where he could see it and not be seen. Ihe regi- 
ment went through several difficult movements, changed front to 
rear, deployed as skirmishers, &c. The General then'Vode down 
Stewart took him into his tent, and asked him about this idea of 
consolidation, and told him he was going to oppose it with 
all his influence and power. Williams made no particular reply 
but complimented the proficiency of the regiment highlv. 

The plan for consolidation with the 28th New York never 
went any further. But it awoke the officers of the 19th to a new 
sense of the obvious importance of hastening forward the work 
of recruiting. On the 5th of November, Capt. Giles, Lieut. 
Boyle and Sergt. Barnes were detailed to proceed to New York 
and make a special effort to obtain men, which they did. Capt. 
Giles labored faithfully and incessantly in this work, for several 
months, and' had the honor of being concerned in raising 700 
men. The fruits of his labors, however, were not specially man- 
ifest till some weeks after he went home. 

A new turn was given to affairs by the resignation and re- 
tiracy of Col. Clark. Since promulgation of the order relievin<' 
him from command. Col. Clark had been importuning Gen'' 
Banks and the War Department for a Court Martial. But 
Banks declared the charges frivolous and improper. They 
were dismissed without a hearing. Col. Clark being ill, the 
matter rested there for a while, until one day he received the 
following note : 



('•C 



.y.<j y ■;:(,> 



RESIGNATION OP COL. CLARK. 8l 

" Head-Quarters of the Division, 

Near Seneca Creek, Maryland, 

November 4, 1861. 

My Dear Sir : — The designation of Major Perkins as Chief of 
my Staff by Gen. McClellan, enables me to complete a purpose 
I have long entertained. 

The unfortunate condition of affairs in the 19th regiment, New 
York Volunteers, placed me in a position at the time, as General 
of the Division, that I should not have occupied had I been able 
to direct its affairs from the commencement. ' I appreciate fully 
your course and feel that it contributed to a settlement that will 
place the regiment ultimately upon a sound basis. 

As an evidence of my feeling, I have the pleasure to inform 
you that you are hereby relieved from any official disability in 
connection with your regiment and free to act on your commis- 
sion as you may desire. If it should not be your purpose to join 
your regiment again, I should be pleased to offer you such a po- 
sition upon my staff as may be acceptable to you and to your 
friends. Some further communication on this subject may be 
necessary if this should be your choice. Leave of absence, if 
you desire it, will be granted. 

With regrets for your accident and continued indisposition, I 
»m Very Truly Yours, 

N. P. Banks, 

■ * Major-General Commanding Division. 

. Col. John S. Clark, 

19th New York Volunteers." 

The restored commander of the igth replied next day. " As 
to assuming command of the regiment," said he, " I can say I 
have not the slightest desire to do so." He accepted the offer 
of a staff position, and a few days after, while at Auburn, N. Y., 
received his appointment and was announced as Aid-de-Camp to 
Banks with the rank of Colonel. He immediately tendered his 
resignation of the Colonelcy of the iQth Volunteers. It was ac- 
cepted November i8th. The Colonel served on Banks's staff 
through all the memorable campaigns of that General, and per- 
formed distinguished service in them all. In Pope's Virginia 
campaign, he won great laurels. At great personal hazard, he 
ventured out to a mountain between the Union and Confederate 
lines near the Rapahannock, and with his field glass discovered 
Stonewall Jackson's famous secret flank march to get in Gen. 
Pope's rear. He watched it long enough to determine its 
meaning, and then took the information to Gen. Pope. The 

F 



82 • IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY, 

timely warning thus given actually saved Pope's army from anni- 
hilation and he mentions Col. Clark honorably four times in his 
official report of thafcampaign. 

The command of the regiment devolved on Lieut.-Col. Ledlie, 
who was promoted to -Colonel, November i8th. Major Stewart 
became Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain Giles, Major ; though 
their full rank did not obtain till the battalion had been recruited 
up to the proportions of a regiment again. 

More ambitious plans now began to be rife in the regiment. A 
proposition made for conversion into artillery met with universal 
favor. Col. Ledlie, who was very popular in the army, and had 
great influence at Washington, undertook the delicate responsi- 
bility of seeing what could be done at the Capital about it. 

Repairing to Washington, he met Gen. McClellan and Gov. 
Morgan, one day at dinner, at Mr. Seward's. The conversation 
turned upon the needs of the army, and the heavy fortifications 
then being built for the defense of Washington/- A necessity for 
additional engineers to build and artillerists to man these forts 
had then recently been made manifest to Gen. McClellan by 
Gen. Barry, of the Engineers. Advantage of the fact was taken 
by Ledlie, who with infinite tact brought forward the claims to 
notice of his regiment. Gen. McClellan said : 

" Colonel, how would you like to have your regiment converted 
to engineers ?" 

He replied, "If you want to do anything for me, General, I 
can tell you something I would like belter than that?" 

" What is that ?" 

" Give me authority to raise an artiller}' regiment." 

Gov. Morgan heartily seconded the proposition, promising to 
do everything in his power to aid in raising the regiment, and 
Sec'y Seward presented a number of forcible suggestions on the 
subject The subject was dismissed with an invitation to Ledlie 
to call and see McClellan ne.xt day. 

At the appointed hour Secretary Seward accompanied him to 
the headquarters of the General. After a brief interview, it 
was arranged that an artiller)' regiment should be raised in New- 
York State. 1,900 strong, with the 19th Volunteers as a nucleus, 
and the Adjutant-General was given instructions to make out 
the necessary- papers. Col. Ledlie communicated the pleasing 
news to his officers, and on December 4th went North to raise 
his command. 

When Gen. Williams heard of the unexpected manner in 
which the jayhawking 19th had been taken into favor of the 
Government, he was incredulous. Stewart went down one day 



<y. 



r!l vr' ;l, y. . 



AT FREDERICK. 83 

to tell him about it and receive his congratulations. Williams 
said he did not believe the 19th would ever wear the red stripe. 
Stewart replied good naturedly. " You will never see anything 
larger than calibre 69, Colonel," said Williams. " Yes, I will." 
"No, you wont!" Stewart was a little afraid the General 
might have some scheme of his own in the matter and did 
not answer ; but the General had the pleasure of issuing an 
order on the subject himself afterwards, giving effect to the 
wishes of Government 

By Thanksgiving day, wet fall weather and continual wear 
had reduced the roads to Washington, Harper's Ferry and Fred- 
erick, from Darnestown, to such a state that it became absolute- 
ly necessary to move Banks's division to a point where it could 
be more easily maintained with supplies. It was accordingly 
ordered to the city of Frederick for winter quarters. The move- 
ment began by the ist of December^— regiments and brigades 
vanishing from the Potomac lines as fast as they could be sent 
oft The 19th New York remained to guard the supply train, 
under orders to march with it ; the rest of the 3d Brigade march- 
ing on the 4th. The 19th struck camp on the morning of 
Monday, December 9th. Capt. Schenck with his company was 
left in charge of the baggage. The condition of the roads 
certainly justified the fear that the Muddy Branch camp might j 

be mud bound. They were in a horrible state, cut into deep | 

ruts and half frozen, and it was only by superhuman exertions 
that officers kept the regiment from straggling. Marching six- J 

teen miles, the 19th camped at Hyattstown that night. Next | 

day it moved twelve miles to Frederick. Passing through the j 

city, it found the 3d brigade in a picturesque encampment three j 

miles out on the Hagerstown turnpike, near the base of the ' j 
Catoctin range of mountains, not far from the little village of j 

Fairview. The baggage was behind, so the regiment bivouacked j 

the first night on rocks and stones in a piece of woods. Roar- j 

ing camp fires were the go that night. A better camp ground 
was looked up next day, and occupied on the 12th. It lay on a 
hill, in a forest, with a fine stream of water close at hand. Thie 
other regiments of the brigade were camped all around. The 
1st Maryland lay not far distant on another hill The camp 
here was of a substantial character. Huts of logs were made 
three or four feet high, plastered with mud, upon the top of 
which the tents were placed. Floors were laid and fireplaces 
built. 

On the afternoon of the 12th, Capt. Schenck arrived from 
Muddy Branch, having displayed on the march the vigor and 



:d„ J, in ii- 



' :. ;, , "i ■•'■;Vi 



84 * igTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

ambition of his character by making thirty-two miles in nine 
hours, a feat then almost unparalleled in American history, con- 
sidering the horrible state of the roads. Banks's body guard 
had made the distance in one day. Schenck proposed to show 
what Company E, of the 19th, could do. Sending off the wag- 
ons the day before, he bivouacked at night, and then put the 
company to its trumps and pushed through at the pace stated. 
The boasters of the body guard were eclipsed, and telegrams 
went out from the newspaper correspondents about it all over 
the country. It made the sensation of the day. Gen. Williams 
growled, though, at using the men so hard. 

December 13th, the 3d brigade had a grand field dav. It 
was reviewed by Gen. Banks and a large assemblage of officers, 
in smooth, green fields, two miles north of Frederick. The 19th 
attracted special attention as it passed in review. It was con- 
scious of the fact, and, though a small regiment, felt it had a 
name to sustain, and made a splendid show. After passing the 
group of reviewing officers, on double quick, the regiments were 
drilled in maneuvres of the brigade. The 19th having never 
taken part in brigade drill, Gen. Williams sent for Lt.-Col. Stewart, 
who was in command, and proposed to him to go on guard duty. 
** Not by a d — d sight, General," was the energetic reply. " Any- 
thing any other of your regiments can do, the 19th can do. Try 
them and see." " Oh, well," said the General, " if you feel like 
that, all right" Brigade drill began. Stewart cautioned the regi- 
ment to be steady, and obey only him. The men performed 
splendidly, and the result was the 19th beat the whole field. In 
changing line of battle, from front to rear, and in other evo- 
lutions, the regiment always went straight and true to where it 
belonged, and did not once go wrong, while other regiments 
made ridiculous mistakes. In forming hollow square to resist 
cavalry, the regiment formed as large a square as any on the 
field, much to Williams's astonishment. He afterwards asked 
Stewart how it was done. One side of the square had been 
weakened, by causing the men to stand one file deep, instead of 
two, lengthening out the sides with the surplus thus gained. At 
the close of the review the 19th returned to camp thoroughly 
fagged out, but it had been drilling under the eyes of the com- 
manding General of the division,. and had won from him es- 
pecial praise for its proficiency and success. Lt.-Col. Stewart 
was the recipient of many compliments upon its conduct. 

Gen. Williams's doubts as to his proteges from Cavuga County 
going into Heavy Artillery vanished like mist before the rising 
sun, December i6th, when he received the following paper. 



J ■■:-J<-' i' n«.i' 



SPIRIT OF THE REGIMENT REVIVING. 85 

which he caused to be read at the dress parade of the 19th, that 
evening : 

" Head-Quarters of the Army, 

Adjutant General's Office, 
Washington, Dec. ii, 1861. 
Special Order, No. 326. 

IV. The 19th New York Volunteers, Col. Ledlie command- 
ing, will be changed to a regiment of Heavy Artillery, and any 
companies which may now be serving as Light Artillery will be 
detached and mustered as independent companies and their 
places in the regiment will be supplied by other companies. 

By order of Major-General McClellan." 

The " other company " referred to was that of Capt. Kennedy, 
who, when relieved by Giles from recruiting for the 19th, raised 
a company of artillery, and with it was mustered into the United 
States service, November 23d, as the 1st Independent New York 
Battery. 

The order had a most beneficial effect. It infused a pride and 
good feeling in the regiment to which it had long been a stranger. 
One hundred and eleven new recruits arrived during the month, 
including a new Company K, under Capt, Angell, and a regi- 
mental brass band, and from that time the regiment began 
steadily to improve in esprit du corps, vigor, zeal and efficiency. 
New Company K v;as raised in Cayuga county, with the as- 
sistance of VVm; Richardson, of Weedsport, who became ist 
Lieutenant, and T. J. Mersereau, of Union Springs, its 2d 
Lieutenant. No pecuniary inducements were offered to recruits, 
and as a new and more popular regiment was claiming attention 
at home, at that time, the company was obtained with some 
difficulty. Company K was mustered in at Union Springs, Oc- 
tober 23, 1861, by Capt. Kennedy. It left for the seat of war 
December 17th, one hundred and one strong, arriving in the city 
of Frederick, then buried in snow, on the 20th, and sleeping the 
first night in some old barracks built by the English in 17 75' 
during the Revolutionary war. It joined the regiment next 
morning. 

An extension of the rebel left wing took place along the upper 
Potomac, the early part of December, and, on the 13th, the 
redoubtable StonewaU Jackson appeared suddenly on the high 
banks of the river, opposite to the little village of Hancock, 
whore a Union brigade was posted. Planting a battery on the 
bluff, he sent a number of shells howling and crashing through 
the streets of the village, and provoked such a sharp retort from 



S6 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

some Federal Parrot g:uns, that he suffered loss, and had one 
cannon dismounted. Tidings of the attack reached the camps 
at Frederick on the 17th, and for two days, by Banks's orders, 
the 3d brigade was held in readiness to move at a moment's 
warning, in case it should appear that the rebels were contem- 
plating a serious invasion. 

December 23d, the 19th and 28th New York and 46th Penn- 
sylvania attended, without arms, the execution of Dennis Lana- 
ghan, of the 46th Pennsylvania, in rear of the camp of the 28th. 
The prisoner's crime was the murder of his Major in camp. 

Although the rebels remained quiet on the upper Potomac, 
they were gathering there in large force. It was deemed expe- 
dient to strengthen the Federal lines there, and Gen. Banks or- 
dered the 3d brigade to proceed to Hancock for this purpose. 
■Preparing two days' rations, the brigade marched at 5 a. m. on 
January 6th, the 28th New York in advance, with the 5th Connec- 
ticut, 46th Pennsylvania, and 19th New York following in the 
order named, which was their regular order in the brigade. 
Camp was left standing by the 19th, for owing to the ice and snow 
tents could not be struck. Company F istayed to pack up and bring 
on the baggage. The sick were left under care of Dr. McClellan, 
of the 5th Connecticut. The brigade, being temporarily under the 
command of Col. Donnelly, of the 28th New York, made a 
headlong march, through snow four inches deep, over mountain 
ranges and rough roads to Hagerstown, The 19th, nearly 
starved, without sufficient rations, was, by Donnelly's orders, 
kept out in the open country that night, to bivouac and freeze in 
the snow, sleeping by fences, in straw stacks, and some few in 
barns, while the other regiments were housed and fed in the vil- 
lage. The next day Gen. Williams overtook the command while 
plodding through the snow on another forced march of twenty- 
six miles, and at once halted it at Clear Spring, a good Union 
village, on the bank of the Potomac, after giving Donnelly a 
thorough talking to for his disgraceful treatment of the 19th. On 
this day's march the men were so hungry, from failure of the com- 
missary to supply them with rations, that Lieut.-Col. Stewart 
stopped a commissary wagon on the road and issued a barrel 
of crackers to each company, for which they were very grateful. 
How nice Flmira hash would have been then ! At Clear 
Spring, churches, school houses and inns were occupied for the 
night. Next day the march was pushed at a rapid pace, in sight 
of the Potomac all day, a small force of the enemy following on 
the other side. Lest the confederates should open fire on 
the brigade with shell, it marched in open order. The 19th, 



-V. H 



3D BRIGADE AT HANCOCK, 8/ 

being indifferently supplied with shoes, straggled somewhat on 
the home stretch to Hancock, but a strong rearguard prevented 
straying away. On a former march of the regiment — from 
Pleasant Valley to Hyattstown — the Surgeon obtained some one 
horse, two-wheeled ambulances, as traps for feigners of sickness 
and those shamming to be disabled. They were so hung that 
while going down hill the occupants would stand on their heads ; 
going up, on their feet. The most inveterate shammer gener- 
ally had his fill of false pretenses after one day's ride in one of 
those "cussed machines," and never gave out on the march so 
quick after that if he could help it Either its memory, or 
the now superior discipline of the regiment made them on this 
march entirely unnecessary. 

The brigade entered Hancock, a little, ancient, one-horse 
village on the bank of the Potomac, at a point where Mary- 
land is only three miles wide, reaching it at 3 p. M. Public 
buildings were assigned to the 19th, and that night the regi- 
ment nursed its frozen feet and hands in comfortable quarters. 

While encamped at Hancock, Gen. Williams made great de- 
monstrations of an intention to cross into Virginia and cut otf 
the retreat of Jackson, who was parading around the Alleghanies 
with 20,000 men. Working parties sent out by each regiment 
cut down the embankments of the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal 
and let down boats into the river as if to be used in crossing. 
The news caused Jackson's retreat, which was all Gen. Williams 
desired, and was effected without exposing his brigade to the 
terrible hardships of a winter's campaign in the Alleghanies. 
The fact that he afterwards sent over to Bath and captured 600 
of Jackson's men, with their hands and feet frozen, paroling 
them, shows that a winter's campaign in those mountains is 
equal to a defeat. It puts more men into hospital than a 
battle. 

The 19th did heavy guard and picket duty at Hancock. 
sending out details of from thirty-five to sixty men daily to the 
Potomac, besides escorting parties repairing telegraph lines, and 
doing provost and engineer duties. The pickets were armed 
with 100 rounds of ammunition apiece, but were greatly disap- 
pointed at not being allowed to fire on the rebel pickets who 
were in plain sight on the other side. 

The mortality in the 19th at this place was very great. The 
village was one execrable mud hole and what with fatigue and 
picket duties, colds and fevers began to abound- The uncon- 
querable disposition of the soldiers to shut themselves up close 
in their quarters, without ventilation, made the evil a hundred 



S8 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

fold worse. Dr. Dimon more than once broke out panes in the 
windows to purify the quarters, but they were repaired as soon 
as he was gone. Typhus fever, the pest of armies, raged and 
many deaths occurred. Responsible for the lives of his men^ 
Lieut.-Col. Stewart resolved to encamp in the field. Sibley tents, 
shaped like wigwams, holding fifteen men each, were obtained. 
One day's rations were issued, and on January 25th, the regi- 
ment, ignorant of the object of the movement, was marched out 
of town to a favorable hill side and halted. " By right of conv 
panies, to the rear into column ; march." " Stack arms." " Pre- 
pare to form camp." These orders informed the men of their 
commander's resolve. They camped right there in the snow, 
and in the bleak fields spent the rest of their stay in Hancock. 
The Sibley tents, warmed with the " stove pipe " Sibley stoves, 
were well ventilated and a subsidence of fevers in the regiment 
was soon reported, though it was a sacrifice of comfort to ex- 
change thick walls for canvass tents for quarters. Many a se- 
vere cold night, the men sat up all night around the fires smok- 
ing and telling stories unable to sleep from the cold. 

In every regiment there exists a class of men whose ideas of 
the difference between meiim and tuum are very vague, especially 
if tuum applies to anything in the line of edibles, and said 
edibles belong either to the enemy or the camp sutler. The 19th 
had its fair share. The regulations in force in Banks's division 
checked jayhawking from farms and houses, but the sutler was 
always lawful prey. The volunteers liked to badger this frater- 
nity and hawk away dainties from its stands. Desperately 
hungry ones were seldom foiled in this ; but at Hancock the 
worst of them met their match. A sutler came to camp in a 
wagon boarded up and roofed, with only one opening, like a cir- 
cus ticket otfice. A stove inside kept the proprietor warm and 
he slept in there. The jayhawkers exhausted their ingenuity to 
find a weak spot in this concern. They tried to smoke the ped- 
dler out of his defenses by putting a board on the stove pipe. 
They tried to blow him up by dropping cartridges down the 
pipe. All was in vain, and they had to pay fair for all they 
obtained of that party. 

On the 15th of January, one of the most celebrated cases in 
the records of Court Martials of the Northern army during the 
war was passed upon at tiie city of Frederick. There had been 
confined at the guard house in Frederick, since November, a 
number of deserters from the 19th, who ran away from camp 
claiming that their time was up. In order to test and finally 
and definitely settle the rights of the Government, under the 



STALKER^S CASE. 89 

peculiar circumstances of the case, private Ralton B. Stalker, 
of Company A, one of the most intelligent of the deserters, was 
selected and sentenced, and the 'findings of the Court Martial 
forwarded to Gen. McClellan for his consideration. It was not 
at first approved. The General issued an order on the subject, 
as follows : — 

" Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, ) 
Washington, January 15, 1862. ) 
General Orders, No. 8. 

I. Before a General Court Martial of which Major William 
Atterbury, 9th New York State Militia, is President, convened 
at the camp of Banks's Division, by virtue of Special Orders, 
No. 134, from these Headquarters, of November 7, 1861, was 
arraigned and tried Ralton B. Stalker, of Company A, 19th 
New York Volunteers, on the following charge and specification : 

Charge : — Desertion. 

Specification: — "That Private Ralton B. Stalker of Company 
A, 19th Regiment New York Volunteers, having been duly en- 
listed into the service of the United States, did desert the same, 
on or about the 23d day of November, 1861. This at camp near 
Rockville, Maryland." 

The record shows no plea to this charge and specification. 
It is to be taken as if the plea of " Not Guilty " were interposed. 

After mature deliberation on the testimony adduced, the Court 
find the prisoner "Guilty" of the Specification and "Guilty " of 
the Charge, and thereupon did sentence him, the said Private 
Ralton B. Stalker, of Company A, 19th Regiment New York 
Volunteers, " To be dishonorably discharged the service of the 
United States, and then committed to the United States Peni- 
tentiary in the District of Columbia, at hard labor, for the term 
of two years and six months." 

n. The Major-General commanding, after a careful exami- 
nation of the testimony shown by the record, is unable to con- 
firm the proceedings in this cause. 

It appears, that in the month of April, 1861, the accused was 
enlisted for two years into the service of the State of New York. 
On the 2 2d of May, he was mustered into the service of the 
United States for three months. This term expired on the 22d 
of August, 1861. No subsequent enlistment or mustering into 
the service of the United States was shown at the trial. It v/as 
in evidence, however, that he drew pay and rations after the ex- 
piration of the three months for which he was mustered into the 
service of the United States. Whether the receiving of pay, by 
the strictest construction of the 20th Article of War, can be in- 



90 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

voiced to extend a term of service beyond the original contract 
against the consent of the soldier is at least very questionable. 
There can be no doubt, that to exact any penalty by the aid of 
such a construction would be harsh in the extreme. As nothing 
was said in the Specification respecting such a ratification of the 
extension of the enlistment, but the case was put upon the due 
enlistment of the accused, the evidence was clearly improper. 

It is the opinion of the Major-General commanding, however, 
that no nicety of statement in the Charge and Specification 
could have warranted a primitive sentence on such testimony as 
this record discloses. The prisoner was entitled to his discharge 
on the 22d of August, 1861. He cannot be punished for de- 
serting in November, a service to which he did not belong. 

The proceedings are disapproved. Private Ralton B. Stalker 
will be released from confinement and regularly discharged the 
service of the United States. 

By Command of 
Major-General McClellan. 

S. Williams, Assistant Adjutant General." 

A copy of the order was forwarded to private Stalker. Also, 
to the Generals of the army, to be read in their camps. But it 
was instantly seen that Gen. McClellan was mistaken and the 
majority of brigade commanders had the shrewdness to hold it 
back and suppress it. Promulgation of the order would have 
caused a large number of New York regiments, situated simi- 
larly with the 19th New York, to ask their immediate discharge 
from the United States service. Before many days had elapsed, 
the order was countermanded. But when Major-Gen. McClel- 
lan, with his splendid military education and powers of accurate 
reasoning, so misjudged as to the power of Government to hold 
the 19th regiment, after August 2 2d, what wonder is it that the 
men of that regiment, from whom the truth of the case and the 
law were kept back by cowardly politicians, themselves judged 
wrongfully of the same matter. 

The missing link in the testimony in Stalker's case being sup- 
plied. Gen. McClellan countermanded his order, and hushed it 
up. Aiming at a total eradication of it, he issued a second 
order in the case, bearing date January 15th, entitled "General 
Orders, No. 8," intended as an entire substitute for it. It re- 
cited in the same language the facts of the trial set forth above, 
and then said : 

"II. The evidence in this case is of the most interesting na- 
ture, and the question presented by the record yields in impor- 



STALKER S CASE, 9I 

tance to none that has engaged the attention of the Major- 
General commanding. 

It appears that the regiment, to which the prisoner belongs, 
was enhsted into the service of the State of New York, for the 
term of two vears from some time in April, 1861, under a law of 
that State, of which the 3d Section is in the following words :— 
" Sec. 3. The officers and men of said force shall receive the 
same pay ♦ ♦ * * and shall be liable at all times to be 
turned over to the service of the United States, on the order of 
the Governor, as part of the militia of this State, upon the re- 
quisition of the President of the United States. * * * * " 
This Act was passed April 16, 1861. On the 22d of May, 1861, 
this regiment was mustered into the service of the United States 
for the term of three months, that being the extreme term for 
which at that time the President of the United States was au- 
thorized to make a requisition for the service of the militia. 
This term of three months expired, of course, on the 2 2d of 
August, 1861. But, on the 2d day of August, 1861, an order 
was issued from the office of the Adjutant-General of the State 
of New York, in the following terms: (Special Orders, No. 323, 
previously given.) This order was duly executed. 

An impression existed in some minds that the term of three 
months, expiring on the 22d of August, 1861, was the only one 
for which this regiment was held in the service of the United 
States; and under this mistaken notion, several, of whom the 
prisoner is one, had treated their engagement as not existing. 
It is unnecessary to say, after what precedes, that it was part of 
the original contract of enlistment of New York State Militia, 
embodied under the Act of the i6th of April, 1861, that they 
should be transferred into the service of the United States, upon 
the requisition of the President. The terms, in which the 3d 
Section of the Act of April 16, 1861, were couched, show that 
it was expected that this requisition would be repeated, as soon 
as Congress should have enlarged the power of the National 
Executive. The 19th Regiment New York State Militia is there- 
fore subject to the same rules and discipline which govern other 
corps in the military service of the United States ; and this con- 
dition of things will exist until some days after April 16, 1863. 

The prisoner is clearly guilty of desertion, and might have 
been sentenced to death under the Articles of War. The Court 
Martial has annexed to his conviction a milder sentence. The 
Major-General commanding perceives, in this lenity, evidence 
ili.it the Court Martial gave full weight to the misapprehension 
as to the law under which the prisoner acted. On this head, 



92 I9TH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

however, there was much misconception. The record of this 
case, when first sent to these headquarters, was defective. It 
did not contain the order from the Governor of the State of New 
York, directing the transfer of this regiment to the service of 
the United States for the balance of the term of enlistment. It 
was even stated, not by any member of the Court Martial, that 
no such order had been made, and under the belief that no such 
order existed, this case was, in the first instance, erroneously 
decided at these headquarters. A full and perfect record has 
since been sent up, and it furnishes the evidence on which this 
order proceeds. 

Nothing could be more calculated to demoralize a military 
body than such conduct as the accused stands convicted of. 
When a soldier wishes to lay before the Major-General com- 
manding any grievance under which he imagines that he labors, 
let him through the proper channel make his complaint. To all 
well founded complaints, an attentive ear will be given, and no 
known abuse will be allowed to remain unredressed. The 
same considerations which make the Major-General command- 
ing anxious to aid any subordinate, who, in a proper manner, 
seeks a redress of wrong, render him determined to vindicate 
by all due means the sacredness of military discipline. . In both 
cases he aims at promoting the good of the service. He has 
gone at great length in the explanation of this case, because it 
was necessary to correct misapprehensions widely spread and 
likely to do great mischief No one, in a similar position with 
the prisoner, will, after the publication of this order, be able to 
plead ignorance to excuse his insubordination. The proceed- 
ings of the Court Martial in this case are confirmed. The 
prisoner will be dishonorably discharged from the service of the 
United States, will be conducted to Washington city under 
charge of a guard, and will there be delivered, with a copy of 
this order, to the Warden of the Penitentiary of the District of 
Columbia. By Command of 

Major-General McClellan. 

S. Williams, Assistant-Adjutant-General." 

Stalker went to Washington, as directed, and was in captivity 
there several months. He had the warmest sympathy of all who 
knew the facts. Through the intercession of Secretary Seward, 
a full and free pardon was then granted him, and he rejoined 
his comrades at Newbern, and served out the rest of his time 
faithfully. 

The sentence of fourteen other deserters was read to the regi- 
ment at Hancock, January 26th. Confinement in the guard 



CHANGING THE NAME OF THE REGIMENT. 93 

house, with six hours hard drill daily, wearing the placard 
•* Deserter," was the punishment in most cases. These men 
were pardoned in March, upon the same powerful intercession 
as that which secured Stalker's release. 

Gen. Williams on February ist received from the War Depart- 
ment the order of the State of New York, recognizing the 19th 
New York Volunteers as a regiment of artillery, viz : — 

" General Headquarters, State of New York, 
Adjutant General's Office, 

Albany, December 30, 1861. ) 

Special Orders, No. 584. — In conformity with Special Orders, 
No. 326, from the War Department, dated December nth, 
i86i, the 19th Regiment New York State Volunteers is hereby 
organized into an Artillery regiment, to be known and desig- 
nated as the 3d Regiment of New York Volunteer Artillery. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief. 

Thomas Hillhouse, Adjutant General." 

Proclamation was made in the brigade. On the 17th, a fur- 
ther order was issued, directing the regiment, pursuant to 
telegram from the War Department, to repair to Washington 
immediately. 

"In taking leave of the regiment," the order ran, " after 
nearly five months' service with it in the 3d brigade, the Briga- 
dier-General commanding desires to express to the officers and 
men his satisfaction with their good order and discipline and their 
marked improvement in drill ; and hopes that in the new arm of 
the service, to which they have been assigned, they may continue 
to merit the approval of their commanding officers." 

A grand dress parade of the brigade was held that evening, 
in honor of the old 19th, after which the officers went down to 
Gen. Williams's headquarters, and paid him their farewell com- 
pliments. The General said that he was sorry to have the 19th 
go. It appeared to be the universal sentiment. Gen. Banks 
afterwards said he would rather have spared almost any other 
regiment, and if he had had it with him in Pope's campaign, 
that summer, he would not have lost the battle of Cedar Moun- 
tain. 

February 18th. with hearts elated with hope, the regiment 
struck camp and left Hancock, escorted out of town by the 46rh 
Pennsylvania, while the 28th New York and 5th Connecticut 
formed in the streets on either side, and bade their comrades 
''od speed with tremendous hurrahing, as they passed. Fred- 
erick was reached at noon of the 21st, after three days' march- 
ing on horrible roads. 



94 • IQTH NEW-YORK INFANTRY. 

Here, a train of cars awaited the worn out men, procured by 
Col. Clark, who had interested himself in saving them the rest 
of the march on foot to Washington. He came out on horse- 
back to meet them and manifested a good will for which they 
were deeply grateful. Baggage wagons and teams were turned 
oyer to the Quartermaster and at 3 1-2 p.m. the regiment in 
high spirits was flying with the speed of steam towards Washing- 
ton via Baltimore. The Capital was reached at 3 a. m. of the 
2 2d, a national holiday, whose joyous character well comported 
with the feelings of the regiment at this time. Guns and bells, 
with cheerful clangor, ushered in the day, as the men marched 
to the Soldier's Retreat, an old railroad warehouse, for rest and 
refreshment, and forever, faded from present view as the 19th 
New York Volunteers. 

With this chapter closes the history of the 19th New York 
Volunteers as a distinct organization. In many respects, it is 
the most memorable of the histories of regiments in the Northern 
array during the war. It contains instruction for politicians, 
statesmen and generals. The regiment had not yet enjoyed the 
experience of a battle, but that was not its fault. It may be con- 
sidered, though, one of its misfortunes. Had it been in action, 
early in its career, had it had one good fight, its members would 
have been drawn together into that closer union and sympathy 
men feel in presence of danger. Its wounds would have been 
healed, its wrongs forgotten. It was, however, a brave, loyal, 
well disciplined regiment, and when it was formed into artillery 
those qualities told in creating the splendid reputation it soon 
acquired. When brought into battle in North Carolina it be- 
haved with heroic intrepidity, and once received the cheers of 
the whole army on the battle field, besides winning for its Colo- 
nel his brigadier's star. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE 3D N. Y. VOI« ARTILLERY. 95 



V. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE 30 N. Y. VOL. ARTILLERY. 

The New Companies of the 3d New York Artillery — The Old and New Join- 
Proceed to Fort Corcoran — The Forts, Camp and Locality — Organization of 
the Regiment — Kennedy's Battery— Accident — Arresting the Administration 
— Sick of Porter's Division on Dr. Dimon's |, Hands — The Regiment to go to 
North Carolina — Marches to Annapolis — Embarks — Arrival at Newbern 

During the. fall of i86i, under the supervision of Capts. Ken- 
nedy and Angell, and afterwards of Capt. Giles, there had been 
scattered attempts at recruiting the 19th regiment in Cayuga 
County. But as the 7Sth New York Volunteers were then being 
raised under flattering auspices in the County, very little was 
done for the veteran organization in the Army of the Potomac. 

When orders came for the formation of the new artillery com- 
mand. Col. Ledlie, as we have seen, went home to give his per- 
sonal energy to the work. Gov. ^Morgan's promise of aid stood 
him in to good etTect. By the Ides of February he had collected 
at Palace Garden Barracks, 14th street, in New York city, 550 
new men. 

Of this number a full battery of 142 men was raised through 
the patriotic and vigorous etibrts of Capt. Edwin S. Jenney, a 
young lawyer in Syracuse, whose private purse furnished hun- 
dreds of dollars for the work. The Captain rented the upper 
stories of a large building on Salina street He made Syracuse 
blaze with his banners and placards, and quickly gathered a 
band of the very best intelligence and blood. It was his inten- 



96 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ATILLERV. 

tion to go into the army of the West, into which he had been 
led by friends to suppose he could be sent. He found, however, 
that he was required for the army of the Potomac, where, at 
that time, a rule existed that light artiller>' should be united into 
battalions, consisting of one regular and three volunteer bat- 
teries, commanded by the Captain of the regular battery. This 
entailed a sacrifice of independence and chances of promotion. 
He consented, therefore, to an order of the State authorties to 
attach him to the 3d New York Artillery, as Battery F. As 
such he was mustered in December i8th, i86i, by Lieut. J. R. 
Brinckle, 5th United States Artillery, at Syracuse. Shortly 
after, he repaired to New York and laid at Palace Garden Bar- 
racks some weeks previous to going to the front. The Lieuten- 
ants of the company were Alex. H. Davis, Gustavus F. Merriam, 
Paul Birchmeyer and James D. Outwater. 

During the summer of 186 1, H. R. White, Esq., of Utica, 
Brigadier-General of Militia, received authority from the State to 
raise a regiment of infantr)^ of which he was to be Colonel, and 
W. J. Riggs, of Rome, then Lieutenant-Colonel of the '46th 
Militia, was to be Lieutenant-Colonel. The enterprise failed, 
owing to the fact that several other regiments were then being 
enrolled in the same vicinity. Three skeleton companies only 
were raised. These were mustered in November i6th, at the 
Rome arsenal, remaining in barracks there until January- 9th, 
1862, when, by Gov. Morgan's order, they were consolidated 
under Capt. Riggs, to be attached to the 3d Artillery as Battery 
H. The Battery was mustered in January 9th, by Capt. W. R. 
Pease, 7th United States Infantry, officered as follows : Capt. 
Wm. J. Riggs ; Lieutenants, John D. Clark, Wm. E. Mercer, 
Charles D. Tryon, Wm. F. Field. 

Capt. James V. White, of Cayuta, Schuyler county, in the fall 
of t86i, raised a company of infantry at the village of Cortland 
and organized it as Company I, 76th New York Volunteers, 
Col. Nelson W. Green. At Albany, the 76th regiment was con- 
solidated with the Cherry Valley regiment. Company I, of the 
76th, and two Cherry Valley companies, were left out. Bv mu- 
tual consent, these companies consolidated January 16th, under 
Capt. White, and were, on that day, mustered in as Batterv M, 
3d New York Artillery, by Capt. John W. Young, 76th New 
York Volunteers. The Lieutenants of the Battery were Nicho- 
las Hausen, Nelson S. Bowdish, Hiram Lehman and Martin 
Shaffer. A few days after, Capt. White went to New York and 
lay at the Palace Garden rendezvous till the battalion went to 
the front He had 200 men on his rolls, but a large number 



ARRIVAL OF THE NEW COMPANIES. 97 

tk-ere young men and their parents took them out by habeas 
<i>rpus. A full Battery of 158 men was left him, however. 

At New York a battery was organized by Capt. Joseph J. 
Morrison, of that metropolis, formerly Adjutant-General of Col. 
E. D. Baker, slain at Ball's Bluff. Morrison had taken steps to 
organize his battery as an independent one for the Army of the 
Potomac, but at Col. Ledlie's solicitation consented to join the 
3d Artillery. His men were raised partly in the metropolis, 
partly in central New York, and were a fine lot. They were 
mustered in February 19th, 1862, by Capt. F. S. Larne'd, 12th 
United States Infantry, as Battery B, 3d Artillery. The Lieu- 
tenants were S. Clark Day, Edward A. Wildt, Geo. C. Breck, 
J. W. Hees. 

While at Palace Garden barracks, which they styled Camp 
Ledlie, the batteries were clad in army blue and fully equipped 
for heavy artillery service. As in all heavy artillery regiments, 
whose office it is to garrison forts and serve heavy guns, they 
were supplied with rifles and drilled in heavy infantry tactics. 

Collecting these man, Giles, who had been made Major the 
23d of January, brought them to Washington, arriving the 21st 
of February, joining at the Soldiers' Rest, the 19th Vol- 
unteers, on the 2 2d. This was the day Gen. McClellan, by the 
President's orders, was to have begun an advance of his splen- 
did army, then encamped opposite Washington, to capture Ma- 
nassas, which advance, by the way, he didn't make. 

They reported to Gen. Wm. F. Barry, in command of the de- 
fenses of Washington, and received orders to proceed at once to 
Fort Corcoran, on Arlington Heights, across the Potomac. The 
line of March through Washington was taken up at 4 p. m. on 
the 2 2d, Georgetown was reached in the edge of the evening. 
Here the regiment crossed the river on the massive stone aque- 
duct built for the Ohio and Chesapeake canal, from which the 
water had been cut off in i86i,to make a military bridge ; and a 
magnificent one it made, too. From here to the heights, the 
roads were soft and terribly cut up. The veterans of the regiment 
waded through six inches of mud, while the rain fell in drench- 
ing showers, with fair equanimity, and aided to pluck foundering 
wagons and teams from the mud holes, with a matter-of-course 
air, that the new men could not aspire to put on. So deep was 
the mire, that many of the wagons had to be left locked in 
sloughs on the way. It was pitch dark when a halt was ordered. 
The fort was no where visible in the gloom, neither were quar- 
ters of any sort, except a large house forming the headquarters 
of the post and two or three barns. The order va« givea to 

G 



gS 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ATILLERY. 

bivouac. To pitch tents was out of the question. It was no 
easy task to find a dry place to sleep on that night so memorable 
for extra Plutonian hue, the chilling rain, and treacherous condi- 
tion of the sacred soil of Virginia. Yet by close packing, the 
barns, and cellar, stoops and hallways of the house, were made 
to furnish until daylight a partial shelter, and then, the wagons 
coming up, camp was regularly pitched. 

Arlington Heights, on the western bank of the Potomac, 
across from Washington, are a range of thickly wooded hills, 
from 200 to 300 feet in altitude. They stand a little back 
from the river, running almost in a direct line from opposite 
Georgetown to the rear of the city of Alexandria on the 
Potomac, nine miles below. Near Alexandria they take the 
name of Mount Ida— Arlington Heights proper being the 
northern portion of the range. The post of Fort Corcoran was 
located on the extreme northern end of the range for the pur- 
pose of guarding the roads and approaches to the canal aque- 
duct bridge. It formed in military parlance the Mg du pont of 
that bridge. In February, 1862, the ppst comprehended five 
forts, viz. : Corcoran, Woodbury, DeKalb, Bennett and Hag- 
gerty ; and in addition two strong log block houses and some 
rifle trenches placed at the immediate entrance to the bridge, for 
security against any cavalry expeditions that might chance to 
slip by the forts. 

Fort Corcoran, half a mile from the bridge, stood amid open 
fields on a fine plantation, on the south side of the road ap- 
proaching the bridge. It was built in May, 1861, by Col. Cor- 
coran's New York regiment. A large, square, massive, bastioned 
earth work, with a periphery of 576 yards, the side towards the 
river having no parapet, but being heavily stockaded, it was sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch ; and outside of the ditch, rows of thick 
abbatis or felled trees laid side by side, with the ends of 
the branches sharpened, the butts towards the fort and fastened 
down. It mounted fifteen 32-pound guns, and was provided 
with traverses, and magazines, containing 100 rounds of ammu- 
nition to each gun. 

Forts Woodbury and DeKalb lay three-quarters of a mile 
westward of Corcoran, on a higher crest of the Heights. They 
were, what are technically called, lunettes v/ith stockaded gorges ; 
in other words, semi-circular earthworks or redoubts, facing 
westward like all the Arlington forts, and protected by log 
stockades at the rear. They stood in the midst of an original 
forest ; but large slashings had been made in the woods around 
them, so that now the ground was clear and the fire of their 



ttr o 



In camp at fort Corcoran. 99 

six guns each could be turned immediately upon enemies attack- 
ing them in front or flank. They were 275 and 318 yards in 
perimeter respectively, and were built after the battle of Bull 
Run, in conjunction with other forts thrown up to make a defen- 
sive line upon Arlington Heights. DeKalb was then the north- 
ernmost fort of the Arlington line. 

Fort Bennett was a redoubt on a bold hill, half a mile north 
of Corcoran, mounting two eight inch howitzers and three 
twenty-four pounders. It was built by the 28th New York Mi- 
litia, Col. Michael Bennett, in June, 186 1. Fort Haggerty, 
another four twenty-four pound gun redoubt, down nea* the 
river, south of the bridge, was an auxiliary to the rifle trenches 
and block houses at the head of the bridge. 

Various roads, running out towards Manassas, and up and 
down the river, interiacing, centered at the aqueduct bridge and 
were all commanded and guarded by the thirty-five cannons of 
these five forts. 

Camp was pitched on the plateau, across the road from Fort 
Corcoran and north of it, about two hundred yards distant. 
The ground was above the ordinary malarial level of the Poto- 
mac, well drained and healthful. The men encamped in Sibley 
tents, floored with plank and supplied with stoves, sixteen men ' 
m a tent. Wide company streets were laid out through the 
canjp, and ditches were dug on each side of them, conducting 
surface water rapidly away into a neighboring ravine. The spot 
was evidently a lovely one in the summer months, and even then 
not unattractive in many respects, although the rival of Han- 
cock for mud. Hills, forests and plantations surrounded it on 
every side, of great rural beauty. At the base of the heights was 
the broad blue river. Directly opposite to Fort Corcoran, sat 
tieorgetown, her warehouses crowding down to the water's edge. 
iwo miles to the east and south, Washington lay in plain sight, 
decked with domes, pinnacles, colossal public buildings and 
monuments. In the pride of summer's verdure, and soft summer 
naze, the scene must have been of rare beauty, thou<'h dreary 
enough m that bleak March. Near by Fort Corcoran, toward 
tne river, was the famous Ariington house, a fine large mansion, 
^cupied in former times by Lord Ross. Before the war it was • 
the residence of the rebel General Lee, and was in splendid con- 
uitron and surrounded by elegant grounds. But everything 
«aaes where armies camp, and the old mansion was looking 
somewhat soiled. It constituted the headquarters of the post 
ana as such was occupied by Lieut.-Col. Stewart. 

i. he 3d New York (Seward) Artillery was organized^on paper. 



.-(• '.n ■ ■■■] :Ji •: < 



100 $D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

as such, February ist, 1862, and took its title from that day. It 
. first united, and began to act, as an artillery regiment, February 
22d. That date has, therefore, been selected as the epoch of its 
actual organization and proper commencement of its history. 

Company B of the old 19th was consolidated February 2 2d, 
with other companies, Capt. Kennedy being then on the Pen- 
insula in command of an independent battery, and Lieuts. 
Poison and Day having resigned. The condition of the regi- 
ment, as taken from the monthly report, with the names and 
date of rank of .officers, were as follows : — 

Colonel — James H. Ledlie, Nov. 18, 1861. 

Lieutentant Colonel — Charles H. Stewart, Dec. 23, 1861. 

Majors — Henr)' M. Stone, Dec. 23, i86i. 
Solomon Giles, Jan. 23, 1862. 
T. S. Kennedy, Jan. 23, 1862. 

Adjutant — ^J. Fred. Dennis, Dec. 23, 1861. 

Quartermaster — John H. Chedell, May 29, 1861. 

Surgeon — Theo. Dimon, May 20, i86r. 

Assistant Surgeon— \Vm. H. Knight, Oct. 17, i86i. 

Chaplain — Wm. Hart, Nov. 14, 1861. 

Commissary Sergeant — George E. Ashby. 

Sergeant Major — Frank G. Smith. 

Company A, Capt Charles White, 85 men ; Company B, Capt. 
J. J. Morrison, lor men ; Company C, Capt. James E. Ashcroft, 
63 men. Company D, Capt. Owen Gavigan, 95 men ; Company 
E, Capt. Theo. H. Schenck. 64 men ; Company F, Capt. Edwin 
S. Jenny, 142 men ; Company G, Capt. John Wall, 89 men ; 
Company H, Capt. Wm. J. Riggs, 102 men; Company I, Capt. 
John H. Ammon, 96 men ; Company K, Capt. James R. Angel, 

gf^ men ; Company L, ; Company M, Capt. James V. 

White, 145 men. Total, 1,091. 

The new men of the regiment all enlisted for three years. 

On the 23d of November, 1861, Capt. J. C. Peterson, 15th 
United States Infantry, mustered in at Auburn a company of 
men enrolled by Capt. C. J. Kennedy, of the old 19th. as the 
1st New York Independent Battery. December nth. Gen. Mc- 
Clellan issued his Special Order, No. 326. convertin"- the 19th 
Volunteers into artillery, which contained this clause : " Any 
companies of the regiment, which may now be servino- as light 
artillery, will be detached and mustered as independent^batterTes, 
and their places in the regiment will be supplied by other com- 
panies." This, in etTect, detached Kennedy's battery, and left 
it an independent command. Col. Ledlie procured a revocation 
of the order. Special Orders, 190, afterward issued, provided as 



KENNEDY S BATTERY. lOI 

follows : — " Pursuant to instructions from the General-in-Chief, 
from the Headquarters of the Army, so much of the order as 
directs that companies of the 19th regiment New York State 
Volunteers, serving as light artillery, be detached and mustered 
as independent companies, is suspended for the present" Ken- 
nedy's battery, restored to the 3d Artillery by this order, which, 
as far as we can learn, was never revoked, was designated on the 
regimental rolls as Co. L, and ordered to make its regular re- 
ports to the headquarters of the 3d. It made two or three, but 
no more. When. Capt. Kennedy left it, in the spring of 1862, 
CapL Cowan, relying on the muster in as the ist New York In- 
dependent Battery, refused to report to the 3d Artillery, and 
never acted in obedience to its orders. It was carried on the 
regimental rolls until near the end of the war, and then, at Col. 
Stewart's request, by letter of the War Department, it was quietly 
dropped. It was, in the intention of Government, a bat- 
tery of the 3d New York Artillery, but its history being apart 
and distinct from the regiment, and it having been mustered as 
independent, it will not be considered a part of the 3d Ar- 
tillery in these pages. 

On arriving at Fort Corcoran, the 3d Artillery found the 13th 
New York Volunteers in charge, under command of Col. Pickell, 
of Maj.-Gen. Fitz John Porter's division of the Army of the 
Potomac The division lay in camp four miles west ; head- 
quarters on an eminence of considerable strategic importance, 
called Hall's Hill. Post Corcoran formed part of its jurisdiction. 
The 3d Artillery relieved the 13th New York Volunteers from 
duty here. Its commanding officer. Col. Pickell, who had been 
ordered to turn over all papers and or-ders concerning the post 
to Lieut.-Col. Stewart, managed after considerable search to rake 
up an old ordnance manual, and Stewart having given him a 
receipt for that valuable document, he marched off with his 
regiment and rejoined the division. 

The 3d at once applied itself to study and practice in the 
management of artillery. The officers obtained a supply of 
manuals, divided their companies into gun squads, and all threw 
themselves into work with a heartiness and zeal that soon pro- 
duced the most beneficial results. In pursuance of Gen. Porter's 
orders, Company E encamped and drilled at Fort Bennett, Com- 
pany G at Fort Woodbury, Company C drilled at Fort Haggerty, 
and the residue of the regiment at Fort Corcoran. The men 
learnt everything pertaining to the service of guns. They drill- 
ed in loading and firing; learnt to measure distances with the 
eye ; mformed themselves as to matters pertaining to range and 



•i no- 



102 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

elevarion ; learnt to wheel the guns in any direction ; took care 
of carriages, ammunition and bomb proofs, and many of them 
studied the science of constructing earthwork. 

The weather was very bad during a part of this time and open 
air exercises were in the early part of March rather restricted. 
But the officers did not neglect to turn every day not positively 
stormy to good account. On pleasant days, battalion drill took 
place under Lieut-Col. Stewart. The regiment made a splendid 
show on these occasions. Having received, during March, 222 
additional recruits, it turned out on parade 1,350 strong, and 
the spectacle of so magnificent a regiment going through the 
showy maneuvres of the battalion in the open fields arrested a 
great deal of attention. Officers and newspaper correspondents 
often Stopped to watch it for half an hour at a time. Gen. 
Porter and his stafif happened to be riding by one day when the 
regiment was out and reined up their horses in front of the 
camp to enjoy the sight. Forming front, the regiment saluted 
and presented arms. The friends of the old 19th would hardly 
have recognized in the backbone of this handsome, well-clad, 
dashing corps, the celebrated tatterdemalion jayhawkers, whom, 
in 1 86 1, Patterson cheated out of the good fight they thirsted 
for in the Shenandoah Valley. 

To hard drill, the regiment added the performance of heavy 
guard duty. Detachments mounted guard day and night at the 
five forts, the aqueduct bridge, a ferry near by across the Poto- 
mac, and some blockhouses at the bridge where the prisoners of 
the. regiment and Porter's division were confined. Companies 
also went out occasionally to do guard and provost duty at Hall's 
Hill. 

Bad weather and hard service produced its usual effect, and 
sickness prevailed to a large extent. Most of the invalids were 
from among the new men. When the old 19th was first joined 
by the battalion of new men, the latter exhibited a strong pro- 
pensity to look down on their rusty looking, weather beaten, 
travel stained comrades, and seemed disposed to consider them 
the recruits of the 3d Artillery. The lugubrious experience of 
the first two weeks weakened all exalted notions on this subject 
astonishingly. 

Before the men had acquired any very clear notions on the 
subject of ordnance, a serious accident one day occurred. A 
private of Company H, named Perkins Wellington, found an un- 
exploded Parrot shell in the ravine back of the camp, and 
brought it up. Discovering the leaden plug, or fuse, in the 
aperture of the shell, he undertook to melt it out in the cook's 



CAPTURING THE ADMlJJISTRATION. I03 

fire. * It soon exploded and mangled one of his legs so seriously 
that Dr. Uimon had to amputate it. Two or three others were 
wounded by flying fragments of the shell. Wellington died. 

While in camp at Fort Corcoran, the 3d Artillery entertained 
a party of distinguished visitors on one occasion under peculiar 
circumstances. Orders had been issued that travel over the 
aqueduct bridge should cease at 9 p. m. The 3d Artillery which 
posted a strong guard of thirty-nine men there rigidly enforced the 
mandate. One night a heavy carriage came across from the 
Maryland side and tried to pass on the plea that distinguished 
personages were inside. The officer of the guard was summoned 
and promptly arrested the party and sent it, carriage and all, up 
to Lieut.-Col. Stewart under guard. The Lieutenant-Colonel, 
like a good soldier, was studying away at the tactics, when a 
soldier came in to announce the capture, when, looking up, 
Stewart, with considerable astonishment, saw Gen. McClellan, 
President Lincoln and Secretary Seward file into the apartment 
one after the other with a perspective of bayonets and a dis- 
gusted driver through the open door. " Well, Colonel," said 
one of the official party, " you've captured the administration." 
Stewart did the honors and learning the object of the party was 
to go to Gen. Porter's headquarters, he informed them of the 
strictness of orders, and sent them on under guard to Col. 
Averill of the cavalry, who in turn escorted the distinguished 
prisoners to Porter's Division. The occurrence was often 
smilingly alluded to afterwards. 

On the 8th of March, Gen. Porter marched out with his divi- 
sion several miles towards the enemy at Manassas. 

On the nth. Surgeon Dimon received unofficial notice from a 
surgeon in Martindale's brigade that twenty of the sick of his 
command were about arriving at Fort Corcoran. Also, that 
all the sick of Porter's division had been ordered to report to 
Surgeon Dimon, by order of Dr. Lyman, Medical Director of 
the division. On the 12th, the sick began to arrive. A mile 
and a half from Fort Corcoran there were general hospitals. At 
the fort there was scarce more than the bare ground for them. 
Under this scandalous order, 500 sick men arrived at the fort, re- 
porting to Surgeon Dimon, pale, emaciated fellows, some on foot, 
some in charge of ambulance drivers, with no report of cases, and, 
in a majority of instances without report of anything but their 
names, without stating rank, company, regiment, or disease, or 
even the name of the surgeon sending them. They continued to 
come for seven days, the principal number arriving after dark at 
night By dint of great exertion, these men were at length 



I04 SD NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

covered with tents. Some abandoned cooking utensils "were 
found, the Quartermaster supplied fuel and rations, and the sick 
selected the stronger ones among them to cook for the rest. As 
far as possible, medicine was given in the worst cases. Surgeon 

■ Dimon reported the disgraceful condition of affairs to the Sur- 
geon-General, who referred him back to the Medical Director, 
Dr. Lynrian. Dr. L. referred him to the Quartermaster and 
finally directed him to turn over the men to Gen. Wadsworth, 
commanding at Washington, who, having, as Dr. Dimon foresaw, 
nothing more to do with them than the Governor of Oregon, 
refused to take them. After this experience in circumlocution, 
nothing more was done for some days. The consequence was, 
the men remained in the camp of the 3d New York up to the 
24th of March, when the regiment was ordered away, exposing 
them to be left without even a medical officer who knew their 
condition. The execution of the order was fortunately delayed. 
Surgeon Dimon remained by the men faithfully, working nearly 

. twenty hours out of the twenty-four, some of the poor fellows, 
however, having to be neglected by necessity, the Surgeon being 
without nurses, unable to get a sufficient supply of medicine, 
and without even a Quartermaster's clerk to see to their rations, 
fuel and utensils. Finally commissioners from Pennsylvania 
visited the hospital camp, having discovered that the sick of four 
Pennsylvania regiments were there. They immediately returned 
to Washington and made such remonstrance that it finally 
brought over an Assistant-Surgeon to take charge of the con- 
veyance of the men to general hospital at Georgetown. When 
the regiment marched through Georgetown, on the 25th, on its 
way to Annapolis, the sidewalks of the town were covered with 
these sick men, sitting and lying on them, awaiting admission to 
the hospital. There was no necessity for this procedure. The 
Medical Director had authority to send the sick men at the first 
to general hospital ; a regimental Surgeon had not. He, how- 
ever, sent them to the camp of the 3d New York, thinking, 
doubtless, to save himself trouble. He might almost as well 
have turned them over to the ditches of the fort. 

n On the 20th of March, Gen. Wadsworth ordered Col. Ledlie 
to hold himself in readiness to move at an hour's notice. The 
order was promulgated in camp and the regiment learnt with 
considerable interest that it had been ordered into the field, its 
remarkable progress toward proficiency in the service of artillery 
and its fine and large personnel having caught the attention of 
Government. On the 22d the regiment drew new light artillery 
uniforms, and made a splendid appearance next day on dress 



ORDERS TO MARCH. lOJ 

parade, when Secretary Seward was present to witness it. The 
Secretary took the greatest pride and interest in the sight, and 
the memories of Hyattstown and Muddy Branch, which had 
linjjered there with pain, forever faded from his mind. Next 
day the regiment received from the army prisons some fourteen 
deserters who had received their pardons on the intercession of 
the Secretary. 

That same day, the 24th, Col. Ledlie received marching 
orders. It had been determined to send the 3d New York to 
Burnside. This gallant General was about the only commander 
at that date, in the spring of 1862, who was meeting with bril- 
liant successes. He stood in urgent need of reinforcements to 
carry on the operations of his department, especially requiring 
a light artillery regiment, and while commandants of many or- 
ganizations sought to enter the service of "this victorious and 
popular chief, the Government selected at first only four, and one 
of them was the 3d New York. 

On the 25th of March, the regiment broke camp on Arlington 
Heights and wended its way to Washington. Passing the noble- 
hearted Secretary of State on a side street, the men rent the air 
with deafening cheers in iiis honor. Getting aboard a freight 
train after some delay, they finally made a start and arrived in 
Annapolis at daylight on the 26th. They formed column on de- 
barking and proceeded to the Navy Yard, where they were quar- 
tered for two days. The men were kept well together, a line of 
sentinels preventing egress from the yard, except to a favored 
few, who were allowed to visit the capital on errands of curiosity 
and purveyance. 

Gen. Dix, commanding in this department, issued the follow- 
ing order on the 27th : 

" Col. T. C. Amory, 17th Massachusetts, will take command 
of the 3d New York Artillery, 2d Maryland, 17th Massachusetts 
and 103d New York, now embarked in this city, or at Annapolis, 
and proceed to Hatteras Inlet, where lighters will be ready to 
take them over the inner bar and orders will meet them. It is 
desirable that the transports keep together." 

About noon on the 28th, the men were conveyed aboard the 
steamer Fulton that lay in the Patuxent, a huge, black steamer 
of the Cunard or some one of the coast lines, which afterwards 
became well known all along the coast and among blockading 
squadrons and was a favorite ocean transport. Her capacity 
was very great, but the present occasion tested it severely, for 
not only were the whole 1,300 artillery men stowed away in her 
roomy interior, but also several companies of the 103d New 



I06 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

York and seven hundred horses. She took them all in quite 
comfortably. The 17th Massachusetts embarked on the Star of 
tfu South. The others, on the Ericson and Marion. 

Dropping down into the Chesapeake, about 2 p. m. of the 
29th, the fleet steamed down the noble bay. The water was 
alive with magnificent vessels, and stately frigates, saucy gunboats 
and crafts of all sorts were passed on the way. By night fall, 
the fleet was stretching its course out upon the ocean. Once 
out of sight of land, the heaving of the ocean produced a la- 
mentable effect upon the land men, and the bulwarks of the 
Fulton were lined on both sides, from stem to stern, with the 
sickest lot of men in the experience of the 3d Artillery. Land 
hove in sight again on the 30th, and at 10 p. m., after a wet, 
cold, slippery day, the iy/Z/^w dropped anchor within a few miles 
of shore, off Hatteras Inlet, the fort guarded entrance to Pamlico 
Sound. Burnside's fleet was to be dimly descried inside the 
bar, while a noble steamer, the City of New York lay stranded 
on the sand spit south of the Inlet. 

Weighing anchor on the morning of the 31st, the Fulton 
steamed in close to the bar, when the troops were transferred by 
the little gunboat Sentimi and other vessels to transports inside 
the bar. Here they waited till nearly the middle of the after- 
noon, while the men thronged the sides of the transports and 
eagerly scrutinized and commented upon the monotonous scenery 
of the sand spits, the forts Hatteras and Clark on either side of 
the channel, the thousands of gulls and the various vessels in 
the fleet. At length, the fleet turned its prows down the broad 
Sound, and about 4 o'clock reached the mouth of the river 
Neuse. Following the course of Burnside and Goldsborough, 
a fortnight previous, in the expedition which resulted in the cap- 
ture of Newbern and the forts, the fleet slowly ascended the 
river. The current was wide, but shallow, characteristic of all 
North Carolina rivers for nearly a hundred miles inland from 
the coast. Gloomy forests of pine covered the banks to the 
water's edge with scarce an opening, indicating the existence of 
those tangled and trackless swamps that are a feature of the 
coast region of this State. 

About sunset, the fleet approached the crowded wharves of 
the city of Newbern, lying at the point of land at the confluence 
of the rivers Neuse and Trent. 

The regiment did not go ashore till April 2d, when, being by 
Burnside's order attached to the ist division of his army, Gen. 
John G. Foster commanding, it went ashore, landing on a wharf 
at the lower end of the city, near where the celebrated rebel 
cotton bale battery stood. 



, A I ,■; 



IN NEWBERN. 10/ 

Stacking muskets and knapsacks, until all were ashore, it then 
formed into line and was escorted by the 24th Massachusetts 
Volunteers through the city to the western suburb. Camp was 
pitched in a large field opposite to and near a large asylum for 
children. 

The arrival of the new troops created a general stir in the 
army, and was mentioned by the Newbern Progress, a newspa- 
per printed by the Massachusetts volunteers. This paper men- 
tioned another important event in the same connection. Its 
paragraph on the subject was as follows : — 

"Newbern, N. C, April 5, 1862. 

Large reinforcements have arrived for this department, and 
on Wednesday and Thursday the streets were alive with regi- 
ments marching through to occupy the camps assigned them. 
Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania contribute troops, 
and Maryland sends her loyal sons to fight against the foul re- 
bellion that sought to draw her in. 

How nobly New York has responded to the Government's call 
for volunteers may be seen from the fact that among the regi- 
ments she has sent here is the 103d, and this, we understand, is 
not by any means the highest in the number. 

The 3d Artillery, which, under the act of Congress changing 
the organization of the army, has been raised to 1,300 men, 
also arrived, and was noticeable from its admirable appearance 
and discipline. 

'I'he division has been raised to a corps d'armee by these rein- 
forcements, and the army will read with interest the following 
extrnct from general orders : — 

general orders — no. 23. 

Department of North Carolina, ) 

Newbern, April 2, 1862. ) 

* * * mm* 

I. The corps d'armee now in occupation of this department 
will at once be organized into three divisions, to be commanded, 
according to seniority of rank, as follows : — 

First division by Acting Maj.-Gen. Foster. 

Second division by Acting Maj.-Gen. Reno. 

Third division by Acting Maj.-Gen. Parke. 

m * m « « # 

By command of Maj.-Gei^ Burnside. 
Lewis Richmond, Assistant Adjt.-Gen." • 



I08 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



VI. 



AT NEWBERN. 

Burnslde'i Coast Division — North Carolina's Value to the Confederacy — Arrival 
of the 3d Artillery — Newbern — Fortifying — Details for Special Service — 
Schenck's Scout — Fort Totten — The jd New York bringing up the Guns — 
Mounting the LigRc Batteries — An Explosion — A Grand Incursion Afoot — 
Burnside Called Away — Stewart, Chief-Engineer — The Defenses — How Pay- 
masters Paid the Contrabands — The Health of the Regiment. 



In the latter part of 1861, Gen. Burnside, who was in com- 
mand of the provisional briG;ades into which new troops were 
formed in the city of Washington, had frequent consultations 
with Gen. McClellan about the blockade of the Potomac and 
the Southern coast. He proposed to raise a division, composed 
of 10,000 men, as many of them as possible familiar with the 
sea, and equip them with light draught steamers, surf boats, and 
sailing vessels, which could move quickly from one port to 
another and operate against the enemy. The larger vessels 
were to be armed with heavy guns to overcome opposition on 
the coast without waiting for iron-clad gunboats, and to be well 
supplied with launches and all the facilities for landing troops. 
All vessels to be of the lightest draft, so as to navigate the 
shallow rivers <of North Carolina and the inlets of the Chesa- 
peake, Potomac, and James. Burnside's plans being approved, 
he raised three brigades, commanded by Gens. Reno, Parke, 
and Foster, respectively, comprising 11,500 men, and obtained 



BURNSIDES DELIGHT WITH THE REGIMENT. IO9 

a large fleet of North river ferry boats, light draught steamers, 
schooners, &c. 

Upon reporting to the President that his Coast Division, as it 
was called, was organized and ready for action, he received 
orders to proceed at once to North Carolina and strike and 
cripple the rebellion there to the extent of his power. It was 
intended that his movement should have an important bearing 
on a nearly simultaneous movement of the grand Army of the 
Potomac, in Virginia, under McClellan, and by cutting the rail- 
roads that crossed North Carolina and connected Virginia with 
the far South, effect a diversion in McClellan's favor. He sailed 
at once. On February 8th he captured Roanoke Island, "the 
key to Norfolk," then held by a large force of rebels. March 
14th, he captured Newbern, and during April and May follow- 
ing he carried the flag everywhere throughout the coast region 
of the State. 

It may be remarked here, to show the value of a strong foot- 
ing for the Union army in North Carolina, that in military impor- 
tance this State was a battle field second only to Virginia. In 
fact, after Virginia seceded, the old North State became essen- 
tial to the very existence of the Confederacy. Had she not 
been forced into joining them -by terrorism, the rebels would 
have certainly conquered her. Across her territory ran the 
great Washington, and VVeldon Railroad, the route of the South- 
ern mail, "the jugular artery of the Confederacy," over which 
half of the supplies of the rebel army in Virginia were brought 
and which was the highway of travel for rebel troops. It was that 
and other railroads in the interior, and also her agricultural 
resources, that gave to North Carolina her military importance. 
Hence, the rebels fortified Wilmington, the southern terminus of 
the main road, with works of massive strength, to make sure the 
harbor for blockade runners to slip into, and erected other 
works on the main roads leading from the seaboard into the in- 
teriors and garrisoned them with abundant forces, to keep their 
precious Weldon line from being broken by incursions from the 
seaboard. 

The arrival of the reinforcements of April 2d was most wel- 
come to Burnside, whose Coast Division was now much scatter- 
ed. In Newbern he had scarce 5,000 men, previous to the 
coming of the new troops. 3,500 men had been sent to occupy 
Beaufort and Morehead city and lay siege to Fort Macon, while 
^^^Z^ garrisons had been left at Roanoke Island and Hatteras 
Inlet. The reinforcements raised the main body of the division 
at Newbern to 8,500 men. 



no 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ■ 

Burnside took especial delight in the 3d New York Artillery. 
He had asked the Government to send him a competent artillery 
regiment, from which he might obtain material for reducing Fort 
Macon, garrisoning the fortifications of the department, and fit- 
ting out a force of flying or liglit artillery for service in the field. 
He visited the camp of the 3d New York upon its arrival and 
discovered the size and splendid discipline of the command with 
considerable exultation. He complimented Col. Ledlie highly 
thereupon. 

As it vvas intended to preserve a permanent footing for the 
United States army in Newbern, being favorably situated as a 
base for offensive operations, Gen. Burnside made immediate 
preparations to fortify the city and place it in a condition to defy 
the most formidable assaults. It was a handsome town of eight 
thousand inhabitants and occupied the extreme point of the pe- 
ninsula formed by the confluence of the rivers Neuse and Trent. 
On the east and south, it was already protected by nature by the 
two rivers, which were here, though shallow, a mile and a half and 
three quarters of a mile in width. On the north and west, it 
was completely exposed. The locality was a level, sandy tract, 
with stagnant ponds scattered over the surface west of the city, 
and an extensive and impenetrable pine swamp a mile or two to 
the westward stretching a long distance into the interior. For 
many miles this tangled jungle and morass occupied nearly the 
whole extent of country between the two rivers, the only land 
firm enough to bear cultivation being along the banks of the 
rivers. It was down these tracts of comparatively dry land by 
the Neuse and Trent, that tw«» wagon roads approached the 
town from the west, called respectively the Neuse and Trent 
roads, converging in the western suburb. Between them, and 
near the Neuse road, ran the railroad to Raleigh. 

The plan of Burnside was to erect two or three substantial 
forts on the western side of the city, covering the wagon roads 
and railroad, and connect them in time, if necessary, with a line 
of breastworks and rifle pits running from river to river. One 
strong work had already been begun by the division engineers at 
the central point, or key, of the whole line, viz : between the 
Neuse and Trent roads, close to them both, a block's distance 
out of town, by the first of April. This work, with which the 3d 
Artillery afterwards had much to do, subsequently received the 
name of Fort Totten. 

For a while the body of the regiment remained in camp, act- 
ing as heavy infantry, sending out an occasional scouting party, 
and waiting for the development of the plans of the General 



■'x.-^ 



SCENES AT NEWBERN. 1 1 1 

commanding, in regard to the disposition to be made of the sev- 
eral companies. The time was mainly employed in making the 
acquaintance of other regiments and of the locality. With a 
fellow regiment of poster's brigade, the 3d New York boys 
formed at once a peculiarly intimate friendship, which lasted to 
the end of the war. This was the 9th New Jersey, Col. Hick- 
man commanding, one of the fighting regiments of the 
department, which, though then a battalion of about nine 
hundred men, suffered such losses during the war that, being 
recruited up from time to time, nearly 5,000 men served in its 
ranks before its final muster out. As to the locality, it secured 
for a while a very large share of attention, being so different in 
many respects from the scenery in the State of New York. The 
country was flat and level, and diversified with immense pine 
forests, instead of hills and almost limitless areas of swamps 
instead of vales. Heavy forests bounded the horizon in every 
direction. At night, for miles around, the sky would be illumi- 
nated by extensive fires burning in them amongst the litter, as 
the exhausted turpentine trees and low shrubbery were called. 
The rivers, wide and shallow, having scarce a perceptible cur- 
rent, rising and falling with the prevailing winds, were dailv the 
scenes of great activity, and excited great interest. They 
swarmed with sailing vessels, steamers, and ferry boats of every 
build, color and description, all the larger ones provided with 
heavy guns for offense and defense. The railroad bridge over 
the Trent, 1,900 feet long, burnt by the rebels on their evacua- 
tion in March, was also one of the curiosities to be visited, and 
those who had passes were sure to go down and see it. 

The first detail from the regiment for active service was the 
sending of one company to participate in the siege of Fort Ma- 
con. Learning that, by Gen. Burnside's order, one would be 
sent, Capt. Ammon, of Battery I, repaired to Col. Ledlie's head- 
quarters, and begged that he might be selected for the service. 
His eagerness amused the Colonel, for the Captain was, physi- 
cally, the smallest line officer in the regiment, and might have 
been pardoned if he had seemed less anxious to enter the fray. 
" Why, you little cuss," said Ledlie, " what do you want to go to 
Fort Macon for? Why, you'll get killed." The Captain re- 
sponded he expected to be off on leave of absence before long, 
and proposed to carry home with him some substantial honors. 
Seeing that he was determined, the orders for his march to 
Macon were finally prepared, and on the loth of April the little 
steamer Alice Fria bore him and his gallant company away. 

Another chapter will relate their adventures. For the present 



112 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

it is proposed to confine attention, for convenience sake, to a 
general view of the services and oicperiences of tiie regiment at 
Newbern for the year. 

During April, the rebels lingered in close proximity to New- 
bern in some force, their movements being reported to our com- 
manding officers, from time to time, by negroes. Information 
having been brought in of a cavalry picket which took stations 
every day on Swift's creek, ten miles above the city, north of 
the Neuse, Capt. Schenck went out with Companies E, A and 
G to capture it. A North river ferry boat carried them up the 
river. Landing, the men found a rebel masked battery, the guns 
of which they dismounted. A negro guided them through 
swamps and fields nearly eight miles to the picket post. They 
surrounded the house. But the cavalry mounted and dashed 
right through our thin line, three being unhorsed by our fire and 
one captured. After a hard day's work, the party reached New- 
bern- again late at night. 

The second detail from the regiment for special service was 
that of Capt. Ashcroft's company, a battery, (the technical 
name for a company of artillery.) By Gen. Foster's order, the 
ordnance department supplied the company with two iron field 
pieces, captured from the rebels, and on the loth, the same day 
thai Ammon sailed, it went out with the 23d Massachusetts 
Volunteers to guard the railroad bridge over Bachelor's creek, 
nine miles northwest of the city. It took its tents and baggage 
and encamped at the outpost, remaining there several weeks. 
Battery C was the first of the regiment that received light can- 
non, and it made the most of them by drilling daily in the light 
artillery tactics. 

About the middle of April, the regiment changed camp and 
went out into the plain west of the city, which was dotted with 
the snowy canvas of the rest of Foster's brigade. The regiment 
camped between the Neuse and Trent roads, a short distance in 
rear of Fort Totten. Several companies now lent themselves 
energetically to the work of completing thisFort and mounting 
its guns. C, D and G had already been detailed for this pur- 
pose, but C having gone oif on special service, K supplied its 
place, while at various times A, E and M performed a share of 
the work of getting the guns up to the Fort and into position. 
D, G and K encam.ped in the Fort in May by order of Col. Led- 
lie and became the garrison of the work. 

Fort Totten was ori^^inally begun under the superintendency 
of Capt. Williamson of the Topograpliical Engineers, the chief 
engineer of Burnside's expedition. When the 3d New York 



FORT TOTTEN, 113 

reached Newbern, only its western parapet, the one toward the 
enemy, had been put under way. On this several hundred 
liberated negroes, anxious to do something for Uncle Sam, were 
lustily plying pick and shovel. The earth being of a sandy 
nature and readily worked, by the first of May the fort was in a 
state of defense. Its massive parapet was up all around, eight 
feet high and from twelve to fifteen thick, enclosing a pentago- 
nal area of seven acres. Though rough and uncouth, showing 
little of the fine finish and few of the well turned, natty angles 
afterwards put on them, the walls were quite compact and solid 
and would have done good service in case of attack. 

The armament of the fort came from the rebel forts and bat- 
teries cm the right bank of the river Neuse below the city, where, 
on March 14th, as part of the spoils of the battle, Burnside had 
captured enough cannon to make — with those found on the 
field and in the city— sixty-nine in all. Afs there was no longer 
any use for these river batteries, our Navy being competent to 
keep the river open, their guns were taken out and brought to 
Newbern and twenty-eight of them placed in Fort Totten. 
Most of these latter were naval guns, 32-pounders, captured by 
the rebels at Norfolk in 186 1. Some, however, were 64-pound 
columbiads. Two were 100 pounders. They were brought up 
to Newbern by detachments from the 3d Artillery. One working 
party of twenty men from Battery A, under Lieut. Tomlison, 
took up quarters near the principal rebel battery, known as Fort 
Thompson, and spent several weeks there in the work. Getting 
the guns out they slid them down the bank and loaded them on 
scows and schooners. The task involved an immense amount 
of labor — the lightest of the huge pieces weighing at least 
5,000 pounds, the larger ones weighing 9,000 and over — but was 
accomplished with such alacrity as to elicit the encomiums of 
the commanding officers. The spikes, nails and files, which the 
rebels had driven into the fuse holes of all the cannons, were 
removed by the ingenious and skillful master-mechanic, Sidney 
VV. Palmer, of Battery G. Many of the guns had been left 
loaded and the charges had to be extracted accordingly before 
they could be moved. One heavy gun was emptied by firing it 
off. The detonation was terrific, for it had been loaded with 
two shells and a solid shot. The roar of the gun, followed im- 
mediately by the successive explosion of the shells over the water 
was heard at Newbern, where it created for the moment a decid- 
ed sensation. Our officers were expecting an attack at that 
time and thought it had come. Drums beat in some of the 
camps and troops were put under arms until the truth was 
discovered. 



114 5D KEVr-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERT. 

Large detachments from Battery E under Capt. Schencli', 
Battery D under Lieuts. Boyle and Brannick, Battery M under 
Capt. White ^nd other companies, alsa,^ aided largely in this 
work. Lieut. Bo>'le, by order of the authorities, blew up some 
of the cannon that wer& too heavy to be quickly removed. A 
heavy charge of powder being put into them, they were rammed 
full of sand to the muzzle, and then exploded with an electric 
spark. 

The armament of Totten was all placed ir» position by June. 
In May various companies of the regiment began to receive 
their equipment as light artillery. Gen, Burnside only had one 
field battery at the time he captured Newbern, viz r Battery F,. 
ist Rhode Island, and was exceedingly anxious to have more, 
now that he had seen the fortifications of Newbern well under 
way, for he purposed to take the field at an early day. He ac- 
cordingly directed Ccl. Ledlie to mount a battalion or two of 
the 3d New York as fast as he could collect guns and horses 
therefor. In May the Colonel succeeded in obtaining some of 
the brass pieces taken from the rebels at Newbern battle, and 
gave two apiece of them to Battery B and Battery F, which im- 
mediately began the light artiUery drill, under then- respective 
able and energetic commanders, Capts. Morrison and Jenny. 
The full equipment of a field battery is six guns, with attendant 
limbers to support the trails of the guns while on the h7arch, six 
caissons, a traveling forge, a baggage wagon } and also a hun- 
dred horses, each gun, caisson and wagon being drawn by six 
horses, and a number of extra ones being required for officer* 
and to supply the places of those disabled m battle. But Burn- 
side's supply of guns and teams was exceedingly limited, and 
the new light batteries were accordingly fitted out by slow 
degrees. 

Early in May, Major Kennedy arrived at Newbern from the 
Army of the Potomac, having been promoted from the Captaincy 
of the ist New York Batter\', through the influence of Col. Led- 
fie, who needed a competent and thorough disciplinarian to 
whom he could entrust the training of the light battalion. }{e 
was assigned to duty May loth. He instituted regular drills. 
had a school for officers in his tent and devoted himself un- 
fl'aggingly to the work. Battery H having received a few guns- 
joined the light batteries. The regiment was divided on June 5tb 
into three battalions, the light batteries, B, F and H, being as- 
signed to the command of Major Kennedy ; C, D, G and ^^, 
heavy, to the command of Major Giles ; and A. E, I and K. 
heavy, to Major Stone. As fast as they were mounted, the ligh: 



MOUNTING THE LIGKT BATTERIES. 11$ 

batteries separated from the main body of the regiment, and en- 
camped by themselves near the Neuse. 

The third detail from the regiment for special service was on 
the 28th of May. Battery G, under Capt. Wall, left that day for 
Washington, N. C, on the river Tar, to garrison the fort at that 
point. It had an abundance of adventure there, a recital of 
which is postponed to another chapter. 

June loth, Battery K was organized into a light battery and 
sent across the Trent to report to Gen. Reno, commanding the 
forces in camp there, with whom it also encamped, 

June 28th, Battery M, Capt. James M. W^hite, a splendid body 
of men, went, by order of Col. Ledlie, to Roanoke Island, to 
garrison Fort Reno on the north end of the Island. The battery 
remained there several weeks and then went to Hatteras Inlet 
and garrisoned Fort Hatteras. 

By the ist of July, Batteries B and F had received their full 
armament. Both had a mixed lot of guns. B had two twenty- 
four pound howitzers (brass,) two twelve pound howitzers (brass,) 
and two twelve pound Wiards (iron and rifled). F had two iron 
six pounders, two iron twelve pounders, and two howitzers. 
Horses were obtained principally from the Massachusetts regi- 
ments' baggage wagons. The old Bay State sent her regiments 
into the field with everything complete. A large number of her 
troops were in Burnside's army and their splendid teanas were 
appropriated, as the emergency arose for them, to the use of the 
3d Artillery. 

While on the subject of the mounting light batteries, it may 
not be amiss to speak of the other additions to the field artillery 
of the 3d during the year 1862. Battery E was mounted with 
four howitzers, two twelve pounders, two twenty-four pounders, 
partly in August, partly in November. H received its full equip- 
ment of six guns about the ist of December. K gave up its old 
pieces and on December 4th received six brand new Rodmans, 
three inch rifled guns, iron, throwing an elongated or " cucum- 
ber " shell. I was provided with four twenty-pounder Parrots, 
about the ist of December, at which time F received six twelve 
pound Wiards and B six twelve pound brass " Napoleons." 

The summer and fall of 1862 was spent in drilling the several 
companies in their respective roles as light and heavy artillery, 
in the perfection of the line of fortifications and in the ordinary 
routine of camp duties. 

In the month of June, a second fort was begun by the contra- 
bands, on the west side of Newbern, north of the principal 
*ork. It received the name of Fort Rowan, It was small, but 



Il6 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

handsome and stout, and received for its armament four 20 lb. 
and 30 lb. Parrots and a 12-inch mortar. Battery A, Capt. 
Charles White, mounted its guns, constructed its magazines, 
sodded the parapets, built comfortable quarters, and became its 
garrison. 

June 4th, 2,000 cartridges exploded in the orderly's tent of 
Battery G. Sherwood, Mowers, Goodrich, Bush and Quick were 
present at the time. Some of the party were smoking. The 
explosion tore the tent to tatters, and the party found itself sud- 
denly standing in the open air. Sherwood and Mowers were 
considerably burnt. 

On the 2d of June, Burnside reviewed the Coast Division at 
Newbern. Fifteen thousand men, including the 3d New York, 
comprising every arm of the service, were present on one field. 
During the review a sword was presented to Burnside, in behalf 
of the State of Rhode Island. Salutes by the drum corps, the 
pealing of artillery, the waving of flags and cheers of the troops 
attended the ceremony. 

It was a favorite policy of our Government during the war to 
order simultaneous movements against the enemy in several de- 
partments at once, so as to prevent him from concentrating to 
resist any specific attack. In accordance with this idea, Burn- 
side, being duly instructed thereon from Washington, prepared 
to make demonstrations in North Carolina, while McClellan in 
Virginia was advancing up the peninsula on Richmond. The 
rebels had withdrawn a portion of their troops from North Car- 
olina to oppose McClellan, and Burnside was sanguine that he 
could cut his way far into the interior and completely isolate 
Virginia from the rest of the rebellion. July ist, he issued 
orders for the army at Newbern to advance at daybreak of the 
2d, in the direction of Kingston. All the brigade commanders 
issued stirring proclamations, liberally sprinkled with such or- 
thodox phrases as " fresh laurels," " new victories," *"■ glorious 
old fiag," "proud confidence," and "traitorous enemy," and the 
troops prepared for a long expedition. Batteries B and F, 3d 
New York, amongst the rest. Battery K was unable to go on 
account of a lack of transportation. A telegram from Wash- 
ington, however, arrested the movement, and no one went. 
Disaster had overtaken the Union arms in Virginia. McClellan, 
the " little Napoleon," had fled from the face of a badly beaten 
enemy, and the North was in a state of horror and alarm. Car- 
olina was now to be robbed of 10,000 good Union muskets to 
reinforce him and restore confidence at the North. Burnside 
promptly abandoned the projected expedition. He embarked 



■;'. ..:: , i/.'- ■; ■ rrj- r' 



STEWART CHIEF ENGINEER. II7 

the brigades of Reno and Parke, and impelled them with all 
Sfjeed to Fortress Monroe, himself going thither July 4th. All | 

the regiments at Newbern paid the General a marching salute \ 

before his departure, the 3d New York, after the parade, giving 
itself up to Independence day festivities. 

Gen. Foster took command of North Carolina by order of 
Bumside, having left him only 3,000 men to hold the numerous 
cities and forts in possession of the Federal forces. j 

On the loth of August, Lieut.-Col. Stewart became Chief | 

Engineer of the department on Foster's staff, Capt. Williamson \ 

having been relieved from duty. To the new Engineer, Foster ] 

committed more especially the work of completing the fortifica- I 

tions of Newbern, which now, on the withdrawal of so large a | 

part of the army, acquired a fresh importance. Stewart applied I 

himself to the task with accustomed energy and success. He 
remained in the discharge of the duties of the new position till 
the latter part of January, 1863, by which time he had made 
Newbern impregnable on the west and had done much to make it 
secure on the south side of the Trent. Fort Totten and Rowarr 
were finished. A strong redoubt was built on the lines between 
them. A swamp in front of the lines and south of the railroad 
was ingeniously utilized for defense by damming up the outlet 
of its waters through a culvert in the railroad embankment, thus 
creating a large and impassable pond in front of our defenses. 
A strong breastwork was constructed from the Trent to Fort 
Totten, and thence to the swamp near Fort Rowan, a ditch pro- 
tecting it in front, in some places thirty feet deep. Fort Gaston, 
south of the Trent, guarding a wagon bridge half a mile from 
the city-, was finished. Fort Spinola, south of the Trent, near 
the Neuse, was also built, with block houses and various other 
works at different places on the lines. I 

In Fort Totten the amount of work done was immense. i 

First, the parapets had to be revetted. Commencing at the | 

bottom of the outer slope, in the ditch, the revetment was made i 

with sods piled one on the other, eighteen inches thick. At the j 

top of the ditch the sods were then laid in the usual manner, in | 

one layer. The inner face of the parapet received a similar re- i 

vetraent to the ditch wall. When completed, this gave to the i 

fort a strong turf over every foot of surface of its walls, and the I 

grass being kept nicely cut not only gave it a superb appearance I 

but made it proof against the elements and bombardment. The j 

embrasures were revetted with gabions, or wicker baskets, filled j 

with sand. In October, Lieut.-Col. Stewart founded the great j 

traverse of the fort, a huge parapet of earth and logs on the j 



H8 3D*NEW-Y01iK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY, 

terra pleine of the work, 400 feet long, 35 high and 28 throuojh 
at the base, to shelter the garrison behind against cannon shot 
during a bombardment. The construction of this was a task of 
enormous difficulty and consumed many months. It was not 
quite finished when Stewart resigned the engineership. Once, 
during its construction, in November, an attack being appre- 
hended, Stewart impressed every cart and cartman in Newbern, 
over thirty in number, to haul dirt into the traverse and kept 
them hard at work for nearly ten days. 

The contrabands performed all the manual labor on these de- 
fensive works. Newbern was thronged with these hardy plebes. 
They had fled from the interior, bringing in their wives and 
children, and two immense camps had been created by the au- 
thorities of the post for their accommodation. One camp stood 
near Fort Totten. One was south of the Neuse. Six hundred 
of the stoutest of the men in their camps were sorted out to do 
this labor on the forts, and, being divided into gangs averaging 
sixty each, overseers and superintendents were appointed from 
the 3d Artillery to supervise their operations. These officials 
were the following : 

Superintendents — Sidney W. Palmer, Battery G ; Wm. Fergu- 
son, Wm. Hurd, Battery A. 

Overseers — Chester D. Barnes, Charles Brokaw, Wm. H. 
Hopping, Thomas E. Post, David Ray, Richard White, Battery 
A ; Geo. W. Hall, W. W. Siddons, Battery C ; Wm. H. John- 
son, Charles Rynders, Robert -Riby, John Shea, Elisha Stanton, 
Vincent F. Story, Battery E ; Laughlin McCarthy, John Ratti- 
gan, John Tearney, Battery D. 

Overseers from other regiments had other gangs. 

These negroes were very ignorant and needed these overseers 
to look after their interests, for they were being constantly im- 
posed upon, especially by the United States paymasters. ' The 
darkies did not know the value of the money that the paymasters 
passed out to them on pay day, and for several months they 
were deliberately swindled. If the man's bill was fifteen dollars, 
the purveyor of greenbacks would hand him a handful of frac- 
tional notes, probably not amounting to more than five dollars, 
which, as he could not count, he supposed was all right. Every 
man would be served that way. The overseers, reporting the 
condition of affairs, at length put a stop to the disgraceful 
practice. 

The health of the 3d Artillery suffered somewhat during the 
first summer at Newbern, owing to the peculiarities of the cli- 
mate. The lack of pure spring water was a prolific source of 



1 ,:, 



HEALTH OF THE REGIMENT. II9 

trouble. It was obtained for camp and culinary purposes from 
wells dug in the sand and marl. Much of it was of a milky hue. 

The people said it was unhealthy, but it had to be often used as j 

there was no other. The soldiers drank whisky as copiously I 

as camp regulations allowed, "to counteract the effect " The i 

remedy was not so effectual but that, combined with the warmth I 

and malarial influences of the swamp region, the bad water j 

brought upon the hands of Dr. Dimon and his assistants scores i 

of patients with dysentery. Malarial and congestive fevers also I 

abounded, and several deaths occurred from maladies of that j 

character. But the former was the more frequent complaint, | 

and required care and powerful medicines in its treatment, as, | 

until cold weatker came on, it became more obstinate in its chai- j 

acter every day. Dr. Dimon traces part of these difficulties in a | 

measure to the food. The potato ration was not issued, the I 

tuber in North Carolina being a coarse and watery article. I 

Pickles were almost unattainable, as part of the ration, nor was ! 

the vinegar the genuine article made from cider. Often, too, j 

the men were imprudent in the use of fruit and vegetables, the 1 

«oldiers' failing, which in that climate was very conducive to I 

sickness. In short, during the summer of '62, very few in the j 

regiment did not have occasion to swallow several doses of Dr. i 
Dimon's jalap, rhei, calomel, quinine, cornus Florida (gathered 

in bark from the woods by the Doctor's assistants and boiled 1 

down), and opium, and would perhaps have taken down more of j 

6ome of them had the department been better stocked with j 

medical supplies. The regiment did not, however, suffer from | 

any severity of sickness. On the contrary, its general health j 
was excellent, and it enjoyed a comparative exemption from se- 
rious disorders. 

And now let us turn to speak of the battles and expeditions 
■of 1B62 in North Carolina, in which our regiment bore a part 



I20 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER AJlTIiXERY. 



VII. 



FORT 'MACON, WASHINGTON AND RAWLES' MILLS. 

Battery I Goes to Fort Macon — The Fort — Inctdena of the Siege — Death of 
Dart — Macore Surrenders — TcstimoniaU to Battery I — Battery G Goes to 
Washington, North Carolina — Prevalence o/ Malaria — The Rebels Surprise- 
the Town — Desperate Fight — Sudden Advent of Banery H — Our Victory — 
The Losses — The Tarboro Expedinon — Rawles" Mills — A Grand Scene. 

After the capture of Hatteras Inlet and Newbern, the only- 
seaports left to the Confederates on the North Carolina coast 
.were Beaufort and \\11mington harbors. Burnside's successes 
in March having isolated the former, guarded by Fort Macon^ 
from the rebel army of central North Carolina, the General sent 
Gen. Parke down with several brave Rhode Island and Connec- 
ticut regiments to capture it and the Fort before the garrison of 
the latter could be reinforced from Wilmington. In the enter- 
prise against the fort, Battery I of the 3d New York bore a 
prominent part. 

The little steamer, Alice Price, Foster's flag ship, bore the 
blue-clad warriors of Battery I, eighty-five in number, Capt. 
Ammon commanding, armed with muskets, away from Newbern 
April loth, 1862. It landed them eighteen miles below the city 
on the south bank of the Neuse, at the mouth of Slocum's creek. 
This was the spot where Burnside's Coast Division landed for 
the victorious advance against Newbern in March. The men 
bivouacked on shore for the night, in company with a detach- 
ment of infantry which they found here guarding a deserted 
rebel cavalry- camp and some munitions of war. Sleeping on 



FORT MACON. 12? 

their arms, as a precaution in case of an attack from bush- 
whackers who prowled the extensive swamps surrounding the 
locaUty, they rose early in the nwrning and began their solitary 
march to Carolina City. Striking through the swamps they 
came out on the railroad^ running from Newbern down to the 
harbor. They followed that a distance and then took to the 
roads, passing deep forests of fragrant pine and fir, dotted 
with verdant glades full of the delicious perfume of wild flowers^ 
with straggling cottages and bits of cultivated soil here and 
there along the route, and coming out into the level and open 
country as they approached the coast. The march of twenty 
miles was made in four hours. The Battery encamped, while 
Capt. Ammon reported his arrival to Gen. Parke. The General 
was waiting for artillerymen, and ordered him to cross Bogue 
Sound next day, and join the troops operating against the Fort. 

The men could see Fort Macon across the water, two miles 
away, its flag plainly visible. It was one of the most important 
and costly of the great Atlantic sea coast defenses of our 
country, which the rebels had appropriated in the early days of 
treason. Not one of these defenses had on April loth been re- 
captured by the Federal arms. To wrest this important prize 
from the rebels, and present it and its captured garrison to our 
Government, first of all the reclaimed forts, was the ambition 
of Gen. Parke. When taken possession of in January, i86i, at 
the command of Gov. Ellis, of North Carolina, Macon was in 
poor repair. It had, however, since then been placed in a state 
of complete efficiency for aggressive resistance, its armament 
especially having been reinforced. Its walls now bristled with 
sixty lo-inch Columbiads and other monster ordnance. Always 
rated as a work second only in strength and importance to For- 
tress Monroe and Fort Sumpter, it was now a work almost 
impregnable, if properly garrisoned and defended. It was a 
large, low, pentagonal, casemated structure of brick masonry, 
roofed with a heavy, bomb-proof embankment of earth, well 
sodded, forming a central peep, the guns being mounted on it 
m barbette. Encircling the central work, and with a space be- 
tween forming a broad passage way, was a huge rampart of 
earth, half as high as the main fort, with a broad, gentle glacis, 
or slope towards the outside country. This formed an exterior 
battery, and from its parapet frowned another tier of barbette 
guns. It was called the water battery, and its office was also to 
act as a shield and protection during bombardment, to the soft, 
though immensely thick brick walls of the central work. 

The Fort was situated at the entrance to the beautiful and ca- 



•vo 



122 3® NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER AKTILLERY 

pacious harbor of Beaufort, on a sand hummock occupying the 
north end of Bogue Island, a long, low, narrow outlying sand 
spit, nearly barren, peculiar to this coast, diversified with sand 
hills and lagoonS, running parallel to the main land for twenty 
miles. The fire of the Fort commanded the entrance, which 
was known as Old Topsail Inlet, three-quarters of a mile wide, 
its garrison at that time being Col. Moses J. White, of Missis- 
sippi, with a company of " Atlantic " Artillery ; Battery B, ten 
Artillery "Woodpecks," and Company H, Old Topsail rifles, 
and two other infantry companies, 450 in all. 

Gen. Parke decided to assail in the rear by establishing bat- 
teries on Bogue Island, to either bombard it into submission, or 
get down its fire by dismounting its guns so that it might be 
carried by storm. The blockading squadron was to co-operate. 

April 13th, Capt Ammon, with Battery I, poled slowly across 
Bogue Sound on flat boats, and encamped on the beach of the 
Island. The Fort discharged sixty shells at the company, while 
crossing, and during the day, the only result of which, however, 
was to inure the men to the din of war. Gen. Parke, with his 
infantry, was on the Island, skirmishing with the enemy's 
pickets, and waiting for the arrival of the Battery. On the night 
of the 14th, Battery I fell into line and marched through the 
sand hills across to the other side of the Island. Moving silent- 
ly up along the ocean beach, it then struck again into the Island, 
and chose a spot in the edge of the sand hills, 1,400 yards from 
Fort Macon, just in rear of the crest of a sand knoll, for an 
earthwork for a ten inch mortar battery. Throwing ofif all im- 
pediments, the men went at once to work. The loose crumbling 
sand of the Island was miserable stuff to construct a reliable 
rampart of, but the boys set themselves resolutely at it, knowing 
that in the coming bombardment, the strength of their work was 
to be a matter of considerable personal importance. They made 
the parapet straight, without embrasures, mortars being fired into 
the air and not requiring them. It was eight feet high, and re- 
vetted and kept in place on the inside by bags of carpet, packed 
with sand and securely wired together. On the i8th, Lieuts. 
Kelsey and Thomas took twenty men and began the erection of 
a breastwork, 100 yards to the right and front, for an eight inch 
mortar battery. The men toiled at this work ten days and seven 
nights, building their works and placing in position their mor- 
tars, four in each battery. They had to bring these up at night 
with the assistance of teams from the rear. The days were 
warm and the work excessively tiresome, and exposed the men 
somewhat to danger from the occasional shots from the Fort. 



ASSAULT ON FORT MACON. 123 

Magazines had also to be built to shield the ammunition from 
danger while in action, and shot, shell and powder had to be 
brought up to stock them. The men spared no exertion in this 
work, stopping only now and then to snatch a brief repose, sleep- 
ing on the ground in the soft sand in their blankets, until the 
24th, when all was in readiness for assailing the Fort Mean- 
while a third battery had been made 300 yards in front of the 
ten inch mortar battery, mounting four Parrot cannon in em- 
brasures. The putting of the armament into these works was a 
task of great magnitude and was performed in a spirit that 
evoked a testimonial from Burnside, who came to the Island and 
inspected the operations. He said, (in March, 1863,) "At the 
siege of Fort Macon, the hardships and difficulties which the 
troops had to undergo in the transportation of the guns, mortars, 
ammunitions and provisions, through the intricate channels and 
over the sand hills, exceeded everything that I have ever known 
in the way of land service. It was all performed by the men 
without a murmur." 

The enemy did not, of course, permit these operations to go 
on unnoticed. He constantly annoyed the growing earthworks 
with shot and shell, though without stopping operations. The 
men soon learnt to listen for the report of the rebel cannon and 
watch for the coming shot and dodge it. 

The Fort being summoned to surrender very naturally refused. 
Gen. Parke, therefore, ordered the attack for the next d.iy, it 
being arranged that Capt. Morris should have the honor of firing 
the first gun, and that our blockading fleet outside the harbor 
should steam in to shore and co-operate. 

The men of Battery I quietly took their places around their 
mortars in the two breastworks before daylight of the 25th, 
The monster pieces, mounted on strong wooden platforms, were 
loaded with shells and all things held in readiness for the bom- 
bardment, every man being assigned his specific duty to perform 
during the day in serving the mortars and bringing powder and 
shells from the magazines. Meanwhile Capt Morris's men 
stood to their guns, and Gen. Parke sent out a regiment to rein- 
force the picket line, lodged away out in front among the sand 
hummocks for the purpose of repelling any sorties from the fort 
upon the redoubts, or of assaulting if ordered so to do. Pre- 
cisely at 5 A. M. the Parrot Battery spoke. The thunder of a 
gun boomed to Fort Macon an angry jostling of its garrison 
from slumber. Capt Ammon stood watching over the parapet 
of the ten-inch mortar battery. In his hand he held the lanyard 
attached to the friction fuse of a shotted mortar. When he saw 



124 3^ NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Capt. Morris, with a quick jerk, evoke the music of one of the 
Parrot guns, he sprang down and pulled the lanyard of the mor- 
tar, firing the second gun in the bombardment of the devoted 
fortress. Then from every redoubt, with a concussion that 
shook the earth, there leaped into the air jets of spurting flame 
and huge columns of thick, gray smoke that, rolling down a 
moment after, enfolded and hid from sight every battery, while 
twelve monster shells well aimed carried devastation into the 
fort At the first gun, the sentinel, in his usual perch upon the 
cross-tree of the flag-staff at Macon, dropped to the ground with 
the celerity of light and vanished behind the rampart Cannon 
and mortar, the one with horizontal, the other with curved fire, 
began, after the first salvo, a steady, persistent, rapid bombard- 
ment. For full twenty mintues the Fort was mute, the only smoke 
curling from its walls being that made by the explosion of our 
shells. The mortar firing was at first a little wild — many shells 
going clear over the fort ; but this was soon corrected. One of 
the very first of the ten-inch mortar shells, however, which 
Ammon saw fired in person, landed plumb in the water bat- 
tery o( the fort. Rolling up the brick walk, it lay there whizzing 
furiously. A sentinel on duty close by, paralyzed with terror, 
stood rooted to the spot, gazing at the unwelcome missile till it 
burst, when a fragment of it blew his head off. The eight-inch 
mortars under Lieuts. Thomas and Kelsey were gallantly served 
and were now pouring in a furious rain of shells. At length, 
the deep boom of a thirty-two-pounder from the Fort gave out 
an answer to the bombardment, and the heavy missile came 
bounding in among the sand hills, throwing up great clouds of 
dust Other guns then opened, and in a short time Columbiad 
and Parrot thundered defiance from the rebel ramparts. By 
eight o'clock, eighteen guns, pointing up the Spit, were at work 
at us and kept up a heavy and continuous discharge, sending a 
furious storm of shot and shell, roaring and bursting over and 
into the redoubts to the great destruction of their parapets. 
They were aimed at first principally, at the Parrot battery, 
which, being most exposed, was assailed first Later both mor- 
tar batteries came in for a heavy direct fire. The ten-inch bat- 
tery was imperiled by the fire on the Parrot gun redoubt, how- 
ever, quite as much as that redoubt was ; for the rebel shot 
hurled at it, bounding, generally landed in or around the ten- 
inch battery behind it. 

The service of mortars is a laborious and begriming occupa- 
tion, and the men of the 3d Artillery were soon blackened with 
powder and dust, till, seen through distorting smoke, toiling at 
their fierce engines of destruction, they looked like infernals. 



SURRENDER OF FORT MACON. 125 

By eight o'clock the mortar firing became very accurate, and 
nearly every shell was neatly dropped in the besieged fort. Some, 
falling on the parapets, buried themselves deep, and then ex- 
ploding heaved up on high great black clouds and columns of 
wood, brick, sand and debris, completely hiding, as they fell, the 
rebel guns. Others dropping into the interior annoyed and 
wounded the garrison. 

The rebels at first outnumbered us in guns. To our twelve 
they replied with eighteen, and among these was one great 128- 
pounder Columbiad. The crash of this gun was so distinct and 
deep that it dominated over the pealing of the 32-pjunders and 
could be told every time it was fired. About 9 o'clock, the 
Federal redoubts received the assistance of the gunboats Day' 
light, Chippewa, Albatross, and State of Georgia, who came near 
the Spit and sent in an enfilading fire, but the water was rough, 
and they early had to retire. 

The commotion created in Ammon's redoubt by the firing 
was terrific. It now began to work evil consequences. Rebel 
shot tore up the parapet and began to disintegrate it, throwing 
showers of sand over into the redoubt, while the blast and con- 
cussion of the mortars shook down the crumbling rampart. The 
men were actually uncovered, and about 1 1 o'clock were forced 
to lay down, and for a while take the storm of rebel shot with- 
out replying to it. The redoubt was rebuilt again, hov/ever, and 
before long again sent in a heavy fire, with great persistence and 
excellence of aim. The guns of the fort were now being grad- 
ually knocked down aiid deserted. By 3 p. iM. all had been si- 
lenced but one. That was the great 128-pounder, which could 
not be seen and could not be searched out by our balls. It kept 
up a slow fire till the last moment. 

At 4 o'clock our triumph came and the Fort displayed a white 
flag. Our batteries ceased firing at once, and a flag of truce 
coming out, Capt. Pell, of Burnside's staff, Lieut. Prouty. of the 
Ordnance department, Capt. Ammon, Lieut. Thomas, aud Lieut. 
Hill, of Parke's staff, went forward to meet it. On the way 
they passed the regiment, which had been placed on our picket 
line. It lay half buried in the sand tossed upon it by the bound- 
ing cannon shot. Gen. Parke being signaled, thereupon, gave 
his consent to an armistice, and one was agreed upon till 9 a. m. 
next day, at which time the Fort surrendered. Gen. Parke had 
hoped that it would be the first of the great United States forts 
reclaimed from the rebels. But Fort Pulaski had been captured 
by Gen. Gilmore April nth, two weeks before. It was, how- 
ever, the second captured work. Forts Jackson and St. Philip 
not being taken by Butler till the 27th, two days later. 



126 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

One man only was killed among the United States forces in 
this siege. This was William Dart of Ammon's battery. When 
the fire of the Fort had somewhat slackened, the men of the bat- 
tery had braved danger freely, and looked over the parapet to 
see the bombs burst in the fort. When a puff of smoke showed 
the discharge of a rebel cannon, the men would look against the 
sky for the ball, and dodge below the parapet in time to avoid 
it. Once two guns had been fired from the fort, which Dart 
failed to observe. While bravely exposing himself to danger, 
and driving a range stake for his mortar, a solid shot struck him 
in the breast, killing him instantly. 

Two men received wounds during the siege, in Capt. Morris's 
battery. 

The rebel loss was 8 killed, 20 wounded, and 430 prisoners, 
besides 50 guns, 20,000 pounds of powder, 400 stand of arms, 
and 20 horses. 

Our forces took possession of the fort on the morning of April 
36th, the 5th Rhode Island marching in with colors flying. The 
eflfect of our shot and shell was regarded with curious eyes. It 
was terrible. The ramparts, the ground inside, the ditches, 
were strewn with thousands of iron fragments of exploded shells. 
The parapets were ploughed and rent, the inner walls gashed in 
a hundred places, chimneys were knocked flat, guns dismounted 
and gun carriages were knocked to pieces and their splinters 
scattered in every direction. One 30-Ib. Parrot shot, meeting 
some railroad iron, set up to protect a doorway, cut four rails 
square off, and buried itself its length in brick masonry. Dur- 
ing the firing Battery I threw into the fort 560 effective shells. 

Col. Rodman took command of the captured fortress tempo- 
rarily, Capt. Ammon's battery, in honor of the share borne by 
it in its reduction, being given the Colonel for artillery gar* 
risen. On the 26th, Gen. Burnside issued the following order: 

"The General commanding takes peculiar pleasure in express- 
ing his thankfulness to Gen. Parke and his brave command for 
their patient labor, fortitude, and courage, displayed in the in- 
vestment and reduction of Fort Macon. Every patriot heart 
will be filled with gratitude to God for having given to our be- 
loved country such soldiers." 

Burnside then ordered the 4th Rhode Island, 5th Rhode 
Island and 8th Connecticut Volunteers, Capt. Ammon's Battery 
and Capt. Morris's Battery, to inscribe on their banners, " Fort 
Macon, 26th April, 1862." This was the first victory written on 
the flag of the 3d New York Artillerv. 

The success of Battery I was hailed with delight at Newbern. 



v''- 1 '■■ ' < i^fiC 



rRESENTATION TO BATTERY U 12/ 

* 
The brother officers of Capt. Ammon sent at once to Tiffany, 
the jeweler, in New York, for a beautiful guidon flag of crimson 
and white silk, fringed with yellow, hung on a black walnut staff 
with a solid silver spear head, with an inscription conrrmemorat- 
ing the victory. The letter accompanying its presentation was 
as follows r 

"Headquarters ^d New York Artillery, > 
Nevtbern, N. C, August 19, 1862. )' 
Captain: — In behalf of the field and staff' of this regiment, I 
have the honor to present to yon, as the representative of Com- 
pany I, 5d New York Artillery, a guidon inscribed, " Fort Ma- 
con. April 26th, 18^2," which iTiscription you won the right to 
wear on your colors by the fine endurance displayed by your 
command during the Tong days and nights of preparation, (being 
constantly exposed to the fire of a watchful and untiring enemy,) 
and by heroic valor at the bombardment of Fort Macon, which 
was won also by the blood of one of your brave men. It is grat- 
ifying to know, that, though exposed to the terrible hail which 
fell around incessantly for ten long hours, not a man of your 
command faltered ; but all fought like heroes until the white 
flag upon the epaulment announced that Fort Macon had fallen. 
Hoping you may win new laurels and that other inscriptions 
may grace your colors, I have the honor to be. 

Yours Very Truly, 

James H. Ledlie, 
Colonel 3d New York Artillery." 

tJRon the staff" of the guidon a silver plate was lettered thus : 
*' Presented by Colonel Ledlie, Lieut.-Col. Stewart, Major Stone, 
Major Giles, Chaplain Hart, Q. M. Chedell, Surgeon Dimon, 
Adj. Dennis, Asst. Surg. Knight." 

Col. Rodman remained in command at Macon a short time 
only, a day or two. Capt. Ammon succeeded him and was 
commandant until May 27th, when he was ordered home on re- 
cruiting service. Battery I remained at the Fort till December. 
It was ordered to Newbern then to take part in an expedition. 
It arrived there December 3d. 

Major Giles was commandant at Macon in January, 1863. and 
Major Stone was commandant there from June, 1863, to May 
»5. 1864. 

June 27th, 1862, Battery G, Capt. John Wall, 3d New York 
Artillery, about ninety strong, equipped with muskets as heavy 
artillery, was ordered by Col. Ledlie to go to Washington, N. C, 



128 3^ N£W-YORR VOLUNTEER ARTILLERW 

to garrison the fortifications then being built for the defense of 
that town. It was to take with it five brass and one iron six 
pound field pieces, captured by the rebels from us at the battle 
of Bull Run and retaken at the battle of Newbern. The Battery 
arrived at Washington on the North river ferry boat Curlew^ 
at 4 P. M. of the 28th, going into barracks on the wharf for the 
night. Next day it was quartered in buildings in the town. 

Washington, familiarly called by our troops Little Washing- 
ton to distinguish it in speech from the Capital of the United 
States, boasting, in 1862, 3,000 inhabitants, occupies a site on 
the north bank of the Tar River, which is wide and ten feet 
deep here and is crossed by a long bridge. Its garrison on the 
arrival of Battery G consisted of the ist North Carolina Union 
Volunteers, Col. Potter commanding ; 24th Masschusetts Vol- \ 
unteers ; a company of Marine Artillery, and a company of the 1 
3d New York Cavalry, — the whole under command of Col. I 
Potter. In the stream lay the Union gunboats Pickett and J 
Louisiana. The greater part of the 24th Massachusetts, with \ 
its splendid band, (Gilmore's.) was ordered to Newbern the day | 
Battery G arrived, and the Marine Artillery went away July ist. | 

The defenses of Washington were as yet in embryo ; but a 
force of 300 contrabands were stoutly at work upon them. The 
points 'chiefly to be guarded were the roads, of which there 
were three, viz : the Greenville road, running out of the town, 
along the river, westward \ the Jamestown road, running out to 
the north-west j the Plymouth road, striking off to the north- 
east Between the first two there was being built a square, 
bastioned field fort, called Fort Washington, the profiles for 
which were given by Sidney W. Palmer, and on each road a 
block-house of logs and a redoubt. A fourth block-house and a 
redoubt were on the bank of the river below the town. Our 
engineers designed that these works should be joined by a line 
of good breastworks, or rifle trenches, clear around the place, 
except on the east. That side was protected by a marsh, grown 
over with woods, an arm of the great Alligator Swamp, which 
occupies the whole peninsula between the Pamlico and Albe- 
marle rivers, and here comes to almost the very edge of the 
town. These works were well under way when Battery G 
arrived. 

Early in July the Battery received orders to move out of 
town, which it did. A detachment with a section, two guns, was 
posted on each road, the men camping near by in pleasant 
fields. 

Things went on very quietly in July and August The time 



PREVALENCE OF MALARIA, !29 

'was improved in finishing Fort Washington and the block houses 
and in drilling. A foray of some of Battery G's boys on a 
farmer's honey, one night, is remembered as making a ripple of 
excitement. Such an uproar of dogs and men arose therefrom, 
that the drums of the post beat to arms under the idea that 
there was an attack. 

During August sickness prevailed to an alarming extent. 
Miasma from the swamps entailed fevers. At one time, in Bat- 
tery G, sixty-two men were in hospital, leaving only thirty-two 
fit for duty. There were several deaths. The faithful attention 
of the Surgeon of the gun boat Louisiana to the sick men is re- 
membered with gratitude. Battery G was so weakened by sick- 
ness that two sections (four guns) were sent into the town, Sept. 
ist, and the guns parked in the hospital yard. There were not 
men enough to work them. The hospital was a large academy 
building, near the heart of the town, on a corner where two 
streets crossed. A smaller building, on a corner diagonally op- 
posite from the academy, was also used as a hospital, and was 
full of sick men at the time of the occurrence about to be 
described. 

Gov. Clark, of North Carolina, wanted to signalize the close 
of his administration by some brilliant passage of arms. The 
fruit of his anxiety was brought forth about September ist, in 
an attack by 1,400 rebels at Plymouth, about thirty-five miles 
north of Washington, which, however, was beaten off easilv. 
The prevalence of sickness in Washington, having been reported 
to the rebel forces, presented to them their opportunity, and next 
tempted an attack on that post. 

Gen. Foster at this tinie had planned a cavalry expedition to 
Rainbow Bluff, on the Roanoke river, to look after some threat- 
ening rebel preparations said to be going on there, and on the 
night of September 5th, four companies of the 3d New York 
Cavalry, under command of Lieut.-Col. Mix, and Battery H. 3d 
New York Artillery, four guns, under Capt. Wm. J. Rig.^s, 
landed in Washington from transports from Newbern, and bi- 
vouacked on the dock. At 4 a. m. of the 6th of September, the 
detachment formed in column on the street, marched through 
the place, and moved rapidly out on the Plymouth road north- 
eastward. A dense fog hung over the river and town and com- 
pletely veiled the movement 

At precisely the same hour, a rebel raiding party of 500 in- 
fantry, with two companies of cavalry, was stealing up towards 
the town, on the opposite side, under cover of the same fog. 
It came up on the Greenville road and entered the town be- 
I 



130 3^ NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEKT. 

tween the road and river, through the corn field and private 
grounds of James Christ, a wealthy i-ebel, who is supposed to 
have led the party in in person. The cavalry came in on a 
gallop, capturing our videttes, and awakening the town and gar- 
rison by their yells and firing. The 24th Massachusetts and 
1st North Carolina Volunteers, in their barracks, down by the 
river, promptly sprang to arms. At the academy, the firing 
was simultaneously heard, and the men on guard ran in shouting 
to the convalescents, "Turn out, boys, the rebs are here !" All 
who were able turned out pell mell and ran down into the yard 
and street, and stood for a moment in the gray mist listening to 
the din that came from the west and the river.' 

It was plain that serious business was afoot. On the impulse 
of the moment, Quick, Agnew, Graham, Foster and other con- 
valescents hurriedly dragged one of the guns out of the academy 
yard into the street. A charge of cannister was rammed home, 
and the gun pointed up the street, running westwards to the 
Greenville road. Suddenly a piratical looking crew of rebel 
cavalry came galloping through the fog up from the river straight 
for the academy. One of the men cried, " Those are rebels."" 
The old brass gun was swung rapidly around, and Quick thrust 
the friction fuse into the vent and was trying to hook on to it 
the lanyard, by which it was to be discharged, when, with terrific 
yells, the rebels charged right over him and slashing and firing 
at his comrades who were running in every direction for cover. 
Some managed to escape. But Agnew was shot dead, others 
were wounded and the rest were driven into the hospital. The 
rebel infantry came up a moment after and placed a guard over 
the academy and hospital. That the attacking party was well 
informed of the position of things in Washington is clear, from 
the directness with which their cavalry charged for the academy, 
and from their bringing spare horses to draw off the captured 
guns. 

Meanwhile, the sounds of battle had assailed the ears of 
Lieut.-Col. Mix and Capt. Riggs, en rente for the north. " Left 
about " was the word, and the expedition came thundering into 
town on a full run. Riggs's pieces were planted at the corners 
of two streets, pointing westward, under Lieuts. Mercer, Field 
and O'Neill ; one piece being sent down to the docks to help 
out the infantry which was making a stand there. Lieut. 
O'NeilPs gun was placed in position to sweep the street that ran 
by the academy, and loaded with cannister. Through the fog a 
company of infantry could be seen drawn up across the street. 
Lieut. Gourand, of the 3d Cavalry, went forward to reconnoiter 



LIEUT, field's answer. I3I 

and got back with word that they were rebels, just in time for 
O'Neill to open fire before the enemy's charge had reached him. 
Before the terrible blast of iron hail that he sent tearing through 
it, the gray line advancing on him broke and retreated in con- 
fusion behind the corner. It formed and charged again, and 
again was driven back with cannister. The vain attempt was 
repeated a third time with a like result. But now the rebel 
sharp-shooters got behind trees and concentrated upon the de- 
voted band serving the gun such a withering fire, that every 
man upon it was either killed or wounded. Among the latter 
was Arthur Millard, of Battery G, who served as a volunteer on 
this gun and with the utmost' intrepidity ; Corp'l Smith loaded 
and fired this piece twice alone. O'Neill now brought off his 
piece and took it down to the river where it afterwards did fur- 
ther good service. 

The sudden onslaught of Lieut. -Col. Mix's party considera- 
bly astonished the butternuts, who were utterly unaware of their 
presence in the vicinity till that moment. When Riggs opened 
fire the rebels were staggered decidedly, but they recovered 
and renewed the fight with Battery G's captured pieces, which 
they brought to bear on the new assailants. Lieut Field en- 
gaged two of them hotly for two hours. During the fight, a 
party of Confederates rode up to this officer and called out to 
know whether he was a " Yank " or " Johnny," the fog and 
smoke rendering it almost impossible to tell friend from foe. 
Field replied with a fire of cannister which mowed a lane of 
death through their ranks, and they fled precipitately. 

The gun boats Pickett and Louisiana^ lying in the river, 
cleared the decks for action, early in the fight. The Pickdt 
went out of the fight at the first discharge. Her magazine ex- 
ploded, killing Capt. Nichols, her commander, and nineteen 
men. The cause has ever remained a mystery, but it is thought 
that some sailor went into the magazine with a candle and°let 
it fall. This sad affair was the principal loss of the day. The 
Louisiana^ however, did splendid execution-. Her big guns 
raked the street in front of the academy, where the rebels made 
their principal stand and were trying to work the captured bat- 
tery, with huge shells, and the tremendous concussion of the 
guns, and the strange hum of the great shells as they flew by 
and burst, carried panic among the rebels- at every discharge. 
The locality of the academy was now a pandemonium, such as 
5fw men live to hear. The air was filled with the yells of the 
enemy, the shrieks and curses of the wounded who strewed the 
ground, the sharp whang of round shot^ the crash of shells and 



13.2 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

whirr of falling fragments, the sighing and rushing of canister, 
while artillery vollied on all sides, and a constant rattling of 
musketry and whistling of bullets combined to make up a chorus 
of horror. The rebels fought with desperate and admirable 
courage, and when the roar of the Louisiana's guns broke out 
they charged down several times to take them, thinking them to 
be a new field battery brought into action. But human nature 
could not endure the trial of fire to which they were subjected, 
and they always came back in confusion, scattering into the 
door yards. 

The academy was terribly shattered by the iron storm that 
whirled around it, being completely riddled by the shells. The 
rebels got behind it for shelter, and Battery G's men saw two of 
them stricken down by the fall of a chimney, toppled over by a 
shell. 

Capt Wall was in the fight and did good service. His quar- 
ters were on the east side of the town. He repaired at once 
to the docks and fought with a company of North Carolina vol- 
unteers. During the day, he was separated from his command 
and was collared by a rebel Captain, but he took the rebel a 
prisoner and brought him in to the lines. 

Lieut. Robinson, with twenty-eight men, was at his fort at one 
of the block houses. 

At last, after four hours of hard and bloody battle, the Con- 
federates gave up the town in disgust and fled hastily off by the 
Greenville road, pursued by our cavalry. They left their guard 
over the academy standing, and the Battery G's convalescents, 
jumping out of bed, seized their muskets 'and took the guard 
prisoners. 

The total Union loss in this affair was nine killed, forty-one 
wounded, and about twenty prisoners. The loss of the 3d Ar- 
tillery was four killed, eight wounded and nine prisoners, besides 
the four guns, viz : 

BATTERY G. 

.^/7/^^— Samuel S. Andrews, Frank Agnew, Artemus A. 
Dresser. 

Wounded— hx\hxix D. Millard, hip. 

BATTERY H. 

Killed — Anthony Legger. • • 

Wounded— Q,ox^^. Wilson Smith, knee, seriously ; C. Mer- 
chant, shoulder; Albert Mott, leg; Geo. Olcott, back; J. 
McCrane, hand ; John Malone, hip ; Frank Rase, hip. 

The missing were of Battery G, viz : Wm. W. Bush, Augustus 



COMPLIMENTING BATTERY H. . I33 

R. Leonard, James B. Benson, Irwin Castleton, Milan Burns, 
James W. Chapman, Wm. Emerson, Alvius Jockquett, Abijah 
H. Loveland. They were carried off under guard and were in 
captivity several months, but were all ultimately exchanged. 

The rebels suffered severely. The streets around the academy 
were strewn with their gory bodies, and in the roads everywhere 
and in the fields were scores of others. Their loss was over 
no in killed and wounded and forty prisoners. The canteens 
of some of the dead were found to contain mixed whiskey and 
gunpowder. Both infantry and cavalry were dressed in butter- 
nut colored clothes with slouched hats. 

September 8th, Gen. Foster and Col. Ledlie arrived from 
Newbern to view the ground of the action. The brave conduct 
of Battery G's men was highly complimented by both officers. 
For Battery H was reserved the honor of a General Order in 
testimony of its gallantry. This compliment was as follows : 

" Headquarters Department of North Carolina. ) 
Newbern, N. C, September 20th, 1862. | 

General Order, No. 37 : — The General commanding this de- 
partment desires to express his approbation of the conduct of 
Capt. Riggs's Battery of light artillery of the 3d New York Vol- 
unteers, in the attack on Washington, N. C. ; and particularly 
commends the conduct of Corporal Wilson Smith and the gun- 
ners manning the gun, stationed at the intersection of First and 
Bridge streets, who stood to their guns until every man was shot 
down. The General accepts this as an augury of what may be 
expected of the battery on future occasions. 

By command of Maj.-Gen. J. G. Foster. 

Jas. H. Strong, Lieut, and Act. Asst.-Adj.-Gen." 

Battery G and Battery H both inscribed " Washington, N. C, 
Sept. 6, 1862," on their guidons. 

As soon as possible after the fight, the infantry garrison of 
Washington was strengthened by three companies of the 7th 
Massachusetts. The sick men of Battery G were sent to New- 
bern, and a large number of new recruits were assigned to Capt. 
Wall to replenish his ranks. The defenses of the town were 
rapidly perfected. Battery G was ordered into Fort Washing- 
ton as its garrison. It remained in the fort some time, acting 
both as heavy and light artillery, sometimes guarding the fort, 
sometimes the block houses, where 6-lb. guns were posted, and 
doing picket duty on the roads leading out of the town. During 
November and December, and through the winter, rebels lurked 
in the vicinity constantly, and at times skirmished with our pick- 



134 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

ets. In February, '63, they ventured so near that some shells 
were thrown at them from the fort. 



When Burnside left North Carolina to go to the relief of 
McClellan, he placed the Department under the command of 
Brig.-Gen. J. G. Foster. 

Gen, Foster came of good old Revolutionary stock and was a 
bold and enterprising commander. He graduated at West Point 
in 1842 in the Engineers. He fought in Mexico under Scott, 
taking part in every battle from Vera Cruz to Molino del Rey. 
At the latter he received a wound in the knee while leading a 
division of the storming party on Casa Mata. The severity of 
the wound nearly cost him his leg ; but he stoutly refused ampu- 
tation. The wound, however, never fully healed and gave him 
much trouble in after years. It was still a distress to him dur- 
ing the Rebellion. He received three brevets during the Mexican 
War, In 1859 he.was made Engineer in charge of the forts at 
Charleston, and was one of the garrison of Sumter at its capture 
in April, 186 1. 

Foster was a bold and enterprising commander. The small- 
ness of the force left to him by Burnside compelled caution, yet, 
during the summer and fall of 1862 he constantly harassed the 
enemy by expeditions in small force and kept them ever in such 
apprehension of attack that he made North Carolina a perpetual 
worry to the Confederate Government. The rebel element in 
the whole eastern and central part of the State was so paralyzed 
that Jeff. Davis sneeringly remarked to Gov. Vance, that " North 
Carolina was a dead weight on the Confederacy." Gen. Foster's 
operations brought on the fights of Bachelor's Creek, near 
Newbern ; Trater's Creek, between Washington and Plvmouth ; 
Rainbow Bluff, Plymouth and Washington, — the latter being the 
one which we have just recorded at length. 

Several regiments, mostly from Massachusetts, being sent to 
Foster in the course of the summer and autumn, the General 
determined on a bold enterprise. The Army of the Potomac 
was about to advance on Fredericksburg. To create a diver- 
sion, an expedition v/as organized to cut the Weldon railroad, 
and also to destroy two rebel gun boats reported to be in pro- 
cess of construction in the Roanoke at Williamston. 

Newbern was left under command of Col. John Kurtz, of the 
23d Massachusetts. Foster said to him in writing, '* Your in- 
structions are simply to act in all things on your best judgment. 
If attacked, defend to the last practicable moment." Lieut.-Col. 



THE TARBORO EXPEDITION, • I35 

Stewart, who, by Col. Ledlie's order of October 4th, had been 
left in command of the 3d Artillery, was to remain as Engineer 
and Chief ot Artillery of the post. 

The troops for the expedition were gathered together at 
Washington on the Tar. Two brigades went thither by water 
from Nevvbern. The cavalry (3d New York,) and artillery, with 
Col. T. J. C. Amory's brigade, came up overland, arriving Sat- 
urday evening, November 2d, 1862. The artillery force was 
commanded by Major Kennedy and comprised Battery B, 3d 
New York Artillery, six guns ; Battery F, six guns ; Battery H, 
four guns ; Battery K, four guns ; Belger's Rhode Island Bat- 
tery, six guns ; and some marine artillery. Among the regi- 
ments of Amory's brigade was the 9th New Jersey, one of the 
most daring lot of warriors in the service, between whom and 
the 3d Artillery there ever existed a singularly warm and fra- 
ternal attachment. 

On Sunday morning, November 3d, Foster put his long train 
of artillery in the middle of his column of 10,000 men, placed 
Stevenson's brigade in the advance and made a rapid march 
northwards in the direction of Williamston. The country was 
level and sandy. But the road ran through dense forests and 
the soil was at times swampy. The day was hot and progress 
slow. Passing a deserted rebel cavalry camp, lying in ashes, 
about 4 P. M., the occasional rifle crack of the advance guard 
changed to a sustained fire that indicated business on hand. 
At Old Ford, 700 rebels with two cannon disputed the way, 
Belger's Battery opened fire and Stevenson's infantry advanced, 
when the rebels fell back from rifle pits they had made a mile or 
more to the crossing of a stream, at a place called Rawles 
Mills. The creek ran through a guUey. On the other side 
were woods and in the road a newly made earthwork. Here tlie 
rebels made a second stand. Batteries B and K, 3d Artillery, 
came quickly up, and while the infantry was trying to put out 
the fire the rebels had set on the bridge, they discharged shell 
for an hour at the rebel redoubt and the woods where their in- 
fantry lay concealed. Tvvili!2;ht came on and the flash of our 
bursting shells became visible in the gloom. Our infantry now 
began to cross the stream, and late at night the rebels suddenly 
ceased firing and ran. 

The troops bivouacked while pioneers rebuilt the bridge. In 
the morning the advance was resumed — Battery K with the 
advance. As our men crossed the stream, the effect of their 
'shells excited comment. The redoubt and the trees around it 
Were badly gashed, and here and there a dead rebel or an artil- 



136 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTPELERT. 

lery' horse lay, showing the enemy had met with loss. Our ad- 
vance was evidently a source of disquietude to the rebels 
7h.V^v""ff heavily in the front all day, making a pause on 
the banks of streams and opening fire with cannon to retard us 
f^l f"; fi "^^ ""^"^^ "P' ''"^bering up and scuttling awav again 

InH ^ i "u'^P'^^i""' ^"''^"^ ""• Williamston was entered 

and passed about midnight. The army bivouacked near it 

• navy co-operated in this movement up to this point, mov- 

i"i/L//^ r^^ n ^^'^^'' °^ '^^ ^'"^y- The gunboats Bunc^- 
back, ValUy Oty, Perry and Hetzel were among the number 

Finding no iron-clads at Williamston, Foster turned off west- 
ward and struck straight for Tarboro, with the hope of cutting 
fhVwM "i^M^'^^f '^§^""^"^' ^h^'"^ 3"^ eventually reaching 

v/n.^H r 5"^''?'^ ^ ^'^ "^'^^^ ^^>'°"^- ^'^ ^he 4th he adt 
vanced to Hamilton, encamping two miles beyond the town, 

S nn^.r'^- ^'^ ^"/^"f^'.r"^^ ^ebel fortifications at Rainbo; 
Bluff, on the river, three miles below the town. Our cavalry on 
entering Hamilton found the roads ahve with wagons of people 
On'rh! r^h ^T^^^^ '" the greatest terror of the terrible Yankees. 
On the 5th, Foster pushed on to within six miles of Tarboro 
his scouts going to within a mile of it 

romrl^n? '" f ""^ ^^^ "'-^^^ '^^ whistling of locomotives and 
commotion of railroad trains, conveyed to the ear of Foster in- 

W fronf vll "^' '°''' °^^^ ^"^'">' ^-^^ ^-""S collected irx 
fact Fo,^.^' n /'""" '""T^ i^fo^ation that^that was the 

Sked th; T^^^'^"^::^V"^^.='^" ^"^^ b^^°^^ ^he council, and 
asked the opinions of the officers as to attacking or retiring 
Their names were called. Some were for fightmg, some fo"; 
fhTLh''r ^^""^^y voted to fight. So didShe^Colonel of 
the loth Connecticut, a regiment of only 350 men. Foster 

ir n1 t'k'"^ ^''' ^""^ ^^'"^ "^^^^- The mi^rity favored re- 

liw ''°"''^' r" consideration, the General resolved to 

w! ^'■^"'^/"ot'ves of prudence. A day was spent before Tar- 

awa,; \n^7 A '™^ "'"'''^^"^ ^^"'^ ^° Hamilton, fifteea miles 
away, in mud and rain. 

Next day, the 8th, amid snow and sleet, the army pushed to 
Wilhamston, where it remained two nights. The^ exhausted 
troops were quartered in the houses. A sight met the eves of 
our patnot soldiers here which filled' them u^ith anger t was 
the whipping post of the slaves. The post was cut down, with 
great excitement, and the town jail, where slaves had been ha 
bitually confined, was burnt to the ground, neither ever again to ' 
be the instruments of wrong and oppression. By the tiotoas 



PICTURESQUE CAMP. 137 

conduct of drunken marines, Williamston was set on fire before 

the army left it. Gen. Foster severely reprimanded the act. I 

Plymouth was reached on the loth. The army encamped | 
within a few miles of the place on the farm of a rich old rebel j 
planter. After the privations of the raid, the bivouac on this ! 
plantation, swarming as it was with poultry and stocked with ; 
vegetables, v/as something pleasant. Our lads subsisted on the | 
enemy on this occasion, much to the wrath of the ardent old j 
fire eater's family. The camp here was a most picturesque one, * | 
and the scene at night will never fade from the memory of those j 
who saw it. The thousand flickering camp fires, whose beams j 
glinted from cannon and wagons and stacks of burnished arms, j 
and lighted up flags and white tents and rows of picketed j 
horses, were surrounded by merry groups of volunteers, laugh- 
ing, playing cards, and watching darkies dance, or gravely dis- j 
cussing the prospects of the war. From time to time, silvery j 
bugle notes floated over the camps from far and near, and drums j 
beat signals for the various rounds of duties of camp service. j 

On the nth, a portion of the army embarked at Plymouth j 

and went to Newbem, ending the Tarboro expedition. The re- j 

suits of this expedition were the giving the rebels a grand scare J 

and the release of several hundred slaves from bondage. ! 

The Batteries of the 3d Artillery, with an infantry force under 1 

Col. Bartholomew of the 27th Massachusetts, remained at Ply- \ 

mouth till the latter part of the month. To protect the town | 

against an attack the rebels were supposed to intend, the Bat- I 

teries were disposed on the various roads converging at the j 

town to guard them. On the 2 2d, Sergt. Loren S. Bradley, \ 

Corp. Edward Richardson, and three privates of Battery B j 
were captured while out foraging. They were afterwards ex- 
changed at Camp Parole, Annapolis. 

Foster was now gathering his forces at Newbem for a raid of 
more business-like proportions, and the Batteries at Plymouth 
were brought down on transports to that post» 



138 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



VIII 



FOSTER'S EXPEDITION TO GOLDSBORO. 

Fostei'i Orders— OrganizatJoa of the Columa — The Advance — Obstructioni at 
Deep Gully — Capture of Redoubt at South-we»t Creek — Lieut -Col. Stewart 
ill a Hot Place— rBattle of Kinatoa-~-Saving the Bridge — Morrison's Prisoners 
— Shelling the Town — Advance into Kinston — Da»b at the Blockade— The 
Spoils — Advance to Whitehall — The Battle — Hackett's and Ryan's Death — 
Mercereau'a Shot— On to Goldiboro — Burning the Bridge — Army Commences 
to Return — Attack on the Rear Guard — Morrison's Achievement — Sundry 
Cavalry Dashes— Wading a Mill Stream — Through Burning Woods — Return 
to Mewbera-^Foster's Thanks. 

The month of December, 1862^ is memorable in the annals 
of the War for the Union, for the grand assault upon the stub- 
bom heights of Fredericksburg, Va., by the Army of the Poto- 
mac under Burnside, and the co-operative expedition into the in- 
terior of North Carolina by the troops of Gen. Foster, com- 
manding the latter department When the assault on Freder- 
icksburg was planned, Gen. Halleck, Commander-in-Chiet 
under the President, issued orders that, simultaneously with 
Burnside's crossing the Rapahannock, all the available forces at 
Newbern should advance to Goldsboro, N. C, break the rail- 
road, burn the bridges and smash things generally, so as to 
create a diversion in favor of Burnside. 

Burnside had nearly stripped the department of troops in 
July. But in November, Massachusetts regiments began to 
arrive, when the work of brigading and fitting them for the field 



ORGANIZATION OF THE COLUMN. I39 

began with energy. On the 9th of December, the veteran 
brigade of Gen, Wessels, loaned from Dix's corps at Fortress i 

Monroe, reached Newbern. Having then called in from 1 

Fort Macon, Washington and Roanoke all his surplus troops, I 

Foster issued orders for the expedition. They were read that I 

same evening to all the regiments on dress parade. The des- 1 

tination was not stated, but all were ordered to be in readiness | 

to march in thirty-sLx hours, in light marching order, that is | 

without knapsacks or tents, carrying only blankets, overcoats 
and shelter-tents, with three days' rations in haversacks, seven 
in wagons. 

As organized for the expedition, Foster's army in the field 
consisted of four large brigades of infantry and one magnificent 
brigade of artillery, viz : 

Wessel's Brigade : 85th, loist and 103d Peiinsylvania Vol- 
unteers ; 88th, 92d and 96th New York Volunteers. 

Stevenson's Brigade : 9th New Jersey, loth Connecticut, 24th 
Massachusetts, 44th Massachusetts. 

Lee's Brigade : 3d^ 5th, 25th, 27th, 28th, and 46th Massa- 
chusetts. 

Amory's Brigade : lyth, 23d, 43d, 45th and 51st Massachu- 
setts. 

Artillery Brigade : This was in two battalions commanded 
by that dashing officer. Major Kennedy, and Major Stone, re- 
spectively, comprising the following : Battery B, 3d New York, 
Capt. Morrison, armament six twelve pound brass Napoleons ; 
Battery E, 3d New York, Lieut Geo. E. Ashby, two twenty 
pound Parrots, two thirty-two pound brass howitzers ; Battery 
F, 3d New York, Capt. Jenny, six twelve pound Wiards, rifles ; 
Battery H, 3d New York, Capt. Riggs, six twelve pound Napo- 
leons ; Battery K, 3d New York, Capt. Angel, six three inch 
Rodmans, iron ;. Battery I, 3d New York, Lieut. Geo. W. 
Thomas, four twenty pound Parrots, ist Rhode Island Battery, 
Capt. Belger. One section of 23d New York Independent Bat- 
tery, Capt. Jay K Lee. One section of 24th New York Inde- 
pendent Battery, Capt. Alfred Ransom. Battery C, ist United 
States. In all forty guns, manned by a thousand men. This 
brigade, Gen. Foster placed under command of Col. Ledlie, act- 
ing Brigadier, by General Orders, No. 63, December 3d, which 
organized all the artillery of the department into one command 
under Col. Ledlie. 

Also in the column were the 3d New York Cavalry, a brave 
and gallant corps, which, with the 9th New Jersey, Col. Hick- 
man, acted as advance guard all the way to Goldsboro. 



140 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

The column was 12,000 strong, brave, well disciplined, finely 
appointed, and spoiling for a fight. 

Capt. James C. Slaght was Chief Quartermaster of the expe- 
dition, and Lieut. Fred, W. Prince was his able and untiring as- 
sistant. 

By order of Gen. Foster, Lieut.-Col. Stewart accompanied the 
expedition as Chief Engineer, to build bridges and clear the 
roads, taking with him 300 stout contrabands from the black 
camps at Newbem, under the immediate superintendency of 
Henry W. Wilson, master carpenter, with wagons, axes and tools. 
The blacks constituted the pioneer brigade and were of incalcu- 
lable service. 

The advance began at 6 o'clock, on the dark, cool morning of 
Thursday, December nth. A vail of mist at sunrise hid the 
face of the country, concealing the movement from rebel scouts 
for some hours. Gen. Foster was a stout fighter, but also knew 
the value of strategy ; and so, believing that there must be heavy 
intrenchments to oppose and delay him on the straight road to 
Kinston, the first principal town on the way to Goldsboro, he 
marched out on a different road, taking the one along the river 
Trent, expecting thereby, by a rapid movement, to flank and get 
easily past all obstructions. Once under way, the troops were 
put upon their mettle and moved as fast as they could along the 
sandy and swampy path. The men were in splendid spirits, 
having perfect confidence in Gen. Foster, whom they all loved 
and respected ; and the spectacle they made was magnificent as 
the long columns marched rapidly by with springing step and 
sparkling eyes, while their merry jokes and laughter and patriotic 
songs mingled on the air with the rustling of feet, the rattle of 
muskets and sabres, and the rumbling of teams of artiller)' and 
wagons. The artillery, the gem and idol of the army, occupied 
the center of the army, and alone made a column nearly a mile 
in length. 

After a march of fourteen miles, the advance guard, the g\h 
New Jersey, met a picket post of the rebels at Deep Gully, 
where a tributary to the Trent crosses the road. The picket 
was routed unceremoniously. Finding that the road beyond the 
Gully had been obstructed for nearly a mile, by felling heavy 
forest trees across it, Foster halted there for the night, bivou- 
acking his army on a large and good looking plantation. As 
the regiments stacked arms, there was an eager rush for the 
fences and the spare poultry and cattle of the plantation. Both 
disappeared as if by magic. After night fall, the spacious field 
was covered with countless camp fires, lighting up rows of shin- 



'f: .; .i-f.'> 



ADVANCING TO SOUTH WEST CREEK. I4I 

ing stacks of muskets, ranks of picketed horses, with bivouacked 
artillery and the crowds of volunteers who came around them to 
gossip and smoke their evening pipes. The sights and sounds 
of that memorable bivouac are not forgotten. 

Meanwhile, Lieut. -Col. Stewart had brought up his black 
pioneers to attack the prostrate timber. Lustily were they ply- 
ing their axes upon it, and separating and rolling out of the road 
the heavy pine trunks. By 3 1-2 a. m. report was made to Gen, 
Foster that the way was clear. 

The march was resumed at 5 a. m. of the 12th. Opposite 
Trenton, a rebel skirmish party of cavalry and infantry attacked 
our advance, but had their fingers severely burnt in the attempt 
to handle it, and ran oft' in a hurr}' after a short fight. At the 
upper end of the great Dover swamp, along whose southern 
border the army had been moving, a direct road to Kinston 
forks off to the right. Foster sent a strong cavalry force down 
this road several miles to make a show of advancing straight 
upon Kinston. The battalion encountered the main picket 
guard of the enemy, and superintended its pell-mell re- 
treat to some powerful earthworks thrown up across the road. 
Beaver creek bridge having been rebuilt. Gen. Foster then 
moved rapidly forward by the left, or Vine Swamp, road, under 
cover of the feint, thus avoiding the obstructions and enemy on 
the main road. He had in view the object of reaching the stream 
known as South West creek, at a point nine miles from Kin- 
ston, where stands the most westerly of the four bridges that 
cross it. The 23d Battery and 51st Massachusetts were left to 
guard the road junction and Beaver creek bridge. The army 
bivouacked at dusk four miles beyond Beaver creek. 

Again there was a lively raid on the fences, for it was cool, 
and soon thousands of fence rails were smoking in the camps of 
the volunteers. Before leaving Newbern, Gen. Foster had is- 
sued an imperative order that soldiers must not stray from camp 
nor pillage from the farmers. But the three days' rations in 
haversacks were nearly eaten by the close of this day, and all, 
infantry and artillery alike, sent out foraging parties to get them 
provisions. They went out at night fall and an hour afterwards 
they returned to testify to the thoroughness with which they had 
done their work by showing the loads of poultry, honey, sweet 
potatoes and fat pigs they had relieved the rebel farmers of. 
Here, too, they made the acquaintance of apple jack, that bever- 
age of cheering qualities and promotive of socialty. 

Our advance reached South West creek at 9 1-2 a. m. of the 
X3th, having had a sharp skirmish by the way. It found it to be 



142 3° NEW-VORK VOLUNtEER ARTILLERY. 

a swift, unfordable stream, coursing through a deep and woody 
ravine, a bad place for us to cross should the enemy defend it 
in force. As anticipated, however, the crossing was weakly 
guarded, the rebels having been so confused as to Gen. Foster's 
intentions as to be able to concentrate only 400 men, with two 
cannon, to resist us there. When our skirmishers began firing 
from the top of the bank at a redoubt thrown up in the road 
across the creek, Lieut.-Col. Stewart rode forward with his or- 
derly to reconnoiter and obtain any scraps of useful informa- 
tion, at the request of Gen. Wessels. The road descended 
sinuously into the ravine, winding around on the left-hand side 
of a high bluff. The two horsemen went cautiously down the 
road, scanning the wooded banks opposite with a searching 
gaze, but without discovering the enemy until, on coming out 
from behind the interposing buttress of the bluff, they suddenly 
confronted the two rebel guns, glaring savagely at them from 
the redoubt across the stream, not fifty yards away. The rebel 
gunners evidently failed to recognize in the two " solitary horse- 
men descending the hill," the heroes of James's novels. They 
evidently thought that a whole column of the dreaded Yankees 
was charging on them. Bang ! and a load of cannister was fired 
point blank at our brave Chief Engineer. The iron hail flew 
whistling around in a perfect storm, tearing up the ground and 
slashing the bush in all directions. But not a hair of the riders 
was touched. Being exactly in the line of fire, the missiles had, 
through that peculiar whirl given them by rifled ordnance, 
scattered so widely that they received no harm. Had it been a 
smooth bore that emptied its contents on this occasion, they 
would have been blown to atoms. Stewart beat a masterly re- 
treat, and at once directed the placing of our artillery. 

Lieut. Day's section of Battery B was with the advance. It 
was planted immediately on the bluff overlooking the redoubt. 
Depressing the muzzles of its pieces it began to send in burst- 
ing shells to the rebel work. The second shot disabled a rebel 
gun and the other was silenced soon after. The rest of Battery 
B took position further to the right in line of battle with Am- 
ory's and Wessel's brigades, and opened fire on the woods. 
The 9th New Jersey and 23d Massachusetts now crossed on a 
mill-dam above the bridge ; the 85th Pennsylvania on trees be- 
low. Thus flanked the rebels ran and the Stars and Stripes 
were planted on the redoubt amid great cheering. We captured 
one 6-pound gun, some munitions of war and prisoners, besides 
killing and wounding several of the enemy. 

The pioneers now came up and repaired the bridge, when a 



AUVANCmG ON KINSTON, I43 

portion of the army marched on, going into bivouac four miles 
from Kinston — the rest remaining near the creek. i 

This was the first taste of war for many of our artiller}'men. I 

The first bloody tokens were regarded with curiosity. First j 

the rebels wounded in the first skirmish of the day were \ 

passed. Then a man dying on the stoop of a house with his ' 

face shot away. Rebel prisoners bleeding and limping went to | 

the rear in charge of guards. A mere boy in rebel uniform lay \ 

by the road side dead, with a fearful saber cut in his head. The ] 

terrible destructive power of our cannon shot, as shown by the 
trees in line of our fire, was also noted. These horrors and 
scenes were all to be repeated on a vastly larger scale next day. 

On reaching camp that night, our men were so tired with 
marching that they fell to the ground under their guns, wrapped 
in their shaggy but warm blankets, without stopping even for 
the usual luxury of hard-tack and coffee. 

Next morning a hasty ration was snatched at 5 o'clock, and 
the brigades fell into line for the march. The 9th New Jersey, 
3d Cavalry and Day's section of Battery B, 3d New York, felt 
the way cautiously in advance. The road the army now trod 
led straight to Kinston, running in a direction at right angles 
to the general direction of the Neuse River. 

Two miles from Kinston bridge our troops suddenly came 
into the presence of a formidable enemy, 6,000 strong, under 1 

Gen. Evans, of Ball's Bluff notoriety, drawn up in line of battle j 

on a hill crossing the road. They were protected on the west | 

by woods, while in their foreground, at the base of the hill, was j 

a great swamp overgrown with thickets and groves' of pines. j 

The road to Kinston ran through the heart of the rebel position. I 

Wessels's regiments, on coming up, deployed into the fields on | 

both sides of the road and a sharp fight commenced. Amory's j 

brigade deployed in the rear as a line of support. The rest of | 

the infantry halted, and opened to the right and left while seve- j 

ral batteries went through on a run to the front. Under Gen. | 

Foster's own direction. Batteries B, F and I of the 3d New York, | 

were placed on different sides of the road, supported by Amory, ] 

about half a mile in rear of the line of attack. As they came 1 

into position, one after the other, and opened with shell on the I 

woods and hill, the action became more earnest, the musketn,- 
firing doubled in intensity and the ground trembled with the 
concussion of the guns. 

Under a horrible fire, Wessel's brigade advanced steadily into 
the swamp at the foot of the hill and pushed through to the open 
ground beyond after hard fighting. Here the 9th New Jersey 



144 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

and other regiments emptied their cartridge boxes in kn engage* 
ment with a heavy line of men in gray on the hill. The loth 
Connecticut and 96th New York then replaced them on the ad- 
vance. The rebels turning the fire of their batteries on the 
woods, right and left, sought to make them untenable for us, but 
in vain. One of their shots struck within ten feet of Gen. Foster 
and his staiT. 

During the fight, Gen. Foster sent Lieut.-Col. Stewart to the 
extreme right of our line of battle, just beyond the swamp and 
woods, as a precautionary measure, to guard against the surprise 
of our flank. Stewart hied to the end of the woods and kept a 
vigilant watch. His eye at length caught the flash of musket 
barrels down on the river road and a moment later he discovered 
one of the most glorious chances of the day to capture a rich 
prize. A rebel force that had been guarding the river road, 
some miles out, was now retreating to the bridge, lest we should 
get in its rear. Well handled, a couple of regiments and a bat- 
tery could cut that body all to pieces. Stewart sent an orderly 
in haste to Gen. Foster. Half an hour later, gettino- no re- 
sponse,, he went himself. Foster directed Gen. Amory to take a 
portion of his brigade with Battery F, 3d New York, and perform 
this service. But Amory moved slow and the prize slipped 
through his fingers without a fight 

The rebels gave way gradually to the top of the hill, occupy- 
ing in the retreat a church and holding it till it had been riddled 
like a seive with bullets and cannon balls. A persistent attack 
of two hours' duration failed to dislodge the enemy from the 
heights.' Then, the loth Connecticut and 96th New York were 
ordered to pierce his center at the point of the bayonet. Well 
they did their work. They went right through the enemy's line 
with a rush, wheiv Evans' whole army lost its coherence, and, as 
our victorious columns swept forward with ringing cheers to the 
summit of the hill, a panic seized his entire center and it fled in 
confusion. The right wing maintained a semblance of order 
and made a hard run of it to get to the bridge. But the loth 
Connecticut and 96th New York, with other regiments close at 
their heels, continued their charge and cut ofl" the rio-ht win"- 
from that avenue of escape, upon which it turned westward and 
fled into the woods and retreated up the south bank of the 
Neuse unmolested. The enemy, nearest the bridge, retreated 
across it under cover of the fire of a five gun battery, ensconced 
in a strong redoubt on the north side, and also under the pro- 
tection afforded by a regiment drawn up in line of battle near 
the river to temporarily stay our advance. Amory's men at this 



-1 ' ' ' - 



BATTLE 'of KINSTON, 1^5 

juncture got down near the river and Battery F raked it with 
shell and cannister. The scream of the first Wiard shell 
made the regiment sway to and fro like a mob and in a moment 
it broke, threw away muskets and knapsacks and rushed across 
the bridge in a frightened herd. 

Gen. Evans, who, by this time, was beating a rapid retreat to 
Kinston with his main body, left orders to fire the bridge after 
the crossing of the last detachment This was done by Capr. 
McRae, brother of Duncan McRae, a prominent North Carolina 
politician. He had a bucket of turpentine, which he spilled in 
three or four places, and applying a match, in spite of the 
piteous entreaties of a number of comrades who had fallen on 
the bridge, he left the structure a sheet of flame. As he 
turned away from his atrocious work, a Union skirmisher 
brought his rifle to his shoulder and Capt. McRae tumbled down 
the bank, pierced through the brain. Burning turpentine drip- 
ped down upon him from the bridge and charred his corpse to a 
cinder. 

To save the bridge, Lieut. Dennis's section of Battery F ad- 
vanced, by order of Gen. Amory, to an advanced position near 
it and swept the northern bank with heavy blasts of cannister 
in order to clear it of those who might interfere with our efforts 
to extinguish the flames. The section worked away with great 
steadiness and efficacy under a horrible rain of Minie bails 
from rebel sharp-shooters, losing several wounded, until ordered 
to cease firing. Meanwhile, Batteries B and K, which had crawl- 
ed along in rear of th^ infantry to the top of the hill, had 
dashed down to near the river and unlimbered their guns on the 
left of the road, engaging, at point blank range, without in- 
trenchments, the rebel five gun battery, and throwing shot and 
shell into lingering rebel battalions on the opposite bank. The 
crashing of our guns increased the consternation of the enemy 
and they were soon completely silenced. 

The men of our Batteries, seconded by the 9th New Jersey 
and loth Connecticut lads, then brought water in artillery 
buckets from the river, and put out the fires on the bridge and 
saved it. Several rebels, burnt to a crisp, were tumbled over 
inio^ the water, and Lieut.-Col. Stewart, coming up with his en- 
gineers, tore down a house near the bridge, and with the beams 
and boards thus supplied, repaired the damage that had been 
done to it. 

Batteries B and K captured 44 prisoners in this affair. Un- 
Able to reach the bridge, the rebels hid frona the fire of our 
terrible guns by crawling down the river bank, and then raised 
J 



■--.'f 



O'i 3T... :,•■ 



146 . 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEKV. 

a handkerchief on a long pole to signal their desire to surren- 
der. The Batteries ceased firing. Capt. Morrison called to the 
men to come up, which they did, a melancholy looking crowd, 
in miserable butternut uniforms. He passed them between his 
guns to the rear. 

The disgusted Confederates retiring to the pleasant village of 
Kinston, half a mile distant to the northwest, sought to remove 
a portion of the extensive stores of cotton, turpentine and mu- 
nitions of war of the place, before we could cross the river. In 
this they were foiled by the long range guns of Batteries E and 
I, 3d New York, which, from a commanding situation in rear of 
the light Batteries B, F and K, threw heavy shot and shell into 
the very heart of the village. The only removal that was 
effected by Gen. Evans was, in consequence, that of his army, 
which hastily departed from the precincts of Kinston, accompa- 
nied by a general exodus of the inhabitants. 

Evans fell back to Washington hill, west of the town, leaving 
huge fires burning in the streets, to consume piles of cotton, 
turpentine, &.c. A brigade of infantry crossed the river, as soon 
as the bridge was in condition, supported by Battery K, 3d New 
York, and occupied the village. Evans offering fight from the 
hill, Foster sent a flag of truce, demanding surrender. The 
lofty Confederate declined "on high military grounds," .Src. 
Battery K from Kinston, then shelled the heights, when the 
enemy precipitately retreated from those high military grounds, 
and drew back down b<;hind the hill, out of sight. 

Foster bivouacked three brigades in' line of battle west of the 
village, supported by artillery," for the night. 

The main body of the artillery bivouacked inside the village, 
in a public square or park. Many 3d New York lads repos'ed 
their tired frames that night, around their camp fires in the 
square, on feather beds obtained from the houses of the in- 
habitants. 

The loss of the Union army at the battle of Kinston was se- 
vere, 38 killed and 185 wounded. Among the dead the armv 
mourned Col. Gray, of the 96th New York, who fell at the head 
of his regiment, while charging the bridge. The 3d New York 
Artillery lost 10 wounded, viz :— Battery B, John Hardin, E A. 
Sanders, David Finger; Battery F, Ezra Wormouth, Charles E. 
Smith, Thomas P. Johnson, Hiram Sherman, Henry Olrich, Al- 
exander FuUerton, Charles Bowman. 

Bowman was wounded by a bullet that would have killed him 
but for the interposition of a metallic cuirass. When Batterv 
F got down near the bridge, it found a dead rebel there on the 



LOSSES AT KINSTON. 147 

ground. He wore this cuirass, despite of which he was dead. 
Bowman put it on just in time to arrest a • Minie ball which 
struck him in the breast, inflicting a contusion. 

The rebel loss was 250 killed and wounded, 400 prisoners, 
500 stand of arms, ii cannon, 1,000 rounds of heavy ammuni- 
tion, besides provisions and a railroad monitor, &c., in Kinston. 
Among the cannon were two that Battery G, 3d New York, had 
lost at Washington the September previous. The prisoners 
were paroled. 

Among the prisoners was Col. MoIIett, of the 68th North 
Carolina, a stout fighter, who, wounded in the leg below the 
knee, had fallen near the bridge and was there captured.. Sur- 
geon Diraon, of the 3d New York, dressed his wounds in a 
house near the bridge, temporarily connected with a hospital, 
and determined to save his leg. The Medical Director on 
Foster's staff paid Col. Mollett the deference to call upon him 
at the hospital. He disagreed, however, with Surgeon Dimon 
and was for having the leg off. Gen. Foster came in. They 
appealed to him. Now Foster had himself been wounded in 
the Mexican war in about the same way and had saved his own 
leg. He took Surgeon Dimon's view of the matter and made 
an excuse by means of which the Medical Director was sent 
away. Mollett was left in Dimon's hands. The leg was saved. 
Afterwards, at Gettysburg, when Dr. Dimon went down from 
Auburn as a volunteer Surgeon to care for the wounded of the 
great battle, he heard of Col. Mollett and his perfect health. 

Some of our men looked into the hospital during the evening, 
but retired with a shudder on stumbling on a ghastly pile of 
amputated human arms and legs. , 

After dark, Lieut. Birchmeyer's section of Battery Fand Capt. 
Cole's company of the 3d Cavalry went down the Neuse, to a 
deserted rebel fort, commanding the river, and brought away 
four pieces of light artillery, they found there, besides spiking an 
8-inch columbiad and a 32-pounder, and blowing up the maga- 
zine. 

VVhile at Kinston, Gen. Foster obtained information that 
Burnside had been repulsed bloodily in the assault on Freder- 
icksburg, and Gen. Lee had telegraphed to Gen. G. W. Smith, 
Confederate commander at Goldsboro, that he could send 30,- 
000 men, if necessary, to resist our advance. He also learned 
that on the direct road from Kinston to Goldsboro he would 
have to fight heavy earthworks at several points. It occurred to 
him, however, that he could yet accomplish the object of the ex- 
pedition by a rapid march up the south bank of the Neuse, by 
properly deceiving the enemy. He resolved to go on. 



148 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Next morning, under cover of a strong feint on the direct 
road to Goldsboro, Kinston was cleared of our troops at day- 
light. Foster recrossed the bridge and made a rapid march up 
the south bank of the river. Lieut.-Col. Stewart remained 10 
burn a railroad monitor, locomotive, &c., at Kinston, and then 
burnt the bridge across the Neuse to prevent the rebels from 
crossing and attacking our rear. 

At nightfall, the army bivouacked within three miles and a 
half of the village of Whitehall. 

By order of Gen. Foster, two companies of the •3d Cavalry, 
under Major Garrard, and one section of Batterv F, 3d New 
York, went up towards Whitehall to burn the bridge over the 
Neuse and destroy a rebel gunboat in process of construction 
there. On arriving at the bridge, they found it already in tlames, 
a South Carolina regiment having just retreated across it to the 
north bank. The river was reconnoitered as well as could be in 
the gloom of the night. The gun boat was discovered on the 
north side of the river, on the stocks, her wood work about two- 
thirds done. She was a powerful, light draught monster, which 
it would be dangerous to allow ever to be completed. Two 
thousand barrels of turpentine were set on fire to illuminate the* 
boat. Then, while Battery F opened fire on the dark, dense 
woods across the stream, Henry Butler of the 3d Cavalrv, swam 
across and tried to set fire to the boat by means of a brand from 
the bridge. The enemy chased him back and he failed to burn 
the rebel cruiser, and nothing could be done except to batter cne 
boat with solid shot and riddle it. This was done and the ex- 
pedition returned. 

Next day the army advanced and over the ruins of the burned 
bridge and the riddled gun-boat, fought the battle of Whitehall. 

The battle was delivered by Gen. Foster with the ostensibis; 
object of crossmg the river, and was a very animated and hard- 
fought affair. In reality it was but a feint, designed to amuse 
the enemy while the 3d New York Cavalry, under Maj. Garrard, 
and Ransom's Battery made a dash at Mt. Olive station, on the 
Weldon and Wilmington railroad. 

ivu-^^i- "''^^^'■y expedition Jeft camp at davlight. On passing 
Whitehall, the enemy fired upon it from the north bank of tne 
river. A halt was ordered and the compliment was repaid with 
mterest. When our main body came up, the cavalry drew out 
of the action and went on. 

At Whitehall, gloomy woods clothed both banks of the river, 
except on the south side, where a large clearing had been made 
among the trees, forming a sort of ampitheatre. The ground 



BATTLE OF WHITEHALL. I49 

sloped steeply to the river. The enemj' was on the north bank 
in the woods, 6,000 strong, under Gen. Robertson, with artillery 
in intrenchmenrs. 

Reaching the open ground, Gen. Foster sent several infantry 
regiments to the river bank to engage the enemy. The rest were 
halted to allow the passage of the artillery, which, receiving 
orders to come to the front with all speed, spared neither lash 
nor spurs, and came thundering into the open ground on a run, 
battery after battery. As fast as they reported, those having 
light guns, viz : F, H and K, and Belger's, were ranged along 
our line of battle, near the base of the slope, the heavy guns, 
those of E and I, near the top. Battery B was not in the tight. 
As fast as they came into position, our guns opened fire on the 
woods, gunboat, and the rebel battery, and for two hours and 
over poured shot, shell and cannister into them steadily. The 
cannonading was furious beyond experience. It seemed to be 
one continuous peal of deafening thunder. The ground trem- 
bled under the sound. On our side full thirty cannon were in 
action, and at least ten on the side of the rebels. The rebels 
fired heavily and rapidly, directing their batteries chiefly against 
the guns on the hillside, their musketry against those near the 
river. Balls and shells ploughed the ground in every direction, 
and had the rebels exhibited their boasted marksmanship, the 
slaughter in the Union ranks must have been fearful. As it was 
the damage was comparatively light. 

Our officers and men acted with consummate coolness and 
courage throughout the fight, and served their guns with preci- 
sion and steadiness. Maj. Kennedy speaks in the highest terms 
of them all. Lieuts. Dennis and Richardson, who took, the one 
a section, the other one gun, to most exposed positions on the 
river bank, must be especially mentioned for daring and cool- 
ness. 

Having silenced the enemy's guns and made several demon- 
strations as if to cross, once so deceiving our own army that 
several of the loth Connecticut actually swam across, Gen. 
Foster gave orders to cease firing and formed his brigades for a 
resumption of the march to Goldsboro, leaving a body of sharp- 
shooters to keep up the fight. 

The loss of our army at Whitehall was seventy-five killed 
and wounded. 

The 3d Artillery lost, viz : 

Killed — Peter Hackett and Wm. Ryan, Battery K. 
Wounded — Col. Ledlie, Surgeon Dimon and Chaplain Hart, 
contusions ; J. Morrison, James Hinman, Asa Clark, Battery 



T-; 






ISO '3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

E ; Patrick Lynch, Battery I ; Lieut. Kirby, Daniel Grover, Wm. 
H. Chase, Mandeville Ward, Geo. Grossman, Wm H. Stewart, 
Battery K. 

The regiment also lost one of the steel guns of Jenny's Bat- 
tery, which burst in action, falling to the ground in four pieces, 
fortunately without hurting any one. LieuL Kirby had two 
horses shot under him. His Batter)' was in the hottest part of 
of the field. 

The death of Hackett illustrates the splendid stuff of which 
the 3d Artillery was composed and its magnificent discipline. 
Battery K was under a terrible fire. The rebel gunners were 
doing their worst and filled the air with such a torrent of iron 
missiles that it seemed like the roaring of a storm overhead. 
Yet Hackett, a driver, stood composedly at his horse's head, 
holding the bridle in one hand, the other hanging stiffly by the 
side, in a military attitude, as if on dress parade of the regi- 
ment A cannon shot carried away his head. He stood for a 
moment in the same military posture and then fell to the 
ground. 

Ryan was behind a large stump. Raising his head to recon- 
noiter, a cannon ball that moment carried away his head, too. 
This was when the fight was nearly over and some of the men 
were laying off. 

Lieut. Mercereau's celebrated shot at Whitehall must not be 
forgotten. The Lieutenant saw a rebel bearer of dispatches 
mount his horse near a signal station and ride off, and sighting 
a cannon at him shot him in the head while riding at full 
speed. Throwing up his arms, he fell from his horse to the 
ground. 

After the battle the army marched on through a heavily 
wooded country, to within three miles of the goal of the expe- 
dition, viz : the railroad bridge crossing the river Neuse near 
Goldsboro. Gen. Foster had thus far completely deceived and 
out-generaled the rebels, had evaded the heavy breastworks 
they had built on the roads north of the Neuse, and was now 
within easy striking distance of the coveted prize. About mid- 
night the cavalry expedition came in fi-om Mt. Olive station, 
having destroyed four miles of railroad track and telegraph and 
burnt a trestle bridge, thus for the first time interrupting both 
mail and telegraphic communication between Gen. Lee's army 
in Virginia and those strongholds of treason, Charleston and 
Wilmington. 

The railroad bridge at Goldsboro was a handsome structure 
of wood, two hundred feet long, which it had taken a year orig- 



BATTLE OF GOLDSBORO. 1 5 I 

inally to build. To protect this from our arms, and also the 
county bridge half a mile above it, the rebels were now concen- 
trating in strong force. And when, at 10 a. xM. of the 17th, Gen. 
Foster's leading brigade came within two miles of Goldsboro, it 
found a Confederate brigade under Clingman drawn up in line 
on the embankment of the railroad to receive it. There was 
also going on a general muster of men and guns on the north 
bank. Clingman was attacked at once, Capt. Riggs dropping a 
few shells on his lines, the infantry sending in voUies of mus- 
ketry. The rebels weakened readily, and left on the double- 
quick for the county bridge. 

Our regiments pushed on, pursuing the'line of the railroad, 
evoking the fire of sharp-shooters, a rebel battery on the north 
bank of the river, and an iron armored railroad car having a 
gun aboard, as they drew near the river. Arriving in presence 
of the bridge, Batteries B, E, H and I, 3d New York, and 
Belger's Battery came up and took position in the fields. The 
rebel battery was silenced almost at once. 

Distant cheers were heard, and it was discovered that a 
railroad train had arrived with reinforcements. It was Gen. 
Pettigrew and his men. The train was promptly shelled with 
excellent effect A 24-pound shell from Battery E raked two 
of the cars, which were platform cars, and burst on the third. 
The rebels yelled fearfully at this, and the train backed off. 

Col. Hickman, of the 9th New Jersey, receiving an order to 
burn the bridge, advanced with his regiment as far as he 
could safely go. Volunteers to attempt the hazardous enter- 
prise being then called for, 17th Massachusetts and 9th New 
Jersey men came forward and tried it, but were wounded and 
driven back by the enemy, who shot hard and fast at all who 
approached the bridge. After failures by several, the feat was 
performed by Lieut.-Geo. VV, Graham, of the 23d Battery, acting 
Aid to Col. Hickman, Battery B, 3d New York, furnishing the 
port fires used for the purpose. When the bridge was in flames, 
our artillery directed upon it an over-powering fire, preventing 
any attempt to save it 

The General gave orders next to tear up the railroad. Two 
Massachusetts regiments, lying in reserve, stacked arms and 
rushed upon the track with a yell. They tore it up by hands, 
raising rods of it at a time. They did thdr work well, burning 
the ties and bending the rails for a long distance. 

The object of the expedition having been fully accomplished, 
and rebeldom from Charleston to Richmond beginning to rush 
in reinforcements to Goldsboro, Foster, at 3 1-2 p. .v., ordered 



152 3^^ NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

the baggage trains to be reversed, and set out with the resen-e 
troops for Newbern, intent on finding some convenient camping 
ground for the night. Battery B, 3d New York, and Cot. Lee's 
brigade lingered on the field of battle till nearly sundown, lying 
lazily on the grass. 

The troops started back in the best of spirits, singfng patriotic 
airs, occasionally varied by Old Hundred and plantation songs, 
while the few bands played their liveliest and most joyous tunes. 
When the artillery came off the field to take its place in column, 
the troops greeted it with cheers. Regiment after regiment 
waved their caps and flags enthusiastically and made the welkin 
ring with stormy hurrahs. " Here come Thomas's big guns, 
three cheers," they would shout, as that Battery came by. 
" Here come Jenny's Wiards — three rousers for him." " Here 
comes little Ashby, with his big howitzers — give him a good 
one." " Here's Arvgel, with the big Napoleons, three more." 
And so on to the last. No General Orders from headquarters 
could have better testified to the worth of the services of our ar- 
tillery in the field, than this spontaneous and cordial outburst on 
the field of battle. And no knight freshly dubbed ever buckled 
on his spurs with more pride than the 3d Artillery took the 
tumultuous ovation thus tendered them by their comrades of the 
infantry. 

The rebels had now collected at Goldsboro, Evans's, Cling- 
man's, Pettigrew's, the Mississippi, and other brigades, outnum- 
bering the army of Foster by thousands. They, therefore, sud- 
denly became inspired to do him harm, and crossing a large 
force over the county bridge, when they could no longer save the 
railroad bridge, they attacked his rear guard. 

Lee's brigade and Morrison's Battery still remained on the 
battle field. Morrison was just coming off", when his bugler, a 
Frenchman, dashed up to him ip great agitation and cried ex- 
citedly : " You zee ! You zee !" pointing back. IMorrison 
turned, and saw a knot of rebels standing on the railroad em- 
bankment, not far from the bridge. He supposed they wanted 
to surrender. Riding down, he called to them to come over and 
give themselves up. They deigned no reply, but darted down 
on the other side, out of sight. 

At Lieut.-Col. Mix's suggestion, Morrison unlimbered two of 
his guns and threw a few shells into the woods, whither they had 
retired, beyond the embankment, to flush the game if there was 
any there. Nothing came of it, however, and the guns rejoined 
the Batter)*. They had no sooner done so than three rebel regi- 
ments sprang over the top of the embankment in line of battle. 



MORRISON REPULSES A CHARGE. 1 53 

as though they had risen bodily out of the earth, and advanced 
steadily and swiftly upon the Battery. They came on in beau- 
tiful order, battle flags waving and bayonets shining in the dying 
light of day. Stern the order rang out, "Attention, Battery B ! 
In action, rear." The six Napoleons were placed in battery, 
with the speed of thought, unlimbered, and opened a rapid 
fire with cannister and spherical case, upon the advancing 
rebels. Volley followed volley into the charging ranks, as fast 
as the gunners could throw ammunition into the guns and ram 
it home. The rebels were mowed down like grass in swaths, 
yet they still came on, exciting admiration by their superb order. 
No more gallant charge was ever made. The men faced death 
bravely, and though the deadly blasts of cannister rent opening 
after opening in their line, they closed up, and still came on 
steadily, the officers waving their swords frantically, and cheer- 
ing them forward. They advanced till within two hundred yards 
of the guns, till we could see the palmetto trees on their flags. 
Then the Battery began firing double loads of cannister. They 
could not stand that. The lines wavered, they halted, broke, 
and in a moment were running in disorder for the shelter of the 
embankment, while Morrison poured shell into them as long 
as they were in sight. Had a small force of cavalry been 
on hand to swoop down on the broken brigade, their battle flags 
and many prisoners could have been captured. The flags were 
left on the field in plain sight and Lieut.-Col. Stewart wanted 
to go and get them ; but Foster would not let him. As it was, 
however, they left over three hundred dead and wounded on the 
ground, to testify to the disastrous nature of their repulse and 
the withering fire to which Morrison's well-drilled gunners had 
subjected them. The charge was repulsed by Morrison's Bat- 
terv-, unaided by the infantry. 

While this charge was being made in front, two rebel regi- 
ments and a battery were sent to attack our left. They made a 
strong demonstration. A regiment was faced about to meet 
them, and Rigg's Battery came up and shelled the woods in 
which the rebel battery was masked. The attack was soon 
withdrawn. 

The renewal of hostilities caused the whole army at first to 
halt, and preparations were made for a general engagement. 
But the attack ceasing, the march was now resumed by all. A 
short distance from the scene of the battle, a mill stream crossed 
the road. Our troops had forded it easily that morning in com- 
ing up, but now the rebels had dammed the stream and raised 
the water waist high. It was icy cold, and the men were chilled 
through and through by it. 



.■It ■ -t 



154 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ' 

The army encamped five miles from Goldsboro. 

During the battle, Major Garrard with the 3d Cavalry made a 
dash at a wagon bridge over the Neuse on our right. He found 
it in flames. The enemy was on the other side with a battery. 
Angel's battery was sent for and dispatched four guns to Gar- 
rard's assistance, supported by the 43d Massachusetts. Angel 
engaged the enemy's battery and silenced it. The expedition 
returned at dark. 

This made the third bridge destroyed by our forces near 
Goldsboro. 

During the engagement, a little incident occurred which illus- 
trates the friendly feeling that existed between the 9th New 
Jersey and the 3d Artillery. A Massachusetts Chaplain asked 
a wounded Battery B soldier, " If he was supported by Provi- 
dence in this trying hour." 

"No, by G — d," he said, "supported by the 9th New Jersey." 

The night following the battle was cold and ice formed in the 
pools. One of Battery H's men, sleeping on the ground, had 
his hair frozen to the soil, and he could not get up next day till 
they chopped him out with an axe. 

The march was resumed on the i8th before daylight. The 
day before, the army had had a trial by water. It now had one 
by fire. It had to pass through a long piece of burning 
woods. The smoke was stifling and trees and brands were fall- 
ing in all directions. Happily the troops got through without 
serious accident. They marched that day as far as the White- 
hall battle ground, and stopped to bury some dead that had 
been left on the field. 

At noon of the 19th, the scene of the Kinston battle was 
passed. A shocking sight there met our eyes. The rebels had 
opened the graves of our dead and robbed the soldiers of their 
clothing, and they now lay there stark and stifii exposed to the 
elements. They were reinterred. 

The Engineer of the expedition led the way back on this 
march, with a company of cavalry and a detachment of the Sig- 
nal Corps under Lieut. David A. Taylor, whose services on this 
expedition were invaluable. 

The march was pushed rapidly over frozen roads, as Foster 
was anxious to reach his base of supplies. The troops were 
nearly out of provisions. Hard tack even, and coffee, were so 
scarce that the men were devoured with hunger. To their joy, 
a few miles below Kinston, they discovered the welcome sight of 
a Union gun-boat lying in the river, laden with provisions. A 
halt was ordered while the wagons were loading up and then af- 



v.'' 



BRILLIANT RESULTS OF THE EXPEDITION. 1 55 

ter a short march further on, the army bivouacked and enjoyed 
a general square meal all around. 

On Saturday, the 20th, the artillery reached Newbem by a 
forced march with part of the infantry. The rest came in next 
day. 

Our total loss in this expedition was, in killed and wounded, 
less than 400. The rebel loss was about 600 in killed and 
wounded and 500 prisoners. Their loss in bridges, railroad 
track and war material was great, and crippled them in North 
Carolina for many months. Foster's victory was a brilliant one 
in all respects and it gave to our country great heart in the pros- 
ecution of the rebellion. It was a ray of sunshine in a time of 
profound public gloom caused by the disaster at Fredericksburg. 

December 26th, Foster issued his General Order, No. 81, as 
follows : 

"The Commanding General desires to thank the troops in his 
command for the new proof of their courage and steadiness, af- 
forded by the recent expedition. The veteran brigade of Gen. 
Wessel's, and the troops of this Department, did their duty as 
soldiers well." 

In his official report, Foster said of the artillery : 

"The artillery forces under Col. Ledlie were well placed and 
well served, and the commanding officers and the batteries, 
without exception, did most excellent service." 

Col. Ledlie's conduct (and of his artillery) on this expedition 
won for him his Brigadier's star. lie received his promotion 
December 24th. 



156 Z^ NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEKV. 



IX. 



NORTH CAROLINA IN '63. 

Current Evenu — Ammon on Recruiting Service — Capt. Howell — Ledlie Promoted 
— His Order — Stewart in Command of the Regiment — Attack on Newbern — 
Rebels Repulsed — They Attack Washington — The Siege — Incidents — Enemy 
Again Foiled — Two Years' Men go Home — Reception in Auburn — Schenck 
and Howell in New York in the Riots — Col. Stewart on Recruiting Service 
— Current Events. 

Before relating the next passage of arms in North Carolina, 
a few current events in the department and in the 3d Artillery 
will claim our attention. 

It has been mentioned that in May, 1862, Capt. Ammon went 
home to New York to recruit for the regiment. He was assisted 
bv a recruiting party detailed from the regiment. He made Au- 
burn his headquarters and published a call asking for 300 three 
years' men, offering $167 bounty for every recruit. In August, 
volunteers began to come in. In September he sent to Newbern 
210, in October 149, raising the 3d Artillery to the proportions 
of 1,600 men. 

In December, ninety-four marines were assigned to the regi- 
ment and scattered around amongst the batteries. They had 
mutinied and Gen. Foster broke up their organization in conse- 
quence. They were, however, withdrawn from the regiment by 
subsequent orders. 

Capt. White having resigned the Captaincy of Battery M, 
September 30, 1862, Capt. John H. Howell was appointed to 
the vacancy, November 18th. Capt. Howell was a youns: man, 
who left an editorial chair in the office of the Utica Herald at 



COL. LEDLIE PROMOTED. If 7 

the outbreak of war and enlisted in the ist New York Artillery, 
As ist Lieutenant of Battery H of that regiment he took part 
in the siege of Yorktown and subsequent battles of McClellan's 
campaign, and at Fair Oaks, May 31st, 1862, received a severe 
bullet wound in the right arm while bravely serving his battery 
in battle. Gen. Naglee gave Howell a high testimonial of ap- 
preciation of the latter's service in writing and recommended 
him for promotion. He was appointed Captain in the 3d Artil- 
lery in consequence. He took command of Battery M, then at 
Hatteras, relieving Capt. Ashcroft, of Battery C, who was at 
the time commandant of the post. He remained at Hatteras 
till the latter part of February, 1863, when he was appointed on 
the staff of Gen. Naglee. He was relieved by Battery C. 

The troops in North Carolina were in December, 1862, in- 
creased, and on the 24th, by order of the War Department, 
constituted the i8th Army Corps, under command of Maj.-Gen. 
Foster. The 3d Artillery, of course, composed part of the 
Corps. 

Col. Ledlie was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General 
and Chief of Artillery of the rSth Corps, December 24th. On 
the 31st of the same month, he bade farewell to the regiment he 

had served with so long and devotedly in the following order : 

"December 3 1ST, 1862. 

Special Order, No. •250.— The Colonel commanding the regi- 
ment, upon entering upon the duties of his new position ^o 
which he has been assigned, desires to express the sincere regret 
which he feels in parting with those with whom he has been so long 
and so pleasantly connected. His earnest desire has ever been 
to promote the welfare of those in his command, and his highest 
ambition to secure a name for the 3d New York Artillerv. ot 
which its members might be proud. Its history has justified 
this hope. Whatever maybe the new honors won by it, the 
names of Fort Macon. Washington, Kinston, Whitehall and 
Goldsboro will shine brightly on its banners. Although his long 
existing connection v/ith the regiment is finally dissolved, the 
Colonel commanding congratulates himself that it may stiil be 
in his power to advance its interests and witness its triumphs, 
and feels the utmost confidence that its tried and trusty men', 
under their brave officers, will win still higher renown. 

By Order, &c.. Sec." 

The command of the regiment was assumed by Lieut.-Col, 
Stewart, who was promoted to the Colonelcy from' January isr, 
1863. Maj. Stone from the same date became Lieutenant Col- 
ontl, Capt. Jenny became Major. 



,/..,., 



158 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

In the latter part of January, 1863, Gen. Foster took 12,000 
of his best troops from North Carolina to the army of Gen. 
Hunter, operating against Charleston. Among them were parts \ 
of eight Batteries of the 3d Artillery. But of this another 
chapter will speak. 

On the 6th of March, 1863, an expedition to Onslow county, 
N. C, left Newbern, composed of the brigades of Gens. Spinola 
and Jourdan, Riggs's Battery of the 3d Artillery, Battery F, rst 
Rhode Island, and 500 cavalry. The expedition was under the 
command of Gen. Prince. Maj. Stone commanded the artillery. 
The column was out four days, its advance guard going as far 
as Swansboro. It came back without a fight, though some skir- 
mishing took place with small patrolling parties of the enemy. 
The rebels had withdrawn from that section of North Carolina. 



Gov. Vance had been insisting to Jeif. Davis and the Confed- 
erate Government upon the recall of enough troops from the | 
rebel armies to hold North Carolina against Foster. The demand | 
was granted. In March, hearing that Foster had weakened his | 
forces in North Carolina to reinforce Hunter at Port Royal, Gen. \ 
Lee sent Gen. D. H. Hill's whole corps of twenty-three regi- j 
ments, 20,000 strong, to Gov. Vance, to drive Foster out of the 
State, if possible. 

March 13th, the day before the anniversary of its capture, 
Hill made an attack upon Newbern. The main body made its 
appearance on the Trent road, in front of our pickets at Deep 
Gully, who, being promptly reinforced by Palmer's brigade and 
Riggs's and Belger's Batteries at Newbern, the rebels did not 
attack. A second column advanced upon the city on the south 
side of the Trent, but also refused to attack. Both were waiting 
tor the success of a third column, under Gen. Pettigrew, armed 
with twenty pieces of artillery', which had been sent to attack 
Fort Anderson, an unfinished earthwork on the north bank of 
the Neuse, opposite the city. The Fort had not a single gun on 
wheals, and was garrisoned only by the pad New York Volun- 
teers. 

At daybreak of the 14th, Pettigrew appeared before the Fort 
and demanded its surrender. It was declined. He then planted 
his guns within 100 rods of the Fort in the edge of the woods 
and bombarded the Fort furiously for three hours, occasionally 
stopping to demand a surrender, which he did not get. The 
92d took the matter coolly. They laid down behind their works 
and only had two men wounded. The gunboats Hunchback^ 
Massasoit, Fhanix and others opened fire on Pettigrew at the 



(1 ■'•}■? c' '?H- r 



^ ,• ATTACK ON FORT ANDERSON. 1 59 

be^nning of the attack, while every field gun that could be 
spared in Newbern was brought down and ranged along the 
river side in Newbern and followed their excellent example, 
with good effect, too, though at long range. Portions of Batteries 
E, F, H and I of the 3d Artillery, and Lee's and Ransom's Bat- 
teries composed the line. An assault was meditated by Petti- 
grew on the Fort, but it was withheld. The bombardment went 
on. The rebels now brought batteries down to the river to 
bombard the gunboats and town ; one was nearly a mile above 
Fort Anderson. The Hunchback saw this latter movement, but 
being aground could not bring her 100 pounders to bear on the 
battery. Her officers shouted the fact to Gen. Foster, who was 
on shore. Foster asked Col. Stewart to do something about it, 
and he accordingly took some of Ransom's VViards up the river 
to a point opposite the rebel battery and opened fire on it. He 
sighted the first gun himself, pointing it with the aid of a pocket 
level. It was loaded with a solid shot and was so well aimed as 
to dismount a rebel gun. The shattered wheels and axle were 
afterwards found on the ground. After a few shots, the rebel 
battery retired. 

Pettigrew's shells came over the river into our position quite 
frequently during the firing, but exploded harmlessly. One shot 
spilled over the coffee of one of our batteries. The kettles hung 
in a row over the camp fire. The shot struck the ground and 
bounded and raked the whole row of kettles off the pole, to the 
intense disgust of the cook, who was covered with ashes and 
coffee from head to foot. Once, while Gen. Foster, Col. Stew- 
art and others were on the shore, watching the operations across 
the river, a long shell from a Whitworth gun, called from its 
shape a cucumber shell, struck the smokestack oi the Hunchback. 
It lost its rotary axial motion and came on end over end direct- 
ly over the party of officers, and near their heads, making such 
a startling flutter in the air that everybody dropped to the ground. 
No one was hit. 

Foster had now reinforced Fort Anderson with infantry. The 
fire of our batteries was becoming irksome and Mr. Pettigrew 
had nothing more to say. Three of his guns had exploded. 
He limbered up the rest and made off on the double quick. The 
two columns confronting us at Deep Gully and south of the 
Trent drew off at the same time, and beat an inglorious retreat. 
The whole attack was a complete failure. 

Pettigrew's colored body servant was left behind in the retreat. 
He was an intelligent and well educated man. Gen. Foster built 
him a school house and set him to teaching the contrabands. 



b'j . .;t;!:) Ki «•■■- 



t6o 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER AUTItLERV. ;•, I 

Baffled at Newbern, Gen. Hill turned with all his force on 
Washington on the Tar. On the 17th of March, the woods on 
the south side of the Tar, opposite Washington, suddenly be- 
came alive with rebel regiments, constituting his advance guard. 
They were fired upon by the United States gunboat Louisiana. 
After nearly two weeks' of hesitancy, Hill then brought up his 
whole corps, with fifty guns, and on the 29th beleagered the 
place. 

Washington is on the north bank of the Tar. The river is 
three-quarters of a mile wide at that point. A causewav, or 
bridge, crosses to its south bank and connects with the turnpike 
to Newbern, thirty-five miles away. In xMarch, '63, the garrison 
numbered only 2,200 men, viz : Battery G, 3d New York Artil- 
lery, Capt. Wall j 27th Massachusetts Volunteers ; 44th Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers ; Capt, Lyon's Company, North Carolina 
Volunteers j one company 3d New York Cavalry, and two or 
three hundred contrabands. The defenses of the town were of 
a sort to give efiiciency to a small garrison. A line of entrench- 
ments encircled it from river to river, protected by additional 
abatti, with block-houses and redoubts at the three roads run- 
ning out of the town and another, designated as No. 4, on 
the river side below it. In the center of the line, actino- as the 
key of the whole situation, was Fort Washington, a' small, 
but strong field fort, quadrangular, bastioned, strongly sodded, 
and surrounded by a ten-foot ditch and a row of heavy abatti. 
There was also a redoubt, a small one, guarding the causewav, 
and other of larger size on the river's edge, below block-house 
No. 4, called Fort Hamilton. The armament of these works 
was — Block-house No. i, above the town, one 6-pounder ; Block- 
house No. 2, one 6-pounder ; Fort Washington, four 32-pounders, 
two 6-pound Wiards, two 12-pound Napoleons ; Block-house No. 
3, one 6pounder, one 32-pounder ; Block-house No. 4, one im- 
pounder ; Fort Hamilton, two 12-pound Napoleons, one 30-pound 
Parrot, one 32-pound Rodman ; redoubt at the bridge, one 30- 
pound Parrot, two 6-pounders. 

To be considered as forming a part of the south side defenses 
were the gunboats Louisiatia, Eagle and Commodore Hull, and 
liter in the sie^e x.\\^ C:res. The 6-poand guns in the block 
houses belonged to Battery G, 3d New York Artillery. 

Learning of the intentions of the enemy. Gen. Foster threw 
himself into Washington with his staff before the enemy could 
surround it, coming up on a steamer, leaving orders for Prince's 
brigade to follow by water, and Spinola's by land. He arrived 
March 30th, and came at once to Fort Washington, which had 



HILL LAYS SIEGE TO WASHINGTON. i6l 

been garrisoned since the previous summer by Battery G, under 
CaptVVall. He made the Fort his headquarters. Dispositions 
to resist an assault were immediately made. By Foster's order, 
the barracks in Fort Washington were at once torn down and 
every available man in the whole garrison was ordered out to 
work 1 1 strengthening the lines. Shovels being scarce, shingles 
from the dismantled barracks and other buildings were used. 
Traverses to protect guns from cross fire were begun, and the 
abatti was made thicker in front of all positions exposed to as- 
sault. The 44th Massachusetts was disposed along the line of 
intrenchments west of the Fort^ the 27th Massachusetts east of 
tt. Battery G manned the Fort, and also had a detachment at 
the redoubt at the causeway and at Fort Hamilton. 

An assault was expected daily, and the little garrison worked 
like beavers to prepare for it. But Hill hesitated for three 
whole days. On the 31st, having planted batteries on the south 
side of the Tar, at Rodman's point, nearly opposite, but below 
the town, and at Hill's point, six miles below, so as to command 
the approaches by water, he showed in force on the hills in front 
of Fort Washington, and sent down a tlag of truce, demanding 
a surrender, stating that he had completely surrounded the town 
and It was now in his power. Foster would not allow the tlag 
to come within our lines, but sent out officers to meet it. He 
was in Fort Washington when Hill's demand was brought to him. 
Officers of Company G heard him say, " Go back and tell them, 
if they want Washington, come and get it. We'll tight them as 
long as we can man a gun." All now made ready to resist the 
expected assault. Two companies of infantry were brought into 
the Fort. Two hundred contrabands were armed, and every 
man that could sight a ririe was stationed at the breastworks. 

With his 20,000 men. Hill could have taken Washington with 
one strong rush, though Battery G and the infantry would have 
made it a bloody business for him had he tried it. The assault, 
however, did not come. Hill saw we were ready for him, and it 
is said that his men, when ordered to advance and storm our 
works, refused to obey. 

The rebel General then decided on a siege. The erection of 
batteries was, on the 31st, begun on the hills north and east of 
tort Washington, in the edge of the woods. The Fort shelled 
the rebel position to annoy the working parties. 

The riverside of the town was its vulnerable point. On the 
30th, Capt. Lyon's company had been sent to Rodmaa's point, 
with orders to entrench, and secure it against the enemy. But 
ne was driven off at daybreak, next day,^in spite of the attempts 



l62 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERV, 

of the gunboats to drive back the rebels by the fire of their 
heavy guns. The rebels erected a battery on the point, and 
April ist opened fire on the town and on the Commodore Hull, 
which was aground in the river. The boat received a hundred 
shots, and was completely riddled. Foster was determined to 
repossess Rodman's point. By his orders a strong detachment 
sallied across the causeway, supported by two guns of Battery 
G, and strove to get in the rear of the rebel redoubt. But the 
road beyond the causeway was obstructed by a barricade, with 
infantry and artillery, and after a short fight, the sortie re- 
turned. On the 4th, under cover of a fog, an attempt was made 
to storm the point by crossing in boats. But the gunboat Ceres. 
which had the storming party on board, ran aground, and the 
assault failed. The Ceres was well pelted with shot'before she 
could be gotten off. 

The bombardment of the town and our river side redoubts bv 
Rodman's point, began on the ist. The cannonade was mutual 
and ver\- heavy, but void of especial result. The Commodore 
Hull had several guns dismounted. Block-house No. 4 was 
riddled, and some damage was inflicted on houses in the town. 

The transports bearing Gen. Prince's brigade from Newbern 
came in sight of the town that day, but were stopped by the 
rebel batteries on Hill's point. Foster ordered Prince to land 
and storm the point. He replied, " It is impracticable," and 
never even made the attempt. 

Fearful that the rebels on Rodman's point would destroy the 
Union gunboats, Foster now had a breastwork built on Castle 
island, a little island in the middle of the river, to put their 
guns into it if necessary, and those of the Commodore Hull ancJ 
Eagle were landed in the town. The heavy guns in Fort Ham- 
ilton were from the Eagle. This Fort derived its name, by the 
way, from Lieut. Hamilton, of Battery G, who with his men gar- 
risoned it. 

The bombardment of Fort Washington fairly opened from the 
batteries east of rhe town, on the ^d, and lasted with varying in- 
tensity for seventeen days. 

On the 4th, a new voice was added to the roaring of the rebel 
batteries, and missiles came flying down towards block house No. 
4, from a twelve-pound battery on Blount's plantation, east of 
the town. The battery was masked behind a hedge fence. .A?^ 
it took the river side redoubts at this point in reverse, the two 
Wiard guns of Battery G at the causeway redoubt were ordered 
up to block house No. 4 to engage the battery. After firing two- 
hours, one of the rebel guns was knocked over, and the other 



BOMBARDMENT OF WASHINGTON. 163 

silenced. Two of Battery G's men at Fort Hamilton, Horle and 
Shaufeller, were injured that day by a premature explosion. 
Horle had just rammed home the charge, when it went off, the 
blast carrying him bodily right over the breastwork. 

On the 5th, the tiring on Fort Washington began to grow 
heavy. Work after work was thrown up on the hills in front of 
it. Nearly every day, new guns were mounted in them, until at 
length eight siege batteries were arrayed against the Fort and 
rained into it daily a terrific converging fire from ten rifled and 
four smooth bore guns. The Fort was ploughed in all directions 
by the shot and fragments of shell, but the garrison went through 
the appalling ordeal to which it was subjected almost without 
harm. The ramparts were good and strong and shelter was af- 
forded against cross fire by large traverses built between the 
guns by the contrabands. Fort Washington answered the bat- 
teries on the hills with as heavy a fire as was consistent with 
economy of ammunition. After three days' firing, the supply of 
ammunition was nearly exhausted, and it became necessary to 
fire slowly, paying more attention to accuracy and depending 
less on silencing the enemy by a torrent of fire. Battery G's 
gunners in the Fort thus made beautiful shots, and frequently 
dismounted rebel guns. The only way Foster had of obtaining 
ammunition was by means of row boats and sail boats running 
the blockade of the Hill's point batteries in the night. This 
was successfully done and each night enough was generally se- 
cured to carry the garrison thcough the next day. 

On the 9th, the attention of the garrison at Washington was 
caught by the sounds of battle far away to the south-east. All 
surmised that relief was at hand and that our troops from New- 
bern had attacked the rebel rear. But the sounds soon died 
away and nothing came of the demonstration. The cause of the 
firing was an attempt by Brig. -Gen. Spinola, with 7,000 infantry, 
and Riggs's, Ashby's, Howell's, Belgers's and Ransom's Bat- 
teries, to break through the rebel circumvallation of Washing- 
ton and raise the siege. He encountered a strong force of the 
enemy at Blount's bridge, fifteen miles from Washington, and 
tried to drive them without success, and then fell back to New- 
bern. 

The bombardment of Fort Washington was very hot on the 
loth, and the top mast of the flag staff was shot away. The flag 
came down on a run. But David Myrick, of Battery G, gallantly 
climbed the mast under a heavy fire and nailed the flag to its 
place. Shots struck the pole above and below him while he was 
up there and one of them jarred him down. The rebels fired 



1 . . I 



164 3D NEW-VORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

about 200 rounds an hour into the Fort on the loth, requiring" ,1 
sharp look out to prevent casualties. Battery G worked its gun a 
steadily in reply and won the admiring comments of Gen. Foster 
and his staff for its coolness and intrepidity, and for the accu- 
racy of its shots. Fort Hamilton, too, was well served and made 
some remarkably close shots. One day, one of its gunners 
sighted the 32-pounder at a man across the river, who was mak- 
ing signals, and shot him. 

A hotter fire than ever was rained upon the town on the 12 th, 
Jbut without shaking the steadfastness of the garrison. Our re- 
turn fire was so well directed that the rebels were kept hard at 
work repairing their breastworks ploughed up by our shot. 
During the day, a lo-pound Parrot shell dropped into Fort 
Washington beside a gun in command of Sergt. Goodrich. The 
Sergeant instantly picked it up and threw it aside to a place, 
where, "had it burst, it could not endanger the lives of his men. 
Fortunately it did not burst at all. It may be mentioned here, 
that Sergt. Goodrich won a proud name during this siege for his 
cool daring and soldierly conduct. Every time his gun was 
fired, he exposed himself above the parapet to watch the effect 
of the shot, and Gen Potter's attention was so drawn to it that 
he inquired for Goodrich's name and said, " That's my idea of a 
perfect soldier." 

On the 14th, the steamer Escort came up the river, having run 
the blockade, bringing the 5th Rhode Island Volunteers, with a 
store of provisions and ammunition. The next day the Escort 
started back again. Gen. Foster was aboard, determined to -a 
to Newbern, and bring a relieving column to the rescue. The 
Escort ran the blockade again in safety, though fortv-seven shot:) 
were sent into her on passing by the Hill's point ba'tteries. Slie 
reached Newbern that evening. Foster immediatelv ordert-d 
the whole force to prepare for action, and at daylight of th.e 
1 7th started overland for Washington. All the artillery that 
could be spared from Newbern accompanied it. 

Meanwhile, an attempt was made in Washington to create the 
belief that reinforcements had been received. Troops were 
shifted from point to point, empty camps were pitched, and bat- 
teries of cannon were drawn here and there. 

On the night of the isth, the rebels ingloriouslv stole aw.iv 
from their lines and retreated. Fort Washington tossed a few 
shells into the redoubts on the hill in the morning. But the hfi! 
was mute. Our pickets- then charged up to find the enemy h.ul 
flown. It is hardly necessary to say that the intelligence w.i=- 
received v.-ith hearty cheers arid considerable enthusia'sm. Our 



INCIDENTS OF TKE SIEGE. f, U6$ 

% 

officers went out to view the rebel works and examine the effect 
of our firing. The hill was strewn with our shot and the ruin 
they caused visible everywhere. Hill's point was occupied by a 
detachment of Battery G and a company of infantry on the 17th. 

Foster came up on the i8th. His cavalry attacked and cut 
up the enemy's rear guard. His forces did not all come on to 
Washington. Finding the rebels were gone, they were nearly 
all sent back. 

The success of Foster's gallant little band of 2,200 in keeping 
at bay a whole rebel corps for twenty days, and withstanding 
an aggressive siege of twelve days, has been justly regarded as 
unparalleled in the war. The merit of the achievement is prom- 
inently and perhaps principally due to Battery G of the 3d New 
York Ai-tillery, 

April 24th, Gen. Foster issued General Orders, No. 63. 
Enumerating the troops comprising the garrison of Washington 
during the siege, he says : " They have all incurred by their 
steadiness, courage and endurance, the honor of inscribing on 
their banners, "Washington, April, 1863." 

Before leaving this subject, an incident worthy of notice, oc- 
curring in Riggs's Battery, on the march to Washington, may be 
related. The section under command of Lieut. Mercer, had 
halted for dinner. Over a hastily built camp fire, water was 
soon boiling for the coffee. One of the men, stepping to the 
limber chest, took out the coffee bag and emptied its contents 
into the kettle, and then rolling up the bag replaced it in the 
chest. Corporal Smith was sitting ori the chest, which, by the 
way, contained fifty pounds of powder, when Ben Adams ap- 
proached and asked permission to look into the chest. This 
was against regulations, and was refiised. But Ben was uneasy, 
and came back and said to the Corporal, " I must look in that 
chest." After some chaffing, he was allowed to. Upon raising 
the lid a cloud of smoke arose. The men, who stood around, 
forgetful of rations and everything but personal safety, fled in 
all directions. Ben, however, at the risk of his life, remained. 
The coffee bag was afire. Ben snatched it out, and threw it on 
the ground, exclaiming, "There, I knew something was the 
matter." He never could account for his desire to look into 
that chest. His presentiment came just in time, for in a few 
moments more the limber would have exploded, with disastrous 
consequences. 



The time of the original members of the 3d Artillery, veterans 
of the 19th New York Volunteers, expired in the month of May, 



l66. 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

1863. They were accordingly assembled at Newbern, to be sent 
home for muster out. Battery G came down from VVashington 
May 8th. Detachments of E, I and K, at Port Royal, were 
brought up, and Battery H was relieved from duty in Fort 
Rowan, Newbern, and C and D from duty at Fort Totten. 
Separated from the rest of the regiment, they encamped apart, 
w)iile their papers were being made out ; on the 13th of May 
they turned out by themselves, with their old regimental colors, 
tattered and torn by service, and inscribed with regimental vic- 
tories, for an old igth dress parade. A week later. Gen. Foster 
issued the following order : — 

" Headquarters, Department of North Carolina, 
i8th Army Corps, 

Newbern, May 20, 1863. ^ 

Special Orders, No. 144 : — The term of service of many of 
the 3d New York Artillery having expired, and they being about 
to leave the Department, the commanding General feels called 
upon to express his thanks to them for the past and his best 
wishes for the future. The commanding General hopes that, 
after a brief enjoyment of home, the memory of the brave deeds 
in which they have participated in this Department, and the 
memory of their friends left behind, will induce many or all of 
them, officers and men, to return again to the Department of 
North Carolina. There are few among the parting who cannot 
recall with pride the siege of Fort Macon, the affairs of Ravvles 
Mills, and the actions of Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro, and 
Washington. The commanding General sympathizes with the 
companions and families of those brave men who have fallen 
and whose memory will ever remain recorded in the annals of 
this Department. 

By command of "Maj-'Gen. J. G. Foster. 

Southard Hoffman, A. A. G." 

The men sailed for home that same day in two steamers. 
Batteries E, H, I, K, M, and Breck's section of F, and two 
companies of the 8th Massachusetts Volunteers, with an im- 
mense throng of spectators escorted them to the wharf They 
reached New York on the 23d, arriving in Auburn with Gen. 
Ledlie and Col. Stewart on the 26th, the detachment being as 
follows : — 

Battery A— Capt. White, Lieuts. Tomlison and Potter, and 
75 men. 

Battery C — Lieut. Randolph, and 83 men. 

Battery D— Capt. Gavigan, Lieuts. Boyle, Brannick and 
Dwyer, and 63 men. 



MUSTER OUT OF THE OLD I9TH MEN, 1 67 

Battery E — Lieut. Dennis, and 80 men. 

Battery G— Capt. Wall and Lieut. Tliompson, and 56 men. 

Battery I— 78 men. 

Battery K — Lieut. Havens, and 75 men. 

Surgeon Dimon. 

In all, 524, — all stalwart, manly looking fellows, bronzed like 
, Arabs and magnificently drilled. 

Their arrival created an intense excitement in Auburn. A 
few days before, a public meeting had been called and a com- 
mittee of the very best citizens appointed to organize a recep- 
tion. The committee was — Jonas White, Jr., the Mayor, chair- 
man ; Wm. E. Beardsley, Theo. M. Pomeroy, Geo. VV. Peck, S. 
Willard, M. D., Nelson Beardsley, E. P. Ross, J. N. Knapp, 
Chas. P. Wood, John H. Chedell, N. T. Stephens, Col. J. B. 
Richardson, Capt. Hubbard, C. Morgan, C. E. Barber, T. P. 
Case, D. P. Wallis, C. C. Dennis, C. H. xMerriman, J. Ives 
Parsons, L. Briggs, M. D., Wm. Hills, Geo. J. Letchworth, 
Wm. Allen, Thomas Kirkpatrick, D. M. Osborne, Eli Gallup, 
W. S. Hawley, Kellogg Beach, C. S. Burtis, Chas. Standart, C. 
G. Briggs, L. H. Baldwin, L. L. Wilkinson, Wm. B. Woodin, 
Benj. B. Snow, Wm. Robinson, John Porter, M. S. Myers, Geo. 
Humphreys, John T. Baker, E. T. T. Martin, A. G. Beardsley. 
, Plans were laid for a grand reception ; but the battalion ar- 

rived before it was expected, and there was only time to marshal 
Capts. White's, Swift's, Rhodes's and Barber's military companies 
under Col. J. B. Richardson, Nos. i, 3 and 4. fire companies 
and hook and ladder company to greet the returned heroes at 
the New York Central Railroad depot and escort them to the 
Exchange Hotel on Genesee street, where J. N. Knapp, tiie 
Provost Marshal, made them an address, and a collation was 
provided for them. The city was hung with flags in their honor 
and the populace, proud of them beyond expression, thronijed 
the streets. Two or three days afterwards, the battalion haa a 
dress parade in front of the Court House and was addressed by 
Secretary Seward. The men were formally mustered out June 
2d. They were paid otT on the 6th. 

Shortly after these events, the returned members of the 3d 
Artillery were unexpectedly called on, one day, to display their 
patriotic devotion to the country's welfare by special service in 
the city of New York. In that metropolis riots had broken out 
among the foreign born and ignorant classes of the populace m 
opposition to the conscription ordered by Government. The 
State happened to be stripped of serviceable troops, nearly 
everything that could be gleaned, volunteers and militia, having 



1 68 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERT. 

been sent to Pennsylvania to fight Gen. Lee at Gettysburg. In 
this emergency, on the 14th of July, Gov. Seymour called on 
Maj. Giles, then at Auburn, to get together the discharged vete- 
rans of the 3d Artillery, and report at once to Gen. Wool in New- 
York city, for the public defense. Maj. Giles promptly repeated 
the call in Cayuga and Seneca counties, and the disbanded bat- 
talion as promptly responded, and began to assemble with alac- 
rity at Seneca Falls and elsewhere, for the purpose of going in 
a body to the metropolis. The danger, however, had passed 
before they could be organized. They were publicly thanked 
and allowed to return to their homes. 

Nevertheless, the 3d Artillery was not without efficient repre- 
sentatives in New York diiring the riots, quite a delegation of 
its officers being in the city at the time on furlough. Gen. Wool 
immediately utilized them for the public defense, placing por- 
tions of his militia under their experienced and competent di- 
rection. Capt. Schenck received command of a battery of 
artillery, and did good service at the Atlantic docks and else- 
where, in overawing rioters and preventing the destruction of 
property and sacking of stores. 

Capt. Howell was giv^ command of some artillery of the 8th 
regiment, and used it on Wednesday, the 15th, in a manner 
that showed how little distinction existed in his patriotic view 
between rebels in the field and traitors at home. At daylight of 
the 15th, Gen. Dodge and Col. Mott with a body of infantry, 
and Capt. Howell and his i:;uns, were sent to 32d street, where the 
mob was hanging colored men and breaking into and rob- 
bing houses and stores. When they arrived on the ground, 
three colored men had already been slain. The lifeless body of 
one, Col. Mott himself cut down with his sword. The act 
aroused the ferocity of the mob, who attacked the detachment 
with a rain of brick and stones, and, crowding up close, struck 
those within reach with clubs and slung shot. Col. Mott di- 
rected Capt. Howell to come into battery at the corner of 32d 
Street and 7th Avenue, which he did forthwith, while the infantry 
and cavalry charged the mob, and with thrust of bayonet and 
slash of sword drove it a long ways down the street. The rioters 
rallying again, Capt. Howell approached them alo-ne and warned 
them to disperse or he would try the virtue of grape and can- 
nister. The caution was repeatedly given ; but the crowd 
lingered, and finally renewed the attack, making a rush to take 
our guns, prefacing the same with a tremendous volley of stones. 
Capt. Howell waved his sword and gave the signal to fire, and 
half a dozen rounds of cannister tore their ^vay through the very 



RECRUITING THE REGIMENT. 169 

heart of the assailing horde, checking "its advance and facing it 
to the right about in panic terror. The street was cleared almost 
immediately, the mob leaving the road strewn with bleeding 
bodies. Nearly twenty expiated their folly and crime in bloody 
death in this attack, though, doubtless, some of those shot down 
were innocent parties drawn to the scene from motives of curi- 
osity. The infantry now had easy work and made a large 
number prisoners. 

Two days afterwards, Capt. Howell had a narrow escape from 
assassination for the part borne by him in this fight. While 
driving in his private carriage to headquarters, a group of a 
dozen or more of the rioters, spying his uniform, set up a shout 
of *| There's the man who fired on us on Wednesday," and on 
the instant poured a shower of stones on the carriage, breaking 
the windows and panels. The rioters shouted to the driver to 
stop. Capt. Howell drew his revolver and told the driver to go 
on. Before that individual had recovered his wits enough to 
act, the crowd had increased to fifty. A stone now struck Capt. 
Howeirs shoulder on an old wound, for a moment paralyzing the 
arm. The horses were then lashed into a gallop ; the crowd 
•was halted with five shots from the Captain's revolver; and the 
carriage was soon beyond the reach of danger. 

The withdrawal of the two years' men depleted the .3d 
Artillery to 889 men. In accordance with the orders of the 
AVar Department requiring the consolidation of the regiment to 
eight batteries, the remnants of Batteries A, C, D and G were 
transferred to E, K and 'I on May 22d, leaving the constitution 
of the regiment as follows: Battery B, Capt. Ashcroft, 142 men ; 
Battery E, Capt. Schenck, 105 men ; Battery F, Capt. Tavlor, 
J33 men ; Battery H, Capt. Riggs, 133 men ; Battery I, Capt. 
Ammon, 113 men ; Battery K, Capt. Angel, 125 men ; Battery 
M, Capt. Howell, 131 men; Field and Staff, 7. In all, 8S9. 
The battery was L, Capt. Cowan, 1st New York Independent, 
m the Army of the Potomac. It was still carried along on the 
rolls at that time as a legitimate portion of the 3d Artillerv, 
Col. Stewart having no authority as yet to drop it. But this 
history does not include it, or count it, with the 3d Artillery, as it 
was practically an independent command and was not under the 
orders of the commander of the 3d. 

To bring the regiment back to its proper standard, Col. 
Stewart applied to Secretary Stanton for permission to recruit. 
Gen. Foster endorsed the request as follows : — 

•* I approve the within most cordially, because I believe it 



I/O 3D NEW-yORK. VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

to be for the interest of the service. The 3d New York Artillery, 
which arrived here fully 1,700 strong, has been the body from 
which we have drawn the personale for all the excellent artillery 
light batteries we have formed in this department. When the 
original Burnside expedition landed, it had only a Rhode Island 
battery (Belger's.) But this excellent battery was the nucleus 
of the efficient batteries, nine in number, formed from the 3d 
New York Artillery. Notwithstanding a very large drain of its 
best material, made to assist the Department of the South in the 
attack on Charleston, we now have remaining several batteries 
-which are now very efficient. But all the regiment is exhausted 
in mounting these batteries ; and now none are left, since so 
many more are to be mustered out, to man the forts. To sup- 
ply this want, at least in part, I earnestly recommend that the 
requisite authority be granted to fill up the regiment to the 
original standard." 

The application was granted in the course of the summer. In 
September, Col. Stewart was enabled to go home and begin re- 
cruiting. He opened offices in Auburn, Utica, Geneva and' 
other places and made the State ring with his calls for volunteers. 
In September, eighty-two recruits were obtained in consequence, 
and in October, 212. Among the latter was the new Battery C, 
Capt. Wm. E. Mercer, 160 strong. Further recruiting was then 
arrested temporarily by the efforts in New York State to raise a 
new regiment of Artillery, the i6th, by Capt. Morrison, Capt. 
Ammon, Lieut. Prince, and others of the 3d, by consent of Gov. 
Seymour. The i6th Artillery, by the way, was duly raised and 
was a splendid regiment. A great many of the men of the 3d 
mustered out in June went into it and many of the3d's best line 
officers. 

'Ihe summer and fall of 1863, in North Carolina, were dis- 
tinguished by no hard battles. Several sharp cavalry raids on 
the Weldon railroad, however, took place, and various dashes at 
Kinston, Swansboro and other points were made by small expe- 
ditions. They were all successful and served to keep the enemy 
in constant alarm. Detachments of the 3d Artillery generally 
accompanied them. The raids on the railroad took place on 
July 3d and 18th. The first struck it at Warsaw. The second 
struck it at Rocky Mount Station, burning bridges, locomotives, 
cars and stores there, and, on the -way back, burning rebel 
steamers at Tarboro. Lieut. Clark and his section went with 
this expedition, had several brushes and did good service, losing 
four wounded and one prisoner. Lieut. Mercereau went part 
way with it. 



■W,?l" v 



.; . Wi t^'i 






■ ^ ; J i £ i 



FOSTER — PECK, I/l 

July i8th, Foster assumed command of the joint Departments 
of Virginia and North Carolina and went to Fortress Monroe. 

September 3d, Maj.-Gen. John J. Peck assumed eomnland of 
the District of North Carolina by Foster's order. 



■^ # 



173 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



X 



BEFORE CHARLESTON. 

Foster's Expedition to Charleston — The Artillery Brigade — Hunter Absorbs 
Foster's Troops — In camp on St. Helena — The Tent with the Barrel in it— 
Du Font's Attack on Charleston — Batteries B and F on Folly Island — Re- 
■ turn of the other Batteries to Newbern — Capture of Morris Island — Siege of 
Fort Wagner — B and F on the Lines — Battery B and the Regulars — B Builds 
a Breastwork at Night — Capture of Wagner — B and F Bombard Sumter at 
Night — The Two Expeditions to John's Island — Incidents — The 3d Artillery 
Saves the Army — The Battle of Bloody Bridge. 

» • 

Foster's expedition to Goldsboro in December, 1862, having 
seriously disturbed the enemy's communications in North Caro- 
lina, nearly isolated Wilmington from the North, and left it very 
much as Fort Macon was when Burnside took Newbern, Fos- 
ter proposed to take Wilmington, and, with the full consent and 
approval of the War Department, began to assemble his i8th 
Corps at Beaufort, as the first step towards making a dash at 
the earnestly coveted prize. While intent on this idea, he re- 
ceived orders from Washington, changing the objective point of 
his new expedition. The Monitor^ which had been promised 
him to help in his expected attack on Wilmington, had foun- 
dered at sea, and no other iron clad could be spared him. He 
was directed, therefore, to go at once to South Carolina, and 
co-operate by land with Du Font's iron clads, in an assault on 
Charleston. The project well suited his ambitious and ener- 
getic temperament, and as he happened to have been one of 



poster's expeditions to chahleston. 173 

Sumter's garrison, as United States Engineer of the defenses of 
Charleston, when the rebels took it in 186 1, the notion of aiding 
in its recapture was the more gratifying. 

The force which now gathered at Beaufort, N. C, comprised 
11,000 hard fighters, under the brave Brigadiers Naglee, Hick- 
man, Ferry, Stephenson and others. There was good material 
throughout in the corps, but its brightest ornament by far was a 
magnificent brigade of artillery, composed of thirteen batteries 
and parts of batteries, light and heavy, with forty guns, all under 
the command of Gen. Ledlie, Chief of Artillery of the i8th 
Corps. The 3d Artillery was represented in the brigade by a 
large battalion, under command of Maj. Kennedy, of splendid 
appearance in the field, and, thanks to the Major's and their 
Captains' careful training, most thoroughly and scientificallv 
drilled. A portion of it consisted of details from heavy bat- 
teries, which were designed to serve mortars in any siege opera- 
tions, and to garrison the numerous fortifications, the General 
confidently expected to capture. Its composition was as fol- 
lows : Battery B, 103 strong, Capt. Morrison, with six 12-pound 
Napoleons ; Battery F, 94 strong,. Capt. Jenny, six 6-pound 
W'iards; Battery I, 98 strong, Lieut. Thomas, six 12-pound 
Napoleons ; Battery A, 60 strong, Lieut. Laughlin, heavy, armed 
with rifles ; Battery C, 26 men, Lieut. Randolph, same ; Battery 
D, 25 men, Lieut. Brannick, same ; Battery E, 90 strong, Capt. 
Schenck, same. Having in all, 490 men, 22 cannon and 400 
horses. All the companies took their camp equipage. Dr, 
Knight accompaied the battalion as Surgeon. Capt. Morrison 
was Assistant-Quartermaster on Ledlie's staff. 

The expedition, assembling at Beaufort during the last days of 
January, was, by the 30th, snugly aboard a fle'et of about fifty 
steamers and schooners, lying at anchor under the guns of Fort 
Macon. The light batteries of the artillery brigade each had 
two schooners, one for the men and guns, the other for the 
horses. Batteries A, C, D and E were on the steamer SpauU- 
ing under command of Capt. Schenck. This was Gen. Foster's 
headquarters' ship and flew a dark blue flag with a white casile 
in the center to designate it as such. 

The fleet sailed on January 31st. Up to this moment no one 
but the chiefs of the expedition knew its destination. There 
was intense curiosity on the subject, but no positive information, 
until the fleet had sailed forty miles down the coast. Each 
Captain of a vessel then opened the sealed orders which had 
been handed him on starting, and found it to direct him to ren- 
dezvous at Port Royal. The SpauUitng reached Hilton Head, 



..>•'•■ ;t,.2 ? 11 ■.'J? 



174 3° NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

February 2d. The sailing vessels made slower time, the 
wind being light. February 2d was a gloriously clear and sunny 
day and the sunset one of unequalled magnificence. But at 
night, a gale sprang up and the schooners were widely scattered 
over the face of the ocean. Some of them got in to Hilton 
Head on the 3d, but of the rest some were out a week before 
they were able to make the port. 

Port Royal js a splendid harbor, ten miles long by four wide, 
with luxuriantly verdant islands margined by wide sand beaches, 
on all sides. A noble fleet of iron clads, monitors, steamers 
• and ships lay at anchor on its bosom, their white sails, black 
hulls and strange shapes, and their innumerable flags and pen- 
nants, imparting to the scene a singular interest and beauty. 

Gen. Foster reported verbally to Gen. Hunter, commander of 
the department, to whom the former's advent in his department 
is said to have been a great surprise. It was agreed that the 
i8th Corps should encamp for the present on St. Helena island, 
on the north side of the harbor. The infantry was debarked 
rapidly. The artillery went ashore on the 7th, 8th, and 9th, 
camping on the broad smooth beach at the extreme southern end 
of the island, near the Government dock, and within ten rods of 
the water's edge. The batteries camped in parallel rows, in 
Sibley tents, holding fifteen men each. 

St. Helena, a long, level island, is covered with fine planta- 
tions and elegant mansions. Its soil produces the finest quality 
of the famous sea island cotton, and that was the chief crop 
raised by its residents before the war. When the i8th Corps 
arrived, however, the island was deserted, save by negroes, and 
its pl.intations neglected and overrun with weeds and quick- 
growing tropical vegetation. 

Gen. F(jster's stay in the Department of the South was short. 
On arriving at Port Royal, he called on Com. Du Pont to ar- 
raii^'c the details of a joint attack on Charleston. Du Pont was 
not ready, and Foster took a steamer to Fortress Monroe to get 
vime siege guns for land batteries. He did not come b.ick. 
Hunter disarranged the entire plan of his expedition by taking 
adv.int \-e of his absence and incorporating the whole detach- 
ment of 11.000 from the i8th Corps, as reinforcements. Fos- 
ter's principil officers protesting, Hunter ordered them out of 
Ihc department, and they left. Gen. Ledlie left among the 
number. Deprived of some of his batteries by Hunter's order, 
he protested against it, without avail. He, therefore, applied to 
be ordereii North, and obtained his request. He ploughed the 
wave {or Newbern, March 15th. 



AT ST. HELENA. 



'75 



Under the sunny skies of St. Helena, among palmettos and 
and moss-draped live oaks, the 3d Artillery idled away two lono' 
months, while Du Pont was getting his iron clads ready, and 
Hunter, with a powerful corps at his disposal, was doing noth- 
ing. One or two grand reviews took place on the island, and 
the burning of a negro settlement, the distant booming of heavy 
guns from our gun boats at Savannah or in the blockading- 
squadrons off Charleston, created passing sensations. But, ail 
things considered, it was very dull. Foraging in the orange 
groves, in the sweet potato patches, and among the flocks and 
-herds of the inhabitants, was about the only entertainment. It 
was, of course, against orders. But Hunter starved the troops 
on St. Helena, and the sutlers in Robbers' Row, on Hilton 
Head, plundered them. What else were they to do ? A great 
many found sport in trapping with snares the gaily-colored gros- 
becks that peopled the groves. Others had a passion for raking 
up clams and others from the bottom of the harbor, and sought 
recreation in so doing. But the ruling furore was for forbidden 
edibles and the excitement of getting them. It led the men 
into many e.xploits. Bound to have something better than hard 
tack and salt pork, a diet that produced atone time a prevalence 
of scur\j in the artiller\' brigade, all who could escape beyond 
the limits of camp foraged largely. Two months' experience 
in this line endued some of the more enterprising spirits with a 
strength of cool impudence that no one could excel but a loth 
Corps Quartermaster. One of the many exploits related is told 
of Battery B. It took place in the camp of the Battery. The 
General had issued a barrel of commissary whiskey for the sick 
of B. The Captain placed it in the back part of his tent for 
safety. One day a certain clique were observed to be growino' 
hilarious. Great was the mystitication. No inquiries at tirsl 
sufficed to discover where or how the potent liquid was obtained. 
At length the Orderly Sergeant found it out. It was noticed 
that among toasts offered on the sly among the men one was 
exceedingly popular and occasioned much covert merriment. 
"Here's to the tent with the barrel in it." Then the truth came 
out. One day a few of the men had taken one of the buckets 
from the guns. A picket went around in front of the Captain's 
tent. VVhen the Captain dropped asleep, at a signal, a slit was 
made in the back of the tent. The barrel was tapped with a 
gimlet, and a pailful of its precious contents drawn off. The 
hole was plugged and the initiated gathered in an appointed 
tent to drink the health of their ofticers and the tent with a 
barrel in it. 



17^ 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER AKTII LERY, 

On the ist of April the troops at St. Helena, including the 3d 
Artillery, were ordered to embark for the long expected attack 
on Charleston. Camps were struck in a furore of enthusiasm. 
The fleet set sail April 3d. After a stormy passage, it rendez- 
voused in Stono Inlet, clustering behind the south end of Folly 
Island. A portion of the 3d Artillery, on tne schooner Scoaf, 
did not get in till the 7th, having been driven by the storm 
down opposite to the coast of Florida. 

On the 6th, the iron clads came up from the North Edisto, 
steamed slowly by the Stono, and collected ofiF Morris liland, 
for the attack next day. The memorable assault was made by 
them on the afternoon of the 7th, and lasted three hours. The 
crashing of the heavy guns seemed to the fleet behind Folly 
Island like the unceasing muttered roll of the most awful thun- 
der. The troops were in intense excitement, and hung in the 
riggings of the transports, thick as bees, hoping to catch a glimpse 
of the tight. They saw only the clouds of the thick, white smoke 
of battle rising from over be>T)nd the islands high in air. Some 
thought it was a conflagration. 

While the iron clads were attacking, Gen. Hunter landed 
4,000 men on Folly Island, with Batteries B and F of the 3d 
Artillery, under Gen. Seymour, and posted them behind the sand 
hills and a thicket of scrub pine and palmettos at the upper 
end of the Island, ready to rush across on pontoons and estab- 
lish themselves on Morris Island when the proper moment ar- 
rived. The Batteries left their horses on shipboard. Getting 
out the prolonges, they dragged their guns and caissons up the 
broad, smooth beach to the front, vanishing from the sight of 
their comrades on the fleet, who were filled with a generous envy 
of their good fortune. Well might they have been, for the Bat- 
teries which landed on Folly Island that day were the only ones 
in the 3d Artillery that were destined to contribute to the fall of 
Charleston. 

DuPont, as is well known, failed in his assault that day, and 
retired in rage and disgust to the North Edisto. 

Gen. Seymour, though just on the point of dashing across 
Light House Inlet, on a party of rebels who were firing on his 
pickets, was ordered to remain where he was. He accordingly 
encamped his troops and waited for further advices. He was 
soon after reinforced with 4,000 men, and the Island placed un- 
der the command of Gen. Vogdes. On his staft", for a while, 
Capt. Jenny was Chief of Artillery. 

The transport fleet of the loth Corps lingered in Stono Inlet 
till the i2th of April. It then returned to Port Royal. The 3d 



INTRENCHING ON FOLLY ISLAND. 



177 



Artillery was encamped, a portion on St. Helena, the rest under 
iMajor Kennedy at Beaufort, S. C. It remained at these places 
in idleness till. May, when, upon the appeal of the commanders 
of batteries, seconded by Major Kennedy, it was sent back to 
Newbern, arriving there about the 23d. Hunter compelled it, 
however, to leave behind its guns. 

To strengthen the troops on Seabrook Island, (a brigade 
under Gen. Stephensofi,) Battery B was transferred there a few 
days after landing on Folly. The Battery put its guns into a 
line of works around the camp, which was at the south-west 
comer of the Island. It had one of two opportunities to face 
some rebel pickets to the right about with shell, but had no 
regular engagement In June, it was summoned to Morris 
Island. 

The troops, left on Folly Island April 7th, constituted the ad- 
vance guard of Hunter's army in its approaches to Charleston. 
Liable to be raided upon at any moment, Vogdes had out heavy 
picket parties all around the Island, day and night, and required 
Battery F to support with its pieces these parties. The Battery, 
in detached sections, kept many a vigil through that and the fol- 
lowing two months, with horse's ready hitched, on the edge of 
the Island, ready to repel meditated assault. The guns were 
shifted continually from place to place. One day they were 
brought down to Light House Inlet to fire on a blockade runner 
that had got on the bar in the Inlet the night before. The Bat- 
tery sent her a few shots, when some newly made redoubts on 
Morris Island suddenly woke up into action and began knock- 
ing up the sand in the vicinity of the Union guns with heavy 
missiles, while a rebel ram ran out from behind an island up the 
Inlet and showed a raging desire to get into a fight. Fortunately 
Battery F was supported by four 32-pound Parrots, on a low 
bluff overhanging the beach, facing Morris Island. Both ram 
and rebel batteries were speedily quieted. The latter, however, 
did not get over their wrath for many days and shelled Folly 
Island vindictively day and night. They seemed to suspect that 
all was not quite right on that innocent looking, bushy bluff. In 
this they were correct. Early in June, Gen. ^Gilmore had re- 
lieved Hunter in command of the Department of the South, 
and was now toiling with superhuman energy to erect a line of 
works on that bluff, which should command the batteries on 
Morris Island, across the Inlet, not over 400 yards away. Everv- 
thmg was done under cloak of the night, covering the works by 
day with pine branches and brush to conceal them. Whole regi- 

L 



178 3° NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERV. 

ments were worked every night and all the teams. By the first 
of July, forty-seven guns and mortars were in position, including 
those of Battery F. The rebels had an inkling of this. Their 
shelling was sometimes terrific, and some men were killed in the 
Union works. But all had holes in the bluff, and in moments 
of danger dodged into them and were as safe as swallows in a 
sand bank. The men could feel the ground tremble when the 
ponderous mortar shells struck, and more than once Battery F's 
men had bombs burst on the bank above them and cover them 
thick with sand. Gilmore never allowed our guns to reply, as 
he wished to conceal our strength from the enemy. Nor did he 
allow the infantry reinforcements he brought up to show them- 
selves. 

Special Orders, No. 2, on July 9th, Announced, that " The at- 
tack on Morris Island will take place to-morrow morning at 
break of day, by the opening of our batteries on the north end 
of Folly Island." 

At 5 A. M. of Friday, July loth, a signal gun from the right 
opened the ball. Battery F, under command of Lieut. Birch- 
meyer, instantly opened on the enemy's lines on Morris Island, 
while the other batteries quickly followed suit. The rebels were 
startled almost out of their senses. When the peal of the first 
gun was heard, they sprang up from their redoubts and rifle 
pits to see where the smoke came from. As other guns opened, 
they dropped back, and at first opened only a feeble fire. Firing 
soon grew vigorous, however, and heavy. Presently five moni- 
tors came up abreast of Morris Island and aided in the good 
work for the Union by pouring in an enfilading fire. The duty 
of Battery F on this occasion was to shell the enemy's rifle pits, 
which it did so effectually as to keep them quiet. Twenty-four 
killed and wounded were afterwards found there. The Navy 
did well in this engagement, but the 'Army firing was superb. 
Our shells rolled over the whole Island, some flying as far as 
Fort Wagner at the upper end of it, materially increasing the 
panic that soon seized the enemy. After three hours' cannonad- 
ing, the rebel fire slackened. Gen. Strong's brigade of infantrv, 
which had been awaiting this event, in row boats, then dashed 
across the Inlet, charged and captured the rebel's works before 
they had time to spike any of their eleven guns therein. It was 
an interesting and comforting sight to see our regiments, with 
bright muskets and waving banners, taking possession of Morris 
Island, which they now did up to within 600 yards of Fort 
Wagner, driving the rebels pell mell before them. 

We learnt from prisoners taken that day, that the rebels had 



ESTABLISHED ON MORRIS ISLAND. 1 79 

intended an attack on Folly Island that very morning. They 
had sent picked men from Fort Sumter to man their guns. We 
captured them. They were a fine lot. 

The victory, on our part, was almost bloodless. Our trophies 
were nine cannon, two mortars, a quantity of camp equipage and 
a large number of prisoners. 

On July nth, Gen. Strong's brigade made an assault on Fort 
VVagner and nearly carried the works. It reached the parapet 
but was repulsed with loss. 

The following order was issued on the 12th : 

" Headquarters Department South, ) 

Morris Island, S. C, July 12, 1863. ) 

Orders : — The Brigadier-General commanding presents his 
congratulations and thanks to the army, which he has the honor 
to command, for the brilliant victory of the loth instant, which 
places them three miles nearer the rebel stronghold of Sumter, 
the first among all our country's defenses against foreign foes 
that felt the polluting hand of traitors. Our labors, however, 
are not over. They are just begun j and while the spires of the 
rebel city still loom up in the dim distance, hardships and pri- 
vations must be endured before our hopes and expectations can 
find full fruition in victory. Let us emulate the heroic deeds of 
our brothers in arms at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, and add to 
that roll of fame which will be transmitted to a grateful pos- 
terity. Special thanks are due Brig-Gen. I. Vodges and his 
command for the untiring energy and patient endurance dis- 
played by them in creating batteries on Folly Island, under 
almost every conceivable disadvantage, and to Brig.-Gen. George 
C. Strong and his command, for the heroic gallantry with which 
they carried the enemy's batteries on Morris's Island, this being 
the first instance during the war in which powerful batteries 
have been successfully assaulted by a column disembarking 
under a heavy artillery fire. 

Q. A. Gillmore, Brig.-Gen. Commd'g." 

Morris Island, a sand spit about three miles in length, reach- 
ing from Light House Inlet to Charleston harbor, is of a shape 
which bears a near resemblance to a bottle. The southern por- 
tion of the island is broad, with high wooded sand hills through 
the center, margined with beautiful broad smooth beaches. The 
upper end is naked and flat, and suddenly contracts into along, 
narrow neck, on which, half a mile apart, the rebels had con- 
structed the monstrous and powerful earthwork known as Fort 
W.igner, and at the extreme north end of the neck the smaller 
work, termed Battery Gregg. 



l80 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Finding Fort Wagner altogether too powerful to be carried by 
assault, the attempt of the nth being repeated on the i8th with 
a like result, nothing was left Gilmore but to besiege. No time 
was lost. By the 23d, a line of intrenchments was thrown up 
for a first parallel clear across the island, and eight guns and 
ten mortars placed in position behind it. On that day a second 
parallel was opened, six hundred yards in advance, and great 
guns vere mounted therein as soon as possible to bring them up. 

About July 13th, a section of Battery F, 3d Artillery, was 
ordered up from Folly Island and placed in the first — then the 
only — parallel, near the extreme right. Within a very few days 
the other section came up, placing its guns in the intrenchments 
along with the others. It did not require the whole Battery to 
serve the guns. The rest encamped some distance in the rear 
on the ocean beach. Battery B, 3d Artillery, also came up from 
Folly Island, placing its cannon in the intrenchments, two of 
them on the right of Battery F and two still further to the right 
on the beach. The main body of the men of the Battery en- 
camped with F back in the rear. The guns of both B and F, 
new-Wiards and Napoleons, were worked by details sent up 
from camp, from time to time, under command of a Lieutenant. 
With the two Batteries of the 3d New York, and between them, 
tin the lines, was the regular light Battery E, 3d United States 
Artillery. These were the three light batteries, spoken of in the 
official reports of the siege of Fort Wagner as guarding the right 
flank of the Union intrenchments so long. They were ranged 
along the breastwork in front of and near some 200-pound guns 
and other heavy ordnance, set up to batter the rebel forts. It 
was their duty to defend this flank of the line, and the great 
guns, from sorties from the fort, against which the latter would 
have been helpless as they could be depressed enough to bear 
on a storming party advancing to their capture. The light bat- 
teries were also required to keep down the fire of rebel sharp- 
shooters, who lay in battalions on the parapets and traverses 
and in the rifle trenches of Fort Wagner, and poured upon our 
great guns and our sappers a wicked fire of well aimed musket 
balls. The sharp-shooters would set up three sand bags, one 
across the others, leaving just space enough to point a ride 
through. Our infantry was powerless to dislodge them, tlius 
ensconced. When they became too troublesome, the light bat- 
teries would open on them with shell and case shot. It seldom 
took long to clear away both sand bags and marksmen 
eftectually. 

When Batter>' B first went up to the front, one night, the 



SIEGE OF FORT WAGNER. igl 

Lieutenant in command of the regular battery took a fancy to 
put his guns into the embrasures occupied by the right section 
of B under Lieut. Day. He ordered Lieut. Day to take his guns 
out. Day naturally refused. He did not propose to abandon 
the post he held in the presence of the enemy, at the will of an 
irresponsible Lieutenant, especially as there were no other em- 
brasures to point his guns through, and the space of a few rods 
only intervened between the spot where he then stood and that 
portion of the ocean beach swept by the tides. The regular 
Lieutenant again commanded him to move, and turning to his 
men ordered them to come and drag out the guns. Day drew 
his revolver. He said the first man who laid hand on a gun 
should die in his tracks. At the same time Battery B's men all 
drew, and a bloody fight would have been precipitated, had not 
his pomposity in shoulder straps suddenly comprehended the 
value of discretion, and desisted. 

The change, however, was ordered in the course of the night, 
by the Chief of Artillery, who told Lieut. Day to make a breast- 
work on the beach. It was of course necessary to get this done 
before daylight. So at it Battery B went. The men drew up 
an'old boat which lay on the beach as a foundation, and piled 
high a parapet of sand on top of it. Sand bags, to revet the back 
of the parapet and the embrasures, could not be got. But 
near by was a large pile of small wooden boxes, in which the 
shells of the 200-pound guns had come. These the men filled with 
sand and used instead of bags, answering the purpose admirably. 
The redoubt was finished just at the breaking of dawn, as objects 
on the Island were becoming visible in the first beams of morn- 
ing. The men of the Battery, exhausted with their hard night's 
work, were sitting all around on the parapet, when there vv-as a 
flash and a puff of smoke curling from the Fort. The rebels 
had a carronade with which they swept the beach. They used to 
fire from it half a dozen four-pound balls at a time. All knew 
what that flash meant. The rebels had discovered the new 
work. The men tumbled every way into the ditch, behind the 
parapets, anywhere for shelter, and scarce had they found cover 
before chuck ! chuck ! chuck ! and the balls came bounding and 
plunging into the work. Before another shot was fired, every 
man was in his proper place. 

Battery B, supported by three Requa, or " musquito," bat- 
teries of rifle barrels, now held the extreme right of the Union 
lines. 

Battery F, during this siege, was always in the extreme ad- 
vance. It was pushed ahead as the intrenchments were dus:, un- 



MJ- 



l82 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ' ' 

til, by August r4th, it was in the advance parallel within 800 
yards of the Fort. Its guns were well served, and were thought 
so much of that some 30-pound Parrots were removed to make 
room for them. Two of the guns of B were also advanced to 
the extreme front, from time to time, and did gallant service. 
Both were unceasingly under the heavy shelling, which Forts 
Wagner, Gregg, Sumter in the harbor, and Johnson on James 
Island inflicted upon the besiegers. At times, this shelling was 
fast and furious. With our return fire, it filled the whole Island 
with wild commotion. It was next to impossible for the men on 
the lines to get the slightest particle of rest in consequence. 

During one busy period of the siege, a detachment of Batter}- 
F did a brave and true service, that called out the following 
commendation from Lieut. Birchmeyer, in his otherwise rather 
barren official report, viz : " This gallant little band, under Lieut. 
VanHeusen, refused to be relieved for several days, until com- 
pletely worn out with fatigue and exposure. Through F, the 3d 
Artillery gained a good reputation in this Department, owing m 
a great measure to the' untiring exertions and distinguished 
bravery of Lieut. VanHeusen, commanding the section." To 
that reputation, Battery B also contributed in a high degree. 

Several 3d Artillery men were wounded in this advance. 
Corp. Riley Fancher was touched in the back by a piece of a 
shell, Jas. H. Kingsley, the same ; Lawrence McCarthv was 
pierced in the right arm with a bullet, August loth ; Darius 
Stucker received wounds in hands and arms by a premature dis- 
charge, while firing in action, August 13th. One day, when the 
200-pound guns were firing, a man in Battery B was wounded in 
the calf of the leg by a large grain of powder from one of them. 
George Conway, Riley Fai>cher and Mathias Thvson distin- 
guished themselves in the trenches for bravery, and were pre- 
sented with medals therefor, afterwards. Conway ran out under 
fire and stuck a guidon flag into the ground for'the sappers to 
work towards. 

Battery F, in August, was very short of men fit for duty. 
Lieut. Birchmeyer could only relieve the men in the trenches 
every third night. 

August 22d, Battery B was ordered to garrison Fort Shaw, 
Morns Island. The Fort was on the ocean front of the island, 
at the lower end. Heavy 64's and 32's were mounted upon it 
to command the ship channel leading to Charleston harbor. 
The Battery parked its light guns in the Fort and camped there. 
It will not be necessary to recount here the details of how 
Gilmore pushed forward the siege of Wagner to a successful 



CAPTURIl of WAGNER. 1 83 

conclusion, spending one week while so doing in pulverizing the 
walls of Fort Sumter, with his long-range guns, into a mass of 
ruins. It is not in the province of this volume to consider them. 
Suffice it to say, on September 6th, our sappers ran their trenches 
right up on to Fort VVagner, and next morning the rebels had 
fled and abandoned the Island. Our forces took possession, 
bringing them over a mile nearer to Fort Sumter and Charleston. 

Battery F retired from the lines and took its guns down to 
camp. 

For the remainder of the year nothing was done on Morris 
Island by the United States forces, except to refortify Forts 
Wagner and Gregg, and to keep up a steady battering of Fort 
Sumter till every wall was reduced to a chaotic jumble of debris. 
The only especial service rendered by the 3d Artillery batteries 
during this time was to assist in mounting guns and do picket 
and guard duty ; also, to run up at night to the beach on the 
extreme north end of the Island to fire shell and case shot at 
Fort Sumter, to prevent the rebels from building up a rampart 
ot sand. A calcium light on Morris Island shot a brilliant ray 
across the water and illuminated the Fort perfectly, exposing it 
to the unerring aim of our gunners. Battery B, under Lieuts. 
Day and Wildt, did much of this duty and caused the rebels 
serious annoyance. Some nights, Forts Sumter, Johnson, Moul- 
trie, Bee, and the whole circle of rebel works around the harbor, 
would open on B heavily and force it to suspend operations. 
At such times the scene was inexpressibly grand. The mortar 
shells ri^ng in beautiful curves, high in air, could be seen from 
the time they left the fiery throats of the ordnance that threw 
them forth, till they burst overhead, or fell to bury themselves in 
the earth or water. They crossed each other's track and mingled 
with those shot in return from the Union batteries on shore and 
sea, filling the heavens with meteoric lines of fire. The flash of 
the guns and bursting shells illuminated the scene with per- 
petual play. These magnificent spectacles can never be effaced 
from the remembrance of those who beheld them. 

In the latter part of 1S63, Capt. Ashcroft received permission 
to recruit his command to an eight-gun battery. He had four 
i2-pound Napoleons. He drew four howitzers and some horses. 
He then went home to recruit; but the men he obtained were 
diverted to the regiment, and the effort fell through. Battery F 
was also in the spring of 1864 an eight-gun battery. 

In November, Lieut. Day, of Battery B, was promoted to 
Captain of F. A thorough overhauling of the Battery followed, 
everything being badly run down. Tents, harness, horses and 



1 84 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

guns were turned over to the Quartermaster and an entire new 
outfit drawn, four Napoleons now being obtained in place of the 
Wiards. The new commander now devoted himself to restoring 
the ancient magnificent discipline of the Battery with eminent 
success. It encamped on Folly Island and a rapid improvement 
became visible in its conduct and drill. 



In February, 1864, Battery F accompanied an expedition to 
John's Island, S. C, under Gen. Schimmelfennig. 

This island is a large, well wooded tract, south of the Stono. 
containing, on the banks of the Stono, near the ocean, the set- 
tlement of Legareville. It is traversed by good roads, leading 
among many fine plantations. In February, 1780, the British 
General, Sir- Henry Clinton, landed upon it with an army and 
marched inland, crossing the Stono at the upper end of the 
island, by which means he got in the rear of Charleston and 
captured it. With an eye to a future demonstration in fjrce, of 
a similar nature to that of Clinton's, Schimmelfennig on Folly 
Island was sent over in February, 1864, with his brigade and 
Gen. Ames's, to reconnoiter John's Island and see what there 
was on it. 

The infantry moved on the night of Saturday, February 6th- 
It crossed the Stono to Kiowah Island, and moved down the 
ocean beach to Seabrook, the following day and ni^-ht. Batterv 
F, under command of Capt. Day and Lieuts. Titu's and Clark. 
crossed on the night of Sunday. Remaining at the landing all 
day, when night came on it made a forced march to joui the in- 
fantry. At the little creek, separating Kiowah and Seabrook 
Islands, the teams had to be doubled to get the guns and cais- 
sons across the ford. Pushing on, at daylight, Tuesday, the 
Battery came up with the advance, at Seabrook House, on Sea- 
brook Island, near the bridge connecting that and John's Islands. 

After a halt of two hours for rest, a regiment of infantry was 
thrown out in advance, Battery F following, and the forward 
movement began, and at 7 a. m. reached the bridge. Here the 
first skirmish took place. A picket of 150 rebel cavalry, under 
Major Jenkins, was in a house across the creek and opened a 
brisk fire. Our advance charged across the bridge with Batterv 

^u ,,'^^fr ''*'^u^ J ^"-'^^ ^"^^^^ ^^^^- ^^y opened on them with 
shell. He had his own four guns and two others manned by 
colored men. The rebels again retired, skirmishing stronglv. 
Some of them were captured. Schimmelfennig directed, the 
artillery to remain near the bridge. His infantry pushed on up 
the road a ways and also halted. There was considerable skirm- 



FIRST EXPEDITION TO JOHN's ISLAND. 185 

ishing during the day, the enemy being reinforced by the 26th 
Virginia, Col. Page. Battery F came into action several times, 
shelling a piece of woods and a house where the rebels were 
posted, driving them out in a hurry in both cases, and also 
shutting up a 12-pound gun that opened fire on us. 

Next morning, the loth. Gov. Wise, in person, with more 
troops reinforced the enemy, who then became quite demonstra- 
tive. Lieut. Clark's and Lieut. Titus's section shelled them at 
different times during the day. Then, seeing their left flank 
about to be turned by Schimmelfennig, they fell back to a 
place called Cocked Hat. 

At noon of the nth, Gen. Schimmelfennig formed his brigades 
in line of battle, the left flank under Ames resting on Bohicket 
creek. Lieut. Titus was detached to support the. left flank; 
Lieut. Clark to support the right. At i p. m. the army moved 
forward slowly, a strong line of skirmishers beating up the 
woods in front. At 3 p. m. the rebels were emboldened by the 
arrival of Col. Colquitt with 900 men to make a stand. They 
had two batteries of artiller}'. One of them, the Marion, six 
pieces, they placed in a redoubt on the road running near and 
parallel to Bohicket creek, and opened fire on Ames's infantrv. 
Lieut. Titus's section went to the front on a gallop. The road 
led through a tract of woods, and on each side of the road 
were ditches, dug according to Southern custom, to answer for 
fences. The infantry regiments were in these ditches to keep 
out of the cannonade. Emerging from the woods, the section 
came in sight of the rebel redoubt, which straightway directed a 
rapid fire upon it. Titus took his guns into a field on the left and 
sent in his warmest compliments in return. Capt. Day soon 
came up with the other two sections, and an artillery duel en- 
sued of two hours' duration. Our infantry were engaged only 
in small part. The rebel fire was so poor as to inflict no fur- 
ther damage on our artillery than to kill two horses, although 
the men could hear the hum of nearly ever}' rebel shot, feel the 
air of some, and hear them go banging and crashing into the 
woods behind. One cannoneer was just touched on the hand 
by a solid shot, which glanced from a gun carriage. Another 
had a shot pass between his legs. The effects of our fire are 
not definitely known. The rebels admit a small loss. 

About s 1-2 p. M., an aid-de-camp rode up to Capt. Day, with 
the astounding news that Schimmelfennig had drawn oft" his in- 
fantry and was marching back to Seabrook. There was not a 
Union regiment within a mile and a half of the Battery, while 
the rebels were in force not over half a mile away. Had the 



1 86 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

latter been aware of the situation and been in possession of a 
company of cavalry, Battery F would not have taken back its 
guns to Folly Island. Capt. Day instantly ordered Titus's sec- 
tion to limber up and go to the rear with all speed. Clark's 
section was sent off a few minutes later, the colored section still 
firing rapidly. Then the prolonges were attached to these latter 
guns. They retired slowly, firing as they went, till they reached 
the road, and they too went on a gallop in pursuit of Schimmel- 
fennig. As they left the field, they saw in a ditch two Union 
soldiers, sitting side by side, with muskets over their shoulders, 
but headless, from a cannon shot. They had not moved. Two 
other Union infantry men were also killed in the fight. 

Our troops were now en route for Folly Island. They were 
not molested, but, being fearful of a rear attack, they marched 
rapidly, leaving the Seabrook House in flames, and reached 
Stono Inlet by the same route on which they had come up, on the 
1 2th, about noon. 

Battery F on this reconnoissance manifested excellent cour- 
age, endurance, and good discipline, and was warmly eulogized 
by the brigade commander. 

After the expedition, the Battery remained quietly on Folly 
Island till April asd, when it embarked on the steamer Dictator 
for transportation to Beaufort, S. C. Gen. Gilmore's corps was 
at this time preparing to go North to join Gen. Butler in an at-- 
tack on Richmond. So many troops were withdrawn from Port 
Royal that others had to be sent to hold the posts there. 
At Beaufort, F encamped, west of the town, on grounds which 
Capt. Hamilton's artillery had just left. F took his stables and 
pitched its own tents. At this place the Battery drew new cloth- 
ing, and was thoroughly drilled and trained. Inspections, re- 
views, scouts, target firing and firing salutes in honor of National 
victories, were frequent. 

May 30th, Gen. Foster took command of the department. 
June 30th, at a review before Gen. Saxton, Conway, Fancher and 
Thyson were presented with medals for soldierly conduct at the 
siege of Fort Wngner. 



John's Island was again invaded by the Union soldiery of the 
sea islands in July, 1864. This second expedition was made 
under the direction of Gen. Foster, then commanding the de- ■ 
partment. It was made in strong force, with the brigades of 
Hatch from Hilton Head, Davis from Folly Island, Saxton from 
Beaufort, S. C, and Birney from Florida. A brigade was sim- 
ultaneously sent up the North Edisto. to White Point on the 



SECOND John's island expedition 187 

main land to make a flank attack ; while Schimmelfennig, with a 
section of Battery B, 3d Artillery, under Sergt. Fisher^ made a 
dash at James Island and the rebel fortifications there. Foster 
hoped to bewilder the enemy and divide his forces, and then 
pi sh the central column on John's Islandt hrough to the Savan- 
nah & Charleston railroad. If not to accomplish this, then at 
least to alarm the enemy and compel him to withdraw troops 
from Savannah and other points, menaced at the time by our 
army. 

^ Saxton's brigade reached Seabrook's Island upon this expedi- 
tion, July ist, whither it was followed next day by Battery F of 
the, 3d Artillery, Capt. Day commanding, with Lieuts. Titus and 
Clark and four Wiard guns, in the steamer Wyoming. The 
Batter)' debarked and lay on the beach all night, tormented by 
musquitoes. At day break of the 3d, it marched with Saxton's 
brigade to John's Island, camping on the battle ground of the 
previous February. The day was sunny and intensely hot. 
Dense thickets, overspreading much of the Island, were too low 
for shade, yet too high to admit a free circulation of air ; and 
the troops found marching very far from being a gala day affair. 
Gen. Hatch came up that day with his brigade and took com-, 
mand. The troops from Folly Island also joined here, having 
landed on John's Island just below Legareville and made a forced 
march. With them was a section of Battery B, 3d Artillery--, un- 
der Lieuts. Wildt and Crocker. 

On the 4th, the expedition moved forward along the road run- 
ning north-westerly through the center of the Island, leading in 
the direction of Charleston on the main land. Our advance 
kept beating back a small force of rebels who skirmished per- 
sistently in the front. It was so hot and dusty that the troops 
could go no farther than five or six miles. Many were sun- 
struck. A halt was ordered on a large plantation. Faint with 
thirst, the soldiers made a rush for the well, which, when the 
artiller}' came up, had been pumped dry. Battery F could not 
even get enough water for coffee. Some dismaj^ was felt at the 
prospect, when relief came from the heavens. Clouds rolled up 
and a drenching shower descended on the Island. Battery F 
happened to possess some new, clean, white, water-tight canvas 
paulins for their guns, in size 16 feet by 12. Capt. Day caused 
these to be hung on heavy stakes driven in the ground in such a 
manner that they sagged in the middle, forming impromptu 
tanks. Water was caught in these by the hogsheads. The 
artiller)' men stood guard around them with drawn sabres to 
keep off the infantry. They watered their horses, filled can- 



f>'J, 



l88 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEHy. 

teens and coffee pots, gave some to the Surgeons for wounded 
skirmishers, and then turned a large quantity over to the infan- 
try who scooped the paulins dry. This water was a welcome 
refreshment, for the troops were ready to perish for want of it. 

On the morning of the 5th, about six miles more were made. 
Battery F had got nicely into camp, when word came that part of 
a colored regiment, the 26th, which had been left behind near 
the camp of the night before, where a road ran down to a creek 
on the left, had been attacked. The rebels brought a battery 
down to the creek and opened fire, killing and wounding several. 
Battery F was sent back with speed to reinforce them, but the 
rebels had fled. A breastwork was then built in the road lead- 
ing to the creek and a gun placed there to command it. 

Next day, the 6th, the Battery rejoined the column, which had 
paused to feel of a considerable force of the enemy that had 
gathered from Charleston and was now in its front. Col. Davis, 
104th Pennsylvania, held the advance with Lieut. Wildt's sec- 
tion of Battery B. There was considerable skirmishing. 

The head of the column had now reached a creek, with low, 
swampy, wooded banks, crossed by an open plank bridge, be- 
yond which, a short distance, on a little eminence, the rebels 
had planted a battery of four guns in a redoubt. The road after 
crossing the creek ran through low woods and then forked and 
curved to the right and left to avoid the hill. To the edge of 
these woods, on the 7th, the 26th colored regiment, Col. Silli- 
man, was brought to charge the rebel guns. Battery B's two 
cannon were ordered up and statio.ned on the left fork of the 
.road to deal with them, while the 26th was forming for the 
charge. Battery B opened fire with all the fury possible and 
then Silliman, emerging from the thicket on its left, charged. 
He was repulsed, but formed again and charged fiercely no less 
than five times. Upon his brave regiment the rebels turned all 
their guns and poured a withering fire. They sent it back every 
time, and it finally drew off with a loss of ninety-seven killed 
and wounded. 'It was a useless slaughter, for the assault should 
have'been made in force. . When too late, Battery F was ordered 
up to support it, but the fight was over before it could be brought 
into action. Our men called this affair " The Battle of Bloody 
Bridge." 

Next morning, Battery F was sent to. the front early with dis- 
cretionary orders to engage the redoubt and keep the enemy and 
his guns quiet. They took the position occupied by B the day 
before, and opened a brisk fire. The enemy was silenced. One 
of their guns was overthrown by a shot from our battery's left 



BLOODY BRIDGE. ign 

piece. This little action had additional interest from the fact 
that it was in full view of Charleston, whose spires could be seen 
by our men. At night, Battery F was withdrawn across the 
bridge, which was covered with moss to muffle the sound. It 
took up a position in a cotton field on the right hand side of the 
road, bordering the creek. B's guns were placed in the road 
and trained upon the bridge to cover and guard it. Close up 
to the creek, a line of breastworks was thrown up, with regiments 
of infantry lying on the ground behind to defend them. The 
56th New York, Col. VanWyck, manned that portion of them 
directly in front of Battery F. 

There was not much sleep among the troops at the lines 
along the creek that night. The 3d Artillery officers were par- 
ticularly wakeful. That bloody business was on hand for the 
morrow, few doubted, and many believed it would come in the 
night. Another source of sleeplessness was the shelling of our 
position by the rebel Forts Pringle and Pemberton, two'or three 
miles to the eastward on the Stono. They knew about where 
the Union forces were and all night long, our men, sleeping on 
their blankets in the field, could see the fiery track of shells 
come over them and hear them explode here and there. 

The whole camp was suddenly awakened, about half-past five 
next morning, by a loud rattle of musketry in the woods across 
the creek, where the 144th New York had been stationed the 
night before on picket. The rebels were attacking under cover 
of a dense fog. On they came, yelling and firing, driving the 
144th in confusion, taking many prisoners. It needed neither 
drum nor bugle to tell the camp what was the matter. The first 
volley brought every regiment and battery to its feet. The men 
sprang to their guns, and the infantry showed a bristling arrav 
of musket barrels over the breastworks, and all stood peering 
through the gray light of the dawn, which straggled through the 
fog, to catch the first glimpse of the tide of battle, which was 
filling the woods yonder with discordant din. In a k\v moments 
a throng of men in blue, many minus hats and muskets, some 
without coats, nearly all without knapsacks, came running down 
the road and poured over the bridge pell mell. And after they 
had crossed, a dusky mass of rebels filled the roads and woods', 
charging to secure the bridge. Then Battery B's gtins opened 
with double cannister, and sent into them blast after^ blast of the 
deadly hail, which Battery F, in the field on the right of the 
bridge, supplemented with solid shot and percussion^hell, and 
tlie infantry with a hot fire of muskctrv. The rebels were stag- 
gered, and fled before the terrible fire, leaving the ground strewn 



'iU''. ; ; '" 



IQO 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

with dead. They were reinforced, and again they charged. 
Under the fire of infantry and artillery again were they driven 
back, and Bloody Bridge was bloodier than when it received its 
horrid christening two days before. 

Foiled in their attempts to take the bridge by storm, the rebels 
now tried to drive us from it by their old game of posting sharp- 
shooters in trees, to pick off the men working our guns and the 
men in the breastworks. Battery B then elevated the muzzles 
of its guns and fired cannister at the tops of the trees, turn- 
ing the guns here and there. The sharpshooters were silenced 
very soon. In a short time they tried another method. They 
brought a piece of artillery to the top of the bank across the 
creek, and opened fire at three hundred yards distance, but fired 
too high. Our artillery was now trained upon it, and it was 
finally toppled over and dismounted by a solid shot from a gun 
of Battery B, sighted by Lieut. Crocker. Ricochetting, the ball 
struck the gun on the upward bound, the fog lifting enough so 
that a clear sight could be had at it. 

After this, the rebels persisted in a heavy attack only a short 
time, drawing off and leaving only a few sharpshooters to main- 
tain appearances while they reformed their battalions. Their 
loss in the engagement was 250 killed and wounded. Our loss 
was 82. The artillery escaped almost unscatched from the 
fight. None were killed and but few wounded. 

Our Generals now decided to withdraw from John's Island. 
When the battle had ceased, they began to send off the troops, 
and by night fall the last regiment was retracing the roads to 
the Stono and the North Edisto. It was an unpopular move 
with the soldiers, who could not bear to turn back, when the 
steeples of Charleston were in sight, and the army defending it 
had just been bloodily repulsed. The artillery marched to the 
Stono at night, having a very difficult time of it. Battery F going 
with the 144th New York. On reaching the landing, Gen. 
Foster, who was there on crutches, having been obliged to direct 
this movement from the deck of a gun -boat, on account of 
wounds, sent for some of the 3d Artillery officers and compli- 
mented the batteries highly. He said they had done terrible 
execution. Capt. Day, by the way, confidentially remarked to the 
General, that he thought " Hatch and Saxton were d — fools," 
and as he was not very sharply reprimanded therefor, it is fair 
to infer that Foster was not himself oversatisfied with the results 
of the expedition. 

Battery B returned to Folly Island ; Battery F to Beaufort, 
South Carolin.x. 



'l ■ <li 



GEN. HATCH S PARTING ORDERS. I9I 

July loth, Gen, Hatch, at Beaufort, issued the following 
General Order : — 

"The Brigadier-General commanding, in parting with the 
troops engaged in the late reconnoissance so successfully accom- 
plished, desires most heartily to thank all, both officers and men, 
for the fine soldierly conduct displayed by them on that occa- 
sion. The most exhausting marches under an intense heat, the 
necessarily limited supply of rations, and lately fierce attacks of 
the enemy, have been met with such spirit, cheerful determina- 
tion and unflinching gallantry, as to secure the appreciation and 
sincere gratitude of their Commander, and deserve the emula- 
tion of all who desire the reputation of good and true soldiers." 

The two batteries of the 3d Artillery eminently deserved the 
good things said in this Order. They certainly saved the army 
at Bloody Bridge. 



•0.. ;• ■-■> 



J I'-: 



192 3^ NEW-YORK VCI UNTEER AUTII LERY. 



XI. 



NORTH CAROLINA AGAIN. 

North Carolina has Thoughts of Returning to the Old Ways — Jetf. Davis Proposes 
to Crush that Spirit Out — Gen. Peclc's Alarm — Attack on Newbern of 
February, 1864 — Mercereau in the Fight — Capture of the Underwriter — 
Kirby in a Tight Place — Fate of the Bay Section — To Virginia — Hoke Turns 
Up Again — The Union Cause Surfers — The Yellow Fever — Death of Lieut. - 
* Col, Stone — Capture of Major Jenny — Arrival of Recruits — Battery A Goes 

to Plymouth — The Night March— ^How a Prize was Lost — Battery I Joins 
Frankle — Chicken Raid — Other Raids. 

North Carolina in 1863 was on the very verge of returning to 

■ the Union. The Raleigh S f andani op^r\\\' pronounced in favor 

of going to Washington and making terms for a restoration of 

' the original relations to the General Government. The Confed- 

; eracy was startled and alarmed. As Gov. Vance said, in a 

public speech, Gen. Lee depended on North Carolina for the 

support of his army. Should "that State, or its railroads, fail 

him, he could not remain in Virginia forty-eight hours." The 

Richmond papers called on Jeff Davis to immediately suppress 

the Raleigh ^tarUard, while Confederate leaders demanded the 

adoption of such measures as would crush out this rising Union 

sentiment, which now threatened to paralyze the whole rebellion 

if not speedily checked. Jeff. Davis consented. 

September 3d, 1863, Gen. John J. Peck, who had been as- 
signed by Gen. Foster to the i8th Corps, assumed command of 
the army and district of North Carolina, During that month 
he made an inspection of the department and advised Gen. 



DANGER THREATENING NORTH CAROLfNA. 1 93 

Butler and Gen. Foster of an iron-clad ram the rebels were 
building on the Roanoke River below Halifax. He applied for 
authority to destroy it. A regiment of cavalry could easily 
have done this. In November, he again called the attention of 
Butler to this new vessel and other threatening preparations ac 
various points in the State. It was evident to Gen. Peck that a 
combined land and water attack was being planned to drive the 
Federals in disgrace from the department. He was able, how- 
ever, to effect nothing further than to elicit from Butler a tour of 
inspection to North Carolina. That General, with Rear- Admiral 
Lee, was at Newbern November 20th, and with Gens. Peck and 
Palmer and no end of colonels and statf officers, visited the 
camps and defenses. 

Gen. Peck was disturbed. Our fortifications were in great 
part dependent on our gunboats maintaining possession of the 
rivers. But these boats were old, wooden, unsuited to the ser- 
vice, and extemporized from New York ferry boats and other 
steamers in the greatest haste. There was not a Union iron-clad in 
North Carolina waters. There was ground in this for serious ap- 
prehension. Gen. Peck accordingly remodeled the system of de- 
fenses. At Newbern he built Fort Chase, north of the Neuse ; 
Fort Stevenson, on the city side of the river and near the river's 
edge, and two works south of the Trent, adding new faces to 
some old forts, and, as far as practicable, to the armaments of 
all. In short, he knew the rebels were going to attack, and, 
like an approved soldier, he industriously and intelligently pre- 
pared for it. 

The bolt fell in the spring of 1864. A "convention move- 
ment" among repentant rebels, to call a convention to decide 
upon returning to the Union, was gaining ground in the State. 
The uncompromising rebels determined to quell it, and brought 
in a large force of troops to overawe it by their presence and 
operations. 



Just before daybreak of February ist, 1864, Gen. Palmer, 
•commanding the Post at Newbern, was informed by telegram 
from the outpost on the Neuse road, west of the city, of an at- 
tack upon it. It was at first supposed to be a conflict of pickets, 
but specific information was soon received that the rebels were 
coming down from Kinston in considerable strength. " Boots 
and saddles" rang out from the bugles in the artillery camps, 
while the long roll roused the infantry to meet impending dan- 
ger. There was mustering of regiments, and hitching of horses, 
and standing to guns. In less than ten minutes, Newbern was 
M 



194 3° NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERT. 

under arms. Two brigades of infantry then constituted her gar- 
rison, with Light Batteries C, (the new C, Capt. Mercer, which 
joined October i, 1863,) E, K and I, of the 3d Artillery, the 
5ch R. I. Heavy Artillery and 2d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, 
supported by a fleet of wooden gunboats in the river. 

The outpost attacked was situated on Bachelor's Creek, about 
nine miles from the city, where the Neuse road crosses it, de- 
fended by a block house and heavy line of works. The forces 
there were the i32d New York, the 12th Cavalry and some com- 
panies of the 99th New York and ist North Carolina, 1,500 in 
all, under command of Col. Classon of the i32d. Taking ad- 
vantage of a foggy morning, Gen. Pickett, with the brigades of 
Clingman and Hoke and two batteries of artillery, made a furi- 
ous assault Though surprised, the troops at the outpost fought 
desperately until a railroad train in the rear was loaded with the 
officer's wives and such baggage as could be saved, when they 
fell slowly back contesting the way inch by inch. 

In response to Col. Classon's telegrams for aid. Gen. I. B. 
Palmer, commanding at Newbern, hurried out to him at 3 1-2 a. 
M. the 17th Massachusetts Volunteers and a section of Battery 
K, 3d Artillery, Lieut. Mercereau. The detachment pushed out 
on a trot to within a mile of the outpost, when it met the 13 2d 
New York falling back in some confusion across the fields, 
closely followed by long ranks of men in gray, reaching as far as 
the .woods would permit one to see to the right and left. Mer- 
cereau was precipitated into the fight at once. He opened hotly 
with shot and shell. For a moment he staggered the rebels, but 
they were in strong force, and they swept forward again, 
like a tidal wave, loading and firing and cheering, and rolled 
everything back before them. Mercereau resisted gallantly, re- 
tiring slowly. Every little way he wheeled around and opened 
a rapid fire, and at the place where the railroad crosses the turn- 
pike, he held them in check till the train came down from the 
outpost and got safely past. The rebels were then swarming ail 
around him and having given them in all seventy-five rounds of 
good Union iron, he limbered up and fell back to the fortifica- 
tions at Newbern, arriving at noon. He was the last to leave 
the field. He served his guns gallantly in the action and all ad- 
mitted that he saved our troops a total capture. 

Early in the day another section of K went to the front. 
Lieut. McVey came to Col. Stewart with a telegram to Gen. 
Palmer, saying Col. Classon wanted a section sent to Beech 
Grove. This was another outpost on Bachelor's creek, a mile 
and a half north of the one attacked, held by one company of 



.au. .• 



ATTACK ON NEWBERN. I95 

the 99th New York, Capt. Bailey, and one company of the ist 
North Carolina. Stewart hesitated. McVey reiterated Gen. 
Palmer's verbal orders that two guns should be sent at once, 
with the assurance that they would be supported. Col. Stewart 
then ordered Capt. Angel to send out a section, and he detailed 
that of Lieut. Kirby for the purpose. This was one of the very 
finest sections in the regiment, with its handsome steel guns and 
magnificent bay horses. A common toast was to " Kirby and 
his bay section." The order was obeyed with alacrity. Kirby 
was speedily on the road. He followed Mercereau out to a 
place where the road forked. Turning to the right, he moved 
rapidly to Beech Grove. A few moments later, the tide of battle 
rolled by on his left, and up to the forks of the road, and he was 
entirely cut off from Newbern. 

The outpost at Deep Gully was driven in simultaneously with 
that at Bachelor's Creek. The rebels followed it in until they 
came within the range of the guns of Fort Totten. They then 
came to a halt, and Pickett threw out a line of pickets from the 
Trent to the Neuse. 

An attack was also made south of the Trent. Our outpost in 
that quarter was at Brice's creek, a little tributary of the Trent. 
Col. Amory, of the 17th Massachusetts, was in command. A 
rebel brigade under Gen. Barton appearing in front of the out- 
post, a section of Battery I, 3d Artillery, which was in camp 
south of the Trent, was sent out with some of the 19th Wiscon- 
sin, to meet it near our blockhouse. The section was under 
Lieut. Kelsey. It had been in position but twenty minutes when 
the Johnnies opened fire with two or three cannon, strongly sup- 
ported by infantry. Kelsey used case shot and shell, knocked 
over one of their pieces, and so cut up the infantry that the 
rebel advance was arrested. The other sections of I coming 
up, there was desultory firing during the day, but no particular 
incident. The rebels had no stomach for charging on those un- 
erring guns. 

As soon as the hea\7 firing broke out at the outposts, New- 
bern, as related, was all excitement. All the troops were at 
their posts. Expecting momentarily an impetuous attack on the 
city, Batteries C and E of the 3d Artillery, and K's remaining 
section, and, after its return, Mcrcereau's section, with all the 
infantry available, were stationed at the earthworks defending 
the city on the west. At intervals they fired a shot 'at the rebel 
regiments in the distant woods. It was a gallant sight to see 
the gay flags, the myriad muiikets, the blue battalions, and the 
grim, quiet cannon, awaiting the enemy behind the earthera 



196 * 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

ramparts in proud confidence. To the crowds of officers, field 
glasses in hand, who viewed the scene from the big traverse of 
Fort Totten, on the lines, it was a spectacle in a thousand. The 
gunboats in the river, with their great cannon trained to point 
up stream, in readiness for a possible rebel ram, added to the 
confidence, which all felt, that should a heavy combined attaci^ 
be made the enemy would be almost annihilated. 

Pickett, wisely, did not assault. Content with driving in our 
outpKJSts, he sat down before the city and only gazed longingly 
at the grand prize he coveted, but did not dare to attempt to 
gain by honest, straightforward work. 

The rebels grew more valiant as night veiled the scene, and 
a hard rain rendered the darkness Tartarean. They rowed a 
number of small boats down the Neuse and surprised one of the 
vessels of our too heedless Navy, the Underwriter, which lay 
moored within a stone's throw of the Newbern shore, under the 
very muzzles of the guns of Fort Stephenson. She was aground 
and had no steam up. They set her on fire. The musketry 
firing at the first onset called our watchful army instantan-eously 
to arms. A short pause, and then a bright glow was seen to 
h'ght up the murky air on the river. It expanded and in a few 
moments a writhing, crackling, rolling column of brilliant flame 
rose from the doomed boat, bearing aloft a torrent of burning 
sparks and clouds of dense black smoke. It was a magnificent 
fire. It illuminated the city and country for miles around. 
Brave hearts beat faster with the joy of battle, as the impressive 
spectacle suggested that in the natural order of things an assault 
must now be immediately delivered on the lines. But Pickett 
refrained and that was the only adventure of the night. One 
section of Battery E, Lieut. Fuller, was sent to the right of Fort 
Stephenson to sink the gunboat if possible and save her from 
the flames. The section perforated her at the water line nith 
solid shot ; but she was aground, and of course could not sink. 
At 4 A. M. she blew up with a tremendous and beautiful expl'> 
sion. Burning beams, cannon, hundreds of bursting shells and 
an eruption of embers, leaped high up and flashed brilliantly in 
the air, dropping sullenly as they spent their impetus, one by one, 
into the river, when darkness closed down again on the besieged 
city. 

Next dajf, the 2d, the enemy remained inactive in our front. 
They engnged our pickets, but showed no fight. The forts and 
batteries gave them an occasional shot. Lieut. Sherwood, of 
Battery I, across the Trent, had some sparring with a rebel hxv 
lery. Ed. Eastham, of I, had his hand blown off by the prema- 



FATE OF THE BAY SECTION. 1 97 

ture discharge of a gun. The rebels attacked Newport barracks, 
towards Beaufort, during the day, and raided the country sur- 
rounding Newbern. Flame and smoke in every direction testi- 
fied to their setting fire to many buildings. The night of the 2d 
was again a wakeful one. Firemen and citizens aided to do 
guard duty, and 500 negroes were armed and drilled to reinforce 
the infantry. At 10 1-2 p. M. the rebel bands in front of New- 
bern struck up some lively tunes and gave the besieged Yankees 
a fine serenade, under cover of which they began to make off. 
Next day their pickets withdrew and the whole rebel force of 
12,000 men vanished entirely. 

The Federal batteries and troops remained on the lines a day 
longer. They returned to camp on the 4th and 5 th. 

But what was the fate of the little outpost at Beech Grove ? 
All Newbern felt a painful anxiety on the subject. Lieut. 
Kirby, on arriving there, had put his guns into the breastwork, 
and Capt. Bailey, the commandant, had thrown out a line of 
pickets around the Grove. Various attempts were made to send 
men through to our lines without success. The outpost knew 
that it was cut off, but laid still all through the ist and 2d, hop- 
ing not to attract attention. During the night of the 2d, lights 
were seen in the direction of the other Bachelor's Creek out- 
post going towards Kinston. Scouts came in to say that the 
rebels were retreating. Next morning rebel pickets advanced 
upon Beech Grove and a four gun battery was brought up and 
trained on it. Lieut. Kirby and Lieut. Fleming went out with a 
flag of truce, when, as they went, two rebel regiments rose right 
up out of the brush not 200 yards away. It was of no use to 
make a parade of defense. Lieut. Kirby was sent back with 
word that the Yankees must pack up their traps. Capt. Bailey 
surrendered without firing a shot, turning over two companies of 
infantry and thirty-five artillery men, with two guns and caissons 
complete and twenty-six horses. The " bay section " was only 
once again seen at Newbern, and then, a few days later, in 
traitorous hands, the rebels bringing it down to shell a cavalry 
picket at Beech Grove. After the surrender of the outpost, the 
prisoners were marched a few miles towards Kinston. I'he next 
day, they reached Kinston and were quartered for a week in the 
Court House under guard. A court martial was ordered for the 
North Carolina Union prisoners and the pitiless decree of hang- 
ing was passed upon them. Twenty-one were hung on one 
beam. • 

The remaining prisoners on the loth were put on cars for 
Richmond. The officers went to Libby Prison, the men to 



198 3° NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Belle Isle. The latter were afterwards sent to Andersonville, 
where nearly all died. Lieut. Kirby and the officers were sent 
to Macon, then to Charleston, and then to Columbia. From 
Columbia, Lieut. Kirby made his escape November 29th, 1864, 
in company with Coi. Sidney Mead of Auburn, N. Y., Col. 
Butler and Lieut. Oliphant. While outside the prison enclosure, 
cutting wood, they made off. They traveled by night, helped 
by negroes, hiding variously in barns, cabins, the woods, the 
mountains, often meeting large companies of other escaping 
prisoners in the recesses of the forests, and finally, after a terri- 
ble experience of bitter weather and exhausting marches, reached 
the Union lines at Knoxville, January 13th, 1865. Government 
honored Lieut. Kirby with appointment to the command of the 
draft rendezvous at Indianapolis, soon after, but in February he 
was ordered to rejoin his regiment. 

The men of Battery K who were taken prisoners with Lieut. 
Kirby, were : — Sergeants J. W. Bonta, James Close ; Corporals 
Lafayette Carr, S. H. Taylor ; Privates Harrison Blazier, Thos. 
Clark, Wm. H. Courtney, George Conway, James Campbell, 
George A. Carr, Henry Genner, S. E. Griswold, Timothy Gor- 
man, Michael Hennessy, James R. Jewell, Joseph Keltenborn, 
John E. Leopard, Adam Menzie, W. W. Pease, James Redmond, 
Melville Smith, Samuel J. Straley, Alexander Shaw, Dennis 
Shehan, O. S. Tripp, Isaac Volmore, John W. Van Buren, Henry 
Van Buren, George West, James West, Francis Weeks. After 
long incarceration, all of these men, but five or six, died in 
Belle Isle and Andersonville prisons, the victims of cruelty and 
starvation. They were plain men, but brave and true. They 
did not die, as soldiers love to die, on the field of glory, among 
white wreaths of smoke, under the blood-red bars of the starry 
banner of our country. But their death was equally as heroic. 

In this descent on Newbern the rebels captured 280 Federals, 
and killed and wounded 100. They lost 35 killed, 100 wounded, 
and nearly a thousand deserters, who came into our lines. And 
they did not capture Newbern. It was a dear expedition for 
them. 



Gen. Peck correctly judged that the rebels had come back to 
try, by land and water, to repossess North Carolina, and that 
this first raid on Newbern was not to be the last. The outworks 
were strengthened without delay. Negroes, soldiers, firemen, 
and citizenf repaired to the lines with shovel and pick. The 
curtains of earth, between forts and redoubts, were broadened 
and raised, and new faces and heavier walls were added to the 



ARRIVAL OF NEW COMPANIES AND RECRUITS. I99 

forts. February 28th, a third each of Batteries K, C, and E, 
3d Artillery, were ordered to join in the work. March ist, the 
whole of the artillery command, with the exception of park 
guards only, was called out. The bulk of it went to some new 
earthworks on the right of the Newbern lines, on the Neuse. 
The rebels hung around the city all through March and April, 
exciting a constant apprehension of attack. 

In March, the 3d Artillery was reinforced by the arrival of 
459 recruits, the fruit of the recruiting services of Major Theo- 
dore H. Schenck. The merit of this able officer had been re- 
cognized in November, 1863, by promotion to a vacant Majority. 
He had been immediately sent home to Central New York to 
recruit, and the result of- his efforts was sufficiently gratifying. 
Amongst the new reinforcement were the new Battery D, Cap*. 
Van Heusen, which joined on the 21st; and new Battery G, 
Capt. Aberdeen, which joined on the 26th. The regiment was 
thus raised to ten batteries, 1,500 strong; and that portion of it 
actually at Newbern, from 450 to 790 strong. 

But now two of the best batteries at Newbern. E and K, were 
ordered to Virginia, whither H and M had been dispatched the 
previous fall to help Butler in his advance on Richmond. They 
departed April 15th, taking guns and baggage. On the iSth, 
the new D and G made requisition for muskets, while waiting 
for guns, and were assigned a place on the outworks in case of 
attack. 

On April 20th occurred what Gen. Peck had foreseen. The 
rebel Gen. Hoke with 7,000 men and three batteries assaulted 
and captured Plymouth, N. C, after three days' fighting, taking 
Gen. VVessels with 2,000 prisoners. Co-operating in the attack 
was the celebrated iron-clad rebel ram, Albemarle, which drove 
our gunboats of wood out of the Roanoke and took VVessels in 
the rear. 

April 25th, Gen. Peck was called to Virginia. Gen. I. N. 
Palmer succeeded him. Three days after, Washington, N. C, 
was evacuated by Palmer's order, as, had it been attacked bv 
Hoke and the Albemarle he could not have held it fort}'-ei<;ht 
hours. And now the rebels prepared for a fresh raid on New- 
bern, Hoke to attack by land, the Albemarle to come up the 
Neuse, destroy our fleet, and bombard the town in our rear. 

Hoke made his appearance May 4th, and drove in our pickets 
all around Newbern late at night. This was also done next 
morning. The heaviest demonstration was south of the Trent 
on the bank of the Neuse, where, just far enough away to be out 
oi the range of our Fort Spinola's guns, they tried to plant a bat- 



200 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

tfery to command the river in their old earthworks of 1862. A 
small force of cavalry and the railroad monitor engaged them, 
and finally our gunboats came up and delivered to them a fire of 
loo-pound Parrot shell, which drove them back into the woods. 
Heavy firing took place on various sides. The artillery teams 
were kept hitched up, ready for a start in any direction. 

The rebels did not advance on the city in force, as they were 
waiting for the formidable Albemarle. But that mailed monster 
never came. On the afternoon of the 5th she started for New- 
bern, but our wooden navy met her at the entrance of Albe- 
marle Sound, fought her heroically and drove her back up the 
Roanoke, where she lay quietly all that summer. She was in 
October sunk by our men with a torpedo in the night. 

Hoke, not dreaming of the repulse of his main dependence 
in this attack, on the morning of the 6th summoned Newbern to 
surrender. He asserted that the river and sound was blockaded 
by his ram and wished only to save the effusion of blood. The 
officers who came in with the flag of truce were boastful, and, in 
passing Battery I picked out horses they were going to take 
after the surrender. The flag was sent back with a stern answer^ 
and I{oke immediately slunk off. He left a large number of 
freshly made graves behind in the woods where we had shelled 
him. 

The operations of Grant and Butler in Virginia now compelled 
the rebels incontinently to evacuate North Carolina with the 
larger part of their force. Their late attentions were now re- 
turned by Federal raiding parties into the interior, one of them 
penetrating to Kinston. The latter, June 19th, was attended by 
two sections of Rittery C, Lieuts. Sandford and Starring. It 
captured seventy-nine prisoners, one of whom was Col. Hoke^ 
brother of the General. 

The 3d Artillery still continued to receive recruits through 
April and^Iay. It reached the ist of June with an enrollment 
of 1,700 men. It had ten batteries, ail mounted, having fifty- 
four cannon and over 1,000 horses. The title of the regiment 
was still the 2,C^ New York Heavy Artillery. Col. Stewart 
applied to the War Department to have the name changed to 
Light Artillery, but without success. 

July 14th, the 23d and 24th New York Independent Batteries 
were temporarily attached to the 3d by order. 

August 14th, the troops at Newbern attended the execution, 
near Fort Totten, of six deserters from the 5th Rhode Island. 
99th New York and 15th Connecticut. Three only were killed 
on the first volley. The coup de grace \iz.^ given by a reserve 
firing party. 



YELLOW FEVER IN NEWBERN. 20I 

The army in North Carolina, in the fall of 1864, was ravaged 
by an enemy more terrible by far to its gallant warriors, than any 
to be encountered on the field of battle. July 23d, Surgeon 
Wilson, of the 3d Artillery, announced to Col. Stewart the 
appearance in the regiment of a grave type of fever. In August 
the yellow fever stalked into Newbern. A commissary ship at 
the lower end of the city was first attacked by the grisly des- 
troyer, and then the fever leaped ashore, followed up the line of 
the Neuse, then the line of the Trent, and soon extended into 
nearly every camp at the Post. Over 200 were attacked in the 
3d Artillery alone. Col. Stewart, Maj. Kennedy, Lieut.-Col. 
Stone, and large numbers of the leading officers had it among 
the rest. Lieut. Hillis died of it September 24th. Lieut.-Col. 
Stone died of it October 2d. Also sixty men — thirty-seven of 
the number being in Battery D alone. They were buried in the 
regimental cemeteries. The regiment at one time alone had 
three hospitals. An immense panic prevailed in Newbern and 
hundreds of the residents left the city for safety. Stores were 
closed and business in every department of trade was abruptly 
brought to a stand. Drills were also arrested in the camps. 
The plague was most gallantly and faithfully fought by the 
Surgeons of the Post and several of them lost their lives by ex- 
posing themselves to its attacks. During its prevalence great 
fires of tar and rosin were burnt in the camps and on the cor- 
ners of the streets in the city, every night, to disinfect the air. 
The disease was at last got under control, and on October 9th, ^ 
a heavy frost came to forbid its further spread. In order to 
secure the full benefit of this frost, Col. Stewart caused the 
stores of Newbern to be opened at night so that a draft of air 
might pass through them all. The owners of some obstinately 
refused to open them, when the thing was promptly done with 
an axe. A guard was set over each store to save it from depre- 
dation. Another frost two days after finished the plague. By 
October 29th, there was a general resumption of business. 

The death of Lieut.-Col. Stone was deeply mourned in the 
regiment. He was a brave officer and a gentleman, and ex- 
ceedingly popular with field, staff and line. He was uniformly 
kind and considerate of others and yet a disciplinarian. At the 
time of his death, he was in command of the forts and defenses 
north of the Neuse. One of the best incentives to good con- 
duct and soldierly appearance was introduced by him to the 
regiment, in the early days of the old 19th, and was effective in 
their promotion. In detailing from the regiment each morning, 
a detachment to do guard duty that day, one man was detailed 



3 ■ 



202 3° NEW-VORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

more than was necessarv*. WTien the guard was inspected, the 
man whose arms and equipments were in the best order was 
excused from the guard and had special privileges the entire 
day. Lieut.-Col. Stone was by profession an editor. Ke was 
bora in Auburn and located there, and during his professional 
career, beginning in 1837, he was editor at dinerent rimes of the 
Fatriot, Ciiyu^a Tocsin and Auburn Dtmocrat, With the latter he 
was connected at the outbreak of the rebellion. He was also 
Adjutant of the 49th Regiment. New York State Milirla. at that 
lime. After his death at Xewbern, resolutions oi respect to his 
memory were adopted by his brother officers. His fucerai was 
atiendcrd by an immense throng. 

In September, Maior Jenny, of the 3d Artillery, was promoted 
to Colonel of the 185th New York Volunteers. He had been 
serving for several months with credit as Judge Advocate in the 
.Army in North Carolina. He now ran up to Fortress Munroe 
to see Gen. Butler. While on his way back, on the steamer 
Fiinriif, coming through the Dismal canal, the steamer was at- 
iicked by guerillas, and he was captured, together witn a r/jmber 
of other orncers who were on board. The prisoners were 
marched to Elizabeth, where Jenny made his escape in a small 
boaL Reaching one of our vessels in the Sound, he was soon 
?afc in .Vcwbem. He soon after went nonh to take command 
of his re.^menL CapL Wm. J. Pwiggs was promoted to Major 
in his stead. 

In October, a piece of good fortune befel the regiment in the 
form of a fresh accession of recruits, raising it to the marr.in- 
crnt proportions of 2.500 men, or eleven fuil barteri.es of artuierw 
a br:;:;i(ie in itself, one of the most noble commands in the 
whole .N'ortherr. army. The 3d .A.rtiiler\- was then in the height 
of iti power. It never had a larger membership than at this 
t.rae, though in March. 1865. it had more zuns, viz : 64. 

Ara>ng the new recruits was the new Battery .A, heaw artil- 
lery, .jn.ier the command of Capt Russell, a fine looking body 
of inic.li^'ent. sturdy men from Cayuga county, Xew York. It 
rear-hrd .SVwbern on the 20th. Drawing Enfield rifles from the 
Oninancc I>rnirtment. it became the garrison of Fort .\nder- 
*on. n-.r:h of the .Veuse, where it was thoroughly drilled and 
fittcJ f.r active ser\'ice. Battery G had been on duty in the 
Fori, but on the arrival of A returned to Newbern. 



In ordrr to effect a diversion in favor of Gen.Weitzel. who was 
prcpariij to attack Fort Fisher, the Union forces m .Vorth Car- 
ol, ni were, in December, 1864, ordered to make a demonscration 



FRANKLE S EXPEDITION. 203 

in the northern part of the State. Plymouth, a pretty village, 
but her houses now full of shot holes, had again fallen 'into our 
hands on October 31st, and here was now gathered together for 
the purpose of an expedition, the 2d Massachusetts Heavy Ar- 
tillery, 9th New Jersey. 27th Massachusetts, 12th New York 
Cavalry, Battery A, 3d New York Artillery, and other organiza- 
tions, numbering in all some 1,500 men. Gen. Palmer placed 
them in command of that slow-moving Dutchman, Col. Frankle 
of the 2d Massachusetts, and sent up a gun boat fleet from 
Newbern to co-operate. 

Battery A, 157 strong, led by Capt. Russell and Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, was temporarily attached for the expedition to the 27th 
Massachusetts, Capt. Russell being acting Major of the joint 
command. Thirty men were detailed from the Battery to work 
a section of artillery, under Sergeants Edmonds and Watson. 

The expedition started out on its raid December 9th, the land 
force moving on roads leading westwards along the south side of 
the Roanoke, the gunboats keeping abreast of it in the stream. 
A rebel picket guard was dispersed at Gardner's bridge after a 
sharp cracking of rifles for half an hour, and the troops camped 
that night four miles beyond what was once Jamestown. That 
village had been fired on a former occasion and nothing then 
remained of it but chimneys. Blackened and specter like, these 
still stood in the midst of that scene of desolation. The place 
was dubbed "chimney town." Next day, Frankle advanced to 
near Williamston, stopping at Foster's Mills, at a bridge over a 
creek where the rebels had 200 men and a battery, to dislodge 
them and send them flying to the rear. Our infantry turned 
out of the road into the fields right and left, under a cannonade, 
while our section of artillery came up and gave the rebels a taste 
of its quality and our skirmishers pressed down to the creek, 
when the rebels experienced a burning desire to leave as stated. 

The gunboats were now in an abundance of trouble from the 
river being thickly planted with torpedoes. These infernal 
monsters were many of them safely picked up and disposed of, 
but the Otsego was perforated by one and sunk. At 4 p. m. of 
the nth, however, the infantry again advanced. It drove the 
enemy's pickets, until, about midnight, it came to some cross 
roads in a forest, where there was a little sanctuary called Spring 
Green Church, without a house within a mile of it. Here a halt 
was made. Frankle matured his plans and the soldiers munched 
persimmons and drank coffee. Then the 9th New Jersey, 27th 
Massachusetts and Battery .A., under command of Col. Stewart 
of the 9th New Jersey, led off to the right, across lots and along 



204 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ' ^ 

by-paths in the woods, in deep darkness, while the main force 
went on, the object of this separation and night march being to 
surround the enemy's post at Butler's bridge, where there was a 
redoubt, a battery and a regiment or two of infantry. 

A darkey acted as guide to the party, 700 strong, under Stew- 
art. Having si.xteen miles to make before daylight, the party 
marched, as fast as possible. Following a rough cart road 
through the pitchy darkness of the woods, it crossed a stream 
on a log in single file ; and ere long, bending its course rather to- 
wards the Roanoke river, it suddenly emerged close upon the 
formidable and celebrated earthworks known as Fort Branch, 
built by the rebels on the commanding height at the river side, 
termed Rainbow Bluff. In the bright starlight, sentinels mov- 
ing to and fro on the Fort could be distinctly made out and great 
g^ns pointing over its parapets. Had it not been that other 
game was to be flushed before morning, the adventurous little 
band might have dashed into the Fort and captured one of the 
most noble prizes in North Carolina. But Frankle was awaiting 
it at Butler's bridge. The men, therefore, turned the barrels of 
their muskets down that no gleam from them might alarm the 
Fort, and they held their canteens and the tin cups strapped to 
their haversacks tightly so that they might not clatter. They 
then stole forward in silence and carried their flag audaciously 
through the rifle pits of the rebel work. At length they were led 
by their dusky guide out to the road leading down to Butler's 
bridge, and far in rear of the rebel outpost upon it, towards 
which Col. Stewart now directed their march. 

When within a mile of the bridge, the party passed the house 
of Col. Hinton, the commandant of Fort Branch. Supposing 
that it was a reinforcement which had been sent for and was 
hourly expected, Hinton, overjoyed, mounted his horse, and rode 
down after it. Coming up, just as a halt had been made to re- 
connoitre, he approached Capt. Russell. Said he: "Never so 
glad to see you in all my life. I expect fun down here in the 
morning." Russell quietly said in reply : " The Colonel wants 
to see you," pointing to where Col. Bartholomew, of the 27th 
Massachusetts, was standing. Col. Hinton rode on, and, a few 
moments after, Col. Bartholomew had a hand on the astonished 
Confederate's bridle, and was breaking to him the intelligence 
that he was a prisoner. 

It was just dawn. We were so near that we could see the 
rebel camp fires through the trees, and the log huts in which, 
400 strong, they were sleeping. Frankle was by agreement to 
be at this hour in the rebel front. Stewart displayed his party 



SURPRISE OF butler's BRIDGE. 2O5 

in line of battle, and moved rapidly forward through the woods 
and brush. A rebel picket fired on the line and ran. 
A volley rang out on the morning air in return, and the 
lads in blue, struggling through the thicket, charged into the 
camp. The rebels poured out of their huts in the utmost con- 
fusion, and ran precipitately in all directions, without firing a 
shot. A number of prisoners were taken. Our line was dis- 
arranged in the charge, and before it could be formed for a fur- 
ther advance, the rebels had drawn out their battery from the 
redoubt, which was a short distance beyond the camp, had har- 
nessed the horses, and in a moment later thundered across the 
bridge in retreat. Surely now their capture was certain, for 
they must fall a prey to our regiments on that side the creek. 
But no. The old Dutchman let them go through his lines, and 
saw them fly by on the frozen road in the direction of Tarboro, 
without lifting a musket at them. Before he could realize or 
act upon what had happened, or at least before he did, the pan- 
orama was over. The indignation of the party, who had so 
handsomely fianked the rebel position, and had so nearly bagged 
the guns, was inexpressible. Had the 2d Massachusetts but 
shot the horses, nothing could have saved that battery from 
certain capture. Battery A lost in this affair private Nelson 
Mosher taken prisoner. 

After the dispersal of the rebel outpost, there was a short 
halt, to consider what to do next. The troops snatched a break- 
fast, while Frankle was making up his mind. It then appearing 
from indications in the direction of Fort Branch that the rein- 
forcement Col. Hinton expected had at last arrived, it was de- 
cided to retreat. A forced march was made to Williamston, the 
cavalry covering our rear and fighting alt the way. For those 
who had been tramping all night, this was a terrible march. The 
roads were frozen and rough, and so cut up their shoes that 
scores, ready to drop with fatigue, staggered along almost bare- 
foot, and left the road imprinted with blood. Battery A suffered 
severely ; this being its first march, and being already worn 
out with its previous sixteen hours of arduous exertion. The in- 
dignation against Frankle was extreme. No wonder that upon 
the final return to Plymouth, some of the gth New Jersey boys 
put a 100-pound shell under Frankle's quarters, to blow him up, 
though the attempt was happily frustrated by discovery. The 
troops reached Williamston, thirty miles from Butler's bridge, at 
8 p. M. 

Next day, the weary expedition marched to Jamestown, upon 
reaching which 500 were found to be so disabled by cold, 



206 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

wounds, frozen extremities and lacerated feet, that they were eni' 
barked on gun boats and sent to Plymouth. What remained of i 
the force, including fifty of Battery A; was then taken fifteen ! 
miles up the river to Cedar landing. Here the soldiers j 
did heavy guard and picket duty, their labor occasionally spiced i 
with foraging for chickens, while officers and speculators foraged ! 
for cotton. Batter}'' A quartered in the large barn of a splendid ! 
plantation, and solaced its grief at the stupidity and incompe^ 
tency that reigned in high places, with a rather more generous 
fare than the regular commissary provided and by luxuriating i 
at night in corn husks four feet deep on the barn floor, j 

A few days later the whole expedition went back to Plymouth. \ 
There it found reinforcements, am^ng them Battery I from New- \ 
bern, four guns, under command of Capt. Clark. Several days i 
of rest ensued, during which the deserted village was nearly j 
pulled down for fire wood. On the 29th, a heavy scout was i 
sent out again to Jamestown, accompanied by Battery I. The i 
boys called it the "chicken raid," as there was no fighting ex- j 
cept a brush between the cavalry and some guerrillas, and the 
distinguishing feature being havoc amongst the poultry. On the 
31st, the chickens having been valiantly defeated, back marched 
the expedition in a torrent of rain. Battery A returned to 
Newbern, January 7th. 

On the 19th of January, Frankle embarked his troops for a 
demonstration on the Chowan River. A gun from Battery D 
and one from the 23d Battery came up from Newbern to take 
part. A landing was made at Point Comfort, four miles below 
the town of Colerain, on the Chowan, on the 20th. Colerain 
was occupied that evening. Rams and railroad bridges were the 
ostensible object of this movement — cotton and tobacco the 
actual one. The troops remained in the vicinity of Colerain. 
From time to time a movement was made in the direction of 
Edwards's Ferry and Winton, and several skirmishes took place 
with a force of rebels who kept sharp watch of Frankle's pro- 
ceedings and skirmished with his pickets. Battery I was en- 
gaged several times. It won the praise of all officers, and even 
of the "old Dutchman" himself, for its accurate and elTective 
firing. After parading around the country, without particular 
result for some weeks, Frankle was finally cooped up at Point 
Comfort by the enemy and finally retired in disgust to Plymouth. 

On the 8th of March, Battery I embarked for Newbern, pur- 
suant to orders from Gen. Palmer. It was preceded thither by 
the gun of Battery D. 



CO-OPERAl ING WITH SHERMAN. 20/ 



XII. 



CO-OPERATING WITH SHERMAN. 

Battery F at Jacksonville — Beauties of the Region — Titus's Thanksgiving Dinner 
— Foster to Co-operate with Gen. Sherman — Getting Ready for the Expedi- 
tion — At Boyd's Neck — A Day Wasted — Advancing on Grahamville — Battle 
of Honey Hill — Death of Wildt — B and F in the Fight — Foster Tries Again 
— Advance to Devaux Neck — F in a Hot Skirmish — Shelling the Railroad — 
Sherman Heard From — B Comes Up — Evacuation by the Enemy — Sherman's 
March to the North — Hatch Advances on Charleston — Bringing in Deserted 
Guns — The 3d Artillery in Charleston — Carrying out Flags of Truce — Cap- 
ture of Gov. Magrath. 

On the 5th of September, 1864, Battery F, 3d Artillery, then 
lying quietly in camp at Beaufort, S. C, was informed by Gen. 
Foster that it was relieved of duty in the district of Beaufort, and 
would proceed at once to join Gen. J. P. Hatch at Hilton Head. 
On the 13th, the Battery was ordered to Florida as part of the 
4th Separate Brigade of the Department of the South. It went 
aboard the transports Canoniais and jVeptum, leaving behind its 
tents, and on the 14th entered St. John's river, Florida, a most 
enchanting stream. Twenty miles from the mouth, it debarked 
at the once beautiful old town of Jacksonville. 

Though boasting a population of 1,500 at the outbreak of the 
war, several hundred more than any other town in the State, 
Jacksonville was now in ruins, a desolate place, with but a mere 
handful of inhabitants. It had been burnt in March, 1S63, upon 
its evacuation by three of our Union regiments, who had been 
holding it as a recruiting station for negroes. It was again de- 



208 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

vastated by fire in February, 1864, when Gen. Seymour landed 
on his expedition into tlie interior, which ended in the disastrous 
defeat of Olustee. | 

Battery F, on landing, went through the town and was assigned 1 

a camp ground in the northern suburb near the river, which i 

was just over a knoll from the camp. Here two barracks were | 

soon built, with a stable for the horses, all very comfortable j 

quarters. The guns were parked by the side of the stable. | 

The scenery of Florida and the climate are proverbially lovely, \ 

yet it cannot be said that the 3d Artillery boys fell very power- ] 

fully in love with the peculiarities of the region about Jackson- \ 

ville. Alligators and snakes were unpleasantly numerous. Liz- } 

ards ran over the men's faces at night and with the snakes 
invaded their knapsacks. Musquitoes buzzed and stung inces- 
santly. And as for the fleas, the boys used to say, that you 
might pick up a handful of sand and when the fleas had all run 
out, you could only see what was left by the aid of a microscope. 

In October, Capt. Day left for home on a furlough, leaving 
Lieut. Titus in command of the Battery. Many recruits were 
received while here and by November the Battery mustered 167 
strong, more than the regulation number. It made a splendid 
appearance on parade, where its fine discipline and rapidity and 
accuracy of maneuvre were always the topic of admiring com- 
ment. November 20th, the troops at the post united in a re- 
view. The brigade was formed, therefor, from right to left, in 
the following order: liattery F, 3d Artillery; 75th Ohio, 107th 
Ohio, 3d U. S. Colored Troops, 35th U. S. Colored Troops, 34th 
U. S. Colored Troops, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. 

The 24th of November was Thanksgiving Day. Lieut' 
Titus was a favorite at the Post and many courtesies had from 
time to time been tendered him by the officers there, in return 
he had invited all the prominent ofiicers at the Post to dine with 
him on Thanksgiving. The repast was spread in a little mess- 
house in Battery F's camp, set apart for the commissioned 
officers. For warriors in the field, the fare provided was of a 
luxuriant order. It consisted of the traditional Thanksgiving 
poultry, with beef, hot rolls, soft bread, champagne and an im- 
mense pile of oranges at each end of the plain wooden table, 
which it burdened. It was near sundown. Twenty or more 
blue-coated, shoulder-strapped soldiers thronged the little mess- 
house, and, while chatting merrily, strove to conceal the im- 
patience with which they awaited the arrival of the Assistant- 
Adjutant-Cieneral of the Post, who was a little late and alone 
delayed the onslaught. That dilatory individual at length gal- 



vK 



TITUS S THANKSGIVING DINNER. 2O9 

loped into the camp, attended by two Orderlies, eacli of wiiom 
had a bunch of mysterious but unmistakably official-looking 
envelopes under his arm. The company began to chaff the 
Adjutant-General on his unsoldierly tardiness, when good fare 
was in question ; but the smile died from every face as those 
mysterious packages were produced and one tossed to every 
officer commanding a regiment, battalion, or battery. Hastily 
torn open, they revealed orders from Gen. Foster to march that 
night, with secrecy and dispatch, and with other injunctions that 
left no doubt but that serious business was afoot for all. So 
sudden, so incongruous with the occasion was the news, that a 
chill fell on the festivities as though the specter of Death had 
entered upon the scene. One brave fellow, who had faced 
peril calmly in the hottest of the fight many times before, and 
who did his duty bravely on that, to him, fatal afternoon a few 
days later, shuddered as he gazed on the envelope on the table 
before him, and said, " My God, have I got to go too ?" The 
Thanksgiving dinner was a changed affair. The bounty of 
Battery F was quickly discussed, and the officers hurried away 
from it as early as possible to attend to the duty of mustering 
their commands for the expedition. 

About the middle of November, 1864, Gen. Foster, command- 
ing the Department of the South, received intelligence from 
Washington, that Gen. Sherman had left the city of Atlanta, Ga., 
with 65,000 men on his great March to the Sea. Nothing had 
been heard of his whereabouts since November nth. He was 
in the heart of rebeldom and making for the coast. It was ex- 
pected that he would reach the coast about the 30th of the 
month, in the vicinity of Savannah. Gen. Foster was directed 
to co-operate in the great campaign. As the city of Savannah, 
with its treasures of cotton and military stores, was Sherman's 
real objective point, it was essential that the rebels should be 
crippled in any attempt they might make to concentrate an army 
there. Foster was accordingly ordered to collect every man he 
could spare from the garrisons of his department, to move out 
to the Savannah and Charleston railroad, take possession, and 
destroy it, by which means he would be virtually in the rear of 
Savannah, and Charleston also, and might compel an evacuation 
of both. 

The resources of the Department of the South were at this 
time very slender, for the bulk of its troops had gone to Vir- 
ginia, to fight under Gen. Grant. Foster could spare only 5,000 
men for the expedition, and half of these were black. But they 

N 



2IO 3^^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. • 

were brave,, well-trained men, veterans, and ready to encounter 
the deadliest perils for the beloved cause of the Union. 

These troops Gen, Foster secretly assembled on shipboard, at 
night, at Hilton Head, where they were brigaded under Gens. 
Hatch and Potter. Among them were two batteries of the 3d 
New York Artillery, whose good fortune it ever seemed to be to 
engage in great and honorable campaigns. They were Battery 
B, Capt. I^Iercereau, with four 12-pound Napoleon guns, which 
had been brought down from Fort Shaw, on Morris Island ; and 
Battery F, Lieut. Titus, with four Napoleons, from Jacksonville. 
The movement began at 2 a. m. November 29th, 

Pursuant to orders issued the evening before, captains of ves- 
sels were on the alert ; and when, at the appointed hour, a red i 
and white light shot a brilliant ray over the silent harbor, that I 
portion of the fleet bearing the infantry hoisted anchor as noise- \ 
iessly as possible, and immediately moved in single file up the \ 
river. The artillery followed at daylight. The fleet rendez- \ 
voused at Boyd's Neck, twenty miles from Hilton Head, a long, 
broad point of land, between two streams, projecting into the 
river from the western shore, where a good wagon road comes 
down to the water from the village of Grahamville, ten miles 
distant, in the interior. When the artillery arrived, the princi- 
pal part of the infantry had marched into the country. A few 
regiments still lingered under the mossy live oaks at the landing, 
and they were joined at night by the artillery, which disem- 
barked at an old dock repaired for the purpose by the soldiers, 
and went into bivouac for the night. 

The first day of the expedition was wasted in an empty 
march. That morning, when enough troops were ashore, Fos- 
ter had ordered Gen. Hatch to push forward to the railroad in 
the vicinity of Grahamville, with all celerity, take and hold it. 
Mistaking the direction, owing to insufiicient knowledge of the 
topography of the region, Hatch, when he had marched out to 
the first cross road, which proved to be the direct turnpike be- 
tween Savannah and Coosawhatchie, turned north. He sur- 
veyed the country in that direction for several miles, when he 
discovered his blunder and hastened back to the junction of 
the road running to the landing. He was there joined by Gen. 
Potter. All then marched two miles south, when, turning a 
corner to the right they entered the correct road and struck out 
for Grahamville. But it was too late in the day to retrieve the 
unfortunate error of the forenoon. Night came on, and Hatch 
fell back to the road junction opposite the landing, for the 
night. By this day's blunder, Foster's plans were revealed to 



ADVANCING ON GRAHAMVILLF. 211 

the enemy, and they industriously employed the night to his 
disadvantage. 

The advance moved forward again at daylight on the 30th, 
the first brigade supported by Battery B, 3d Artillery, the second 
by Battery F. 

Passing down the Savannah turnpike, through groves of live 
oak and pine, and among plantations of cotton, the infantry, ar- 
tillery and cavalry moved in a splendid pageant in solid column 
on the road, with along line of skirmishers on each side in front. 
About 8 o'clock, the 127th New York in the extreme advance, 
became briskly engaged with the enemy's picket line. On ap- 
proaching the corner of the straight road to Grahamville, two 
guns posted near the junction opened fire across the intervening 
field with intent to plough our advancing columns in the direc- 
tion of their depth with 12-pound projectiles. At the same 
time, a rank growth of grass and vegetation in a cotton field by 
the side of the road was set on fire. But neither the rebel shot 
nor the clouds of smoke and sparks that the wind blew down 
upon us sufficed to stay the army of freedom. Our brave skir- 
mishers went steadily through the burning field ; and now the 
advance section of Battery B, commanded by Lieuts. Wildt and 
Crocker, came up and took position in the road, under direction 
of Lieut.-Col. Ames, Chief of Artillery, and sent in twenty well 
directed shots in return for those with which the Johnnies were 
complimenting us. The rebels' discretion suddenly overcame 
thejr valor. They ceased the combustion of hostile gunpowder, 
in acknowledgment of the superiority of our Napoleons, and 
trotted off with great speed. Their infantry now contested the 
advance of our skirmishers with spirit, but without success. 
The 127th New York, 144th New York and 32d Colored, fought 
them bravely and the rebel banners gave ground and retired to- 
wards Grahamville, a distance of two or three miles. In this re- 
treat, the rebel battery made one more stand and sent a few 
wandering shots howling down into our vicinity. Wildt's sec- 
tion again engaged them, working its guns in splendid fashion. 
A few rounds sufficed to rout them and they beat a hasty exit 
from the scene through some gloomy woods that enveloped the 
road in their rear. The celerity with which they were driven off 
excited the admiration of Gen. Foster, who complimented Bat- 
tery B for it heartily. 

During the artillery duel, Battery B lost that brave and faith- 
ful soldier, Lieut. VV^ildt. A solid r 2-pound shot struck him 
in the left groin, inflicting a terrible wound, and then bound- 
ing on, slew a horse and a poor fellow amongst the infantry. 



212 3D NEW-fOKK VOLUNTEER AKTILLERV, 

• 

Wildt staggered back as be received his wound and fell do\Tn 
in the road, calling to Lieut. Crocker that he was hit. A 
stretcher was quickly brought and he was conveyed to a little 
church in the rear, which the Surgeons bad cleared of seats 
and converted into a hospital. 

The rebels, now falling back and being strongly reinforced, 
made a stand at an eminence just beyond the woods, called 
Honey Hill. To obtain possession of it, a sanguinary battle 
was fought, lasting till night fall, the Hill being directly in 
the path to Grahamville, which lay three miles distant in its 
rear. It was a position of undoubted military strength. In 
front it was protected by a wide swamp, overgrown with the 
inevitable Southern underbrush, giving concealment to a legion 
of sharp-shooters. A sluggish creek flowed through the swamp 
andj was passable with ease at only one point where there 
was a rude bridge of wood. The Hill itself was covered with 
a profuse sprinkling of bushes and trees, and its crest was 
defended by a redoubt, with long rifle trenches on either flank. 
These were now manned by a rebel brigade under Gen. Gustavus 
W. Smith and Gen. Robertson, ready to supplement the advan- 
tages of its position with all that could be done with 2,000 
muskets and nine pieces of artillery. The artillery Avas placed j 
in front of the redoubt, owing to some defect in the construction 1 
of the work. It was trained so as to rake road and bridge. 1 

Following the enemy sharply through the woods, the brigade j 
of Gen. Hatch formed line of battle along the western border j 
with the right wing thrown out along a rough wagon path that | 
branched from the main road at this point. The 55th Massa- 
chusetts, Col. Hartwell, was sent forward to see what there 
was on the Hill. It was a negro regiment It performed 
its loyal devoir in a manner that e.xcited the admiration of 
every beholder, although its dashing charge ended in disaster. 
Col. Hartwell brought his banners to the front. " Follow your 
colors, my men !" he cried. The blacks swept forward with a 
rousing cheer. Some of the companies made straight for the 
swamp and floundered through ; some rushed across the bridge. 
Upon all, that terrible battery on the Hill hurled shot and shell 
and cannister with staggering eflect. Scores of brave fellows 
were bowled down by the iron balls and were left writhing 
on the ground as the rest of the line ran on. Col. Hartwell's 
horse was blown to pieces by a load of cannister and fell, 
pinning the Colonel down in the mire. The gallant blacks 
wavered not a moment They dashed on. They were almost 
in the works. Lookers on, with their hearts in their throats. 



) Al 



STORMING THE ENEMY's WORKS. 21 3 

gazed breathlessly to see them gain the Hill, when so withering 
a fire was concentrated upon them that they paused. They lost 
what little formation they had, broke, and were driven back in 
confusion to the friendly shelter of the woods. Col. Hartwell 
was extricated in the retreat. The rebels flocked out of their 
works and charged after the 5 5 th, but were suddenly driven 
back by our musketry. 

This charge made manifest to our Generals the difficult char- 
acter of the task before them. If the Charleston and Savannah 
railroad was to be broken that day, the utmost resources of the 
army were to be employed to capture the Hill. The first mea- 
sure was to order into action the artillery. Lieut. Crocker's 
section of Battery B were the nearest guns at hand. By direc- 
tion of Gen. Hatch, Lieut. -Col. Ames moved them at once down 
to the forks of the road, the only place in which artillery could 
be put. Here, six hundred yards only from the enemv's guns, 
they were commanded to shell the works and make themselves 
as useful as possible to our attack. The horses were sent to the 
rear^ for safety, the guns were shotted, sighted as accurately as 
the intervening branches of trees would allow, and then rang' out 
their angry salutation. As their familiar thunder broke out 
amidst the vollies of musketry, the infantry, which had been 
fretting under the fire of the Hill, could no longer restrain its 
enthusiasm. Regiment after regiment charged forward to storm 
the works, the 127th New York, the 32d Colored, the 35th Col- 
ored. One after another, however, they were beaten back. 
Disordered in forcing a passage through that deadly swamp, 
which, that day, fought as hard for treason as the traitors them- 
selves, they only got through it to have cruel havoc wrou^rht in 
their ranks by the rebel guns, and were hurled back with loss, in 
more or less confusion. The rebels always charged back. 
Several times they came across the bridge, and through the 
clouds of smoke could be seen by the men of Battery B, press- 
ing forward on our lines. Crocker, meanwhile, had been joined 
by Capt. Mercereau's section, and the four guns, rapidly worked, 
bore a prominent share in repelling the enemy's assaults. These 
guns were in a very dangerous situation, being under an unre- 
mitting fire of the rebel cannon and sharpshooters. Obscured 
by smoke and shrubbery', their exact position was as difficult to 
make out, however, as that of the rebel battery on the hill, 
and they escaped comparatively unscathed, though the rushing 
nail of bullets slashing the foliage and whistling about their 
heads, and the great balls that fiew crackling through the woods 
behind every moment threatened to annihilate them. In this 



214 3D NEW-TORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEKT-. 

action Privates Dinehart, Branch, Miller, Greening, Crrss, Frii>- 
gle and Heathers received honorable wounds. Lieut. Crocker 
was also- wounded. He was shot in the right eye with a musket 
ball, but he wrapped a handkerchief around his head and fought 
bis guns fot an hour after the hurt. Capt. Mercereau said c^ 
him in a report to Col. Stewart: "I never saw one display 
more cool judgnrvent and bravery than he during the whole en- 
gagement." 

The battle went on with unrebating energy until 2 p. m. The 
fighting was all at close quarters, like that of gladiators in the 
arena, and the firing, with the resounding woods on all sides to 
reverberate the noise, was terrific. At times, volley after volley 
would ring along the whole line, the artillery crashing away in 
the center. Then, for a while, only the sputtering fire of sharp- 
shooters, to be succeeded again by strong steady firing. By 2 
p. M. Battery B was in a state of complete exhaustion from its 
arduous exertion since morning. Ammunition was nearly ex- 
pended, and one of the guns had recoiled into the ditch by the 
roadside, whence the men did not have the strength left to ex- 
tricate it. The Battery was then relieved from duty, Battery F 
being ordered up to replace it. Its conduct throughout the 
fight had been all that could be required of daring men, and its 
officers had been conspicuous for intrepidity. 

Battery F, on a little knoll, away to the rear with the reserve 
infantry, had been momentarily awaiting a summons to come 
to the front. Orders came at last The bugle sounded. 
Gunners scrambled to their places on limbers and caissons, the 
drivers applied the whip, and the Battery went up two miles and 
a half on a run, the infantry opening to right and left to let it 
pass. It was a reckless pace on that rough corduroy road, with 
deep ditches gaping to receive any stumbling team. But the men 
held on with all their might to keep their seats, and the drivers 
guiding their teams true, they arrived safely at the scene of the 
conflict. Just as they came up, a limber chest of Battery B ex- 
exploded, hurling Lieut. Breck roughly to the side of the road, 
badly burning his face and hands. Only one of B's guns was 
firing, and that at intervals. The rest were too hot to be ser- 
viceable, and Lieut. Titus caused them to be drawn to the rear 
by means of the prolonges, soldiers and negroes lending a will- 
ing hand to the ropes. Titus's pieces were then run up and 
opened fire on the Hill, which still defied our hardest assaults. 
Battery F had the satisfaction of perceiving that its attentions 
were a serious annoyance to the rebels, for they subjected it to 
a furious fire in return. The first gun discharged drew down 



FOSTER FAILS TO CARRY HONEV HILL. 21 5 

such a Storm that nearly every man serving it was wounded. 
The firing lent renewed vigor to our infantry attack, and every j 

effort that the sagacity of our Generals could suggest, in view of i 

their limited resources and the nature of the ground, was put j 

forth to dislodge the enemy from the Hill. Battery F wis i 

worked in a rapid and handsome manner, and, with Battery B, 1 

made for the 3d Artillery a brilliant reputation in the Army of i 

the South. Sergt. Harrington and Privates Vandenberg, Gri- j 

ner and McKue were the most seriously wounded. I 

At nightfall. Gen. Fo'ster relinquished the attack on Honey j 

Hill, finding the resistance opposed to his advance by the rebels ! 

too obstinate to be overcome by the forces at his disposal. The \ 

troops were ordered back to the vicinity of the landing, and j 

slowly retired. Lieut. Clark, of Battery F, remained with two j 

guns to come on at the same time as the rear guard, and was | 

the last to leave the bloody field. The artillery men were so j 

tired that many, both drivers and cannoneers, fell asleep while j 

marching to the landing. I 

Gen. Foster lost in this affair 746 men, in killed, wounded and j 

missing. The rebel loss could be scarcely less. In the 3d Ar- 
tillery, fortunately, there was but one death, but that the death 
of a brave and loved officer. Lieut. Wildt expired a few hours 
after the amputation of his leg by the surgeons. Of Lieut. 
Titus's Thanksgiving party of officers at Jacksonville, few es- 
caped without wound, and some were killed. 

For five days Gen. Foster remained on Boyd's Neck. He 
threw up intrenchments at the junction of the road from the 
landing with the Savannah and Coosawhatchie road, and manned 
them with Batteries B and F, and held the position against the 
enemy who advanced upon it and skirmished strongly for several 
days. To attract the attention of Gen. Sherman, should his 
troops be approaching this part of the coast, he sent up rockets 
and balloons at night and burnt calcium lights. December 3d, 
he took four regiments and a section of Battery B for a tour of 
observation to the north toward Coosawhatchie. The enemy 
was met in small force. Battery. B and a section of the 3d Rhode 
Island routed the opposition, when the reconnoissance returned. 
On the 5th, an expedition was again started for Coosawhatchie, 
supported by Battery F, having for its object the breaking of the 
railroad at that point and the burning of tie bridge. Five miles 
out, some rebel earthworks were encountered. A few shots were 
thrown into them without drawing out a response. A deserter 
then came in witii information that there was a large force at 
Coosawhatchie and the expedition fell back to camp. 



(■■;■. •■'\ ' 



2l6 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY, 

On the 6th, Gen. Foster renewed his attempts on the railroad. 
The brigade of Gen. E. E. Potter and Battery F, 3d Artillen,-, 
were taken up the river on gunboats to a long, narrow peninsula 
between Coosawhatchie and Tullifinny rivers, termed Devaux 
Neck. The brigade landed in the forenoon, surprising some of 
Gen. Hardee's Georgia troops, capturing the flag of one of the 
regiments, and driving them a distance of four miles up the 
peninsula, as far as the wagon road which crosses it running 
from Coosawhatchie to Charleston. The point was within half 
a mile of the railroad. Battery F landed in the night, which was 
rainy and cold. Moving out to the front, in darkness that con- 
cealed every vestige of our army entirely from view, it at last 
came up to a party of officers sitting under a tree. Lieut. Titus, 
who was in command, hailed them. Gen. Potter was there and 
was mightily glad to see the artillery ; he at once sent it into 
an open lot on the right of the road, directly in rear of the 56th 
New York, which lay in the grass asleep. The Battery laid by 
its guns all night, without unharnessing, and could hear car's 
running on the railroad every hour. 

Early in the morning our position was energetically attacked 
by a strong force of the enemy, who came up under cover of a 
fog, to the edge of a heavy piece of timber not sixty yards awav, 
extending nearly to the railroad. The engagement lasted four 
hours. Half that time the rebels were within point blank rifle 
range, in the woods, and firing on the Battery, which had no other 
protection than that which was inherent in its ammunition. The 
enemy first tried a flank movement on Potter's right. Being 
repelled, they tried his left, but were driven by the reser\'e. The 
Battery was once left without infantry' support and had to skir- 
mish for itself, which it did with excellent success, its cannister 
clearing out every rebel from its front. It did good execution. 
One of the guns laid low ten of the enemy with one shot, a 
spherical case, which is a shell filled with bullets. Bossier was 
slightly wounded during the fight and a horse was killed. These 
were the only casualties in the Battery. The brigade lost 80. 
Finding Potter invincible, the men in gray suddenly retired with 
ranks smaller by 100 killed and wounded for their pains. 

Next day, the 8th, Gen. Potter had works made for Battery 
F's better protection. 

It was no part of Gen. Foster's plans to remain so near the 
railroad and allow the rebels to work it day and night, under his 
very nose, with impunity. Off towards the left, in the direction 
of Coosawhatchie bridge, there could be made out, even with 
the naked eye, some very formidable works, built in the form of 



ON DEVAUX NECK. 21/ 

four half moons, interlapping. It would not do to assault these 
works, but there was a way of rendering the railroad useless to 
the Confederates and steps were now taken to make it so. On 
the 9th, Battery F opened fire on the railroad, right and left, 
giving the guns'a good elevation, while a large force of pioneers 
went forward in front and cut a wide slashing through the woods 
to unmask the railroad. The Battery fired off a large lot of 
damaged ammunition and kept at work till sundown, when the 
slashing was completed. Our pioneers in retiring provoked a 
charge from the enemy, which was repulsed with great loss. 
Thenceforward the railroad was under fire from our guns, and 
whenever a train ventured by, day or night, it was shelled. Sev- 
eral capital shots were made and cars and engines smashed 
thereby. 

On the loth, the horses of Battery F were unharnessed for the 
first time since coming on to Devaux Neck. It had not before 
been deemed safe to take their harness off, lest emergencies 
might arise requiring a sudden move. The men had slept at 
their posts. On this day, distant heavy booming of cannon 
was heard in the south and the army knew that Sherman had 
come down to the sea. He was indeed before Savannah. Ac- 
curate tidings of it reached Boyd's Neck on the 12th and Gen. 
Foster ran down on a gunboat to open communication with him 
by water, which he did next day. 

About this time, Battery F received an accession of twenty- 
five recruits. 

On the r4th, tidings came of the capture of Fort McAllister 
at Savannah the day before. All the troops turned out to cheer. 
The Johnnies answered from their lines with a screech. 

As the investment of Savannah was in progress, it was more 
than ever important to break up all travel on the railroad. 
Gen, Foster brought two 3o-pound Parrots and mounted them in 
a swamp battery in the Coosawhatchie. With these, and Bat- 
tery F, 3d Artillery, to use Gen. Sherman's terse expression, he 
•' whaled away " day and night at the railroad and the bridge, 
and with good effect, for the passage of troops and supplies by 
rail to the relief of Savannah was stopped and the running of 
trains for any purpose was rendered more and more infrequent. 
And withal, the enemy was kept so stirred up with apprehension 
that 6,000 men were detained in Foster's front from rein- 
forcing Hardee at Savannah. 

About the T5th, the remainder of Foster's column was brought 
up from Boyd's landing. Battery B, Capt. Mercereau command- 
ing, and Battery A, 3d Rhode Island Artillery, immediately re- 






>n \ 



2l8 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

lieved Battery F on the lines. The latter went to the rear a 
short distance for resc and was parked as reserve artillery. On 
the lyih, the Parrot "swamp angels " were moved to a position 
nearer Coosawhatchie bridge, and thereafter, with the assistance 
of Batteries B and F, who were alternately at the lines, the rail- 
road was effectually neutralized and travel broken up. The fact 
alarmed Gen. Hardee, in command of the garrison at Savannah, 
as to his safet)' in retreat, and materially hastened his evacuation 
of the city. He ab.-'ndoned it to Sherman on the 20th. 

The capture of Savannah was announced on Devaux Neck on 
the 23d. There was great excitement and cheering in all the 
camps. 

No further forward movement was made by Gen. Foster for 
several weeks. On the i6th of December, Gen. Halleck had 
placed him under the command of Gen. Sherman, and as that 
officer was resting, reclothing and refitting his victorious army in 
Savannah, preparatory to his great March to the North, no ac- 
tive operations were for a while desirable. Foster's forces 
quietly heldj their position on the Neck, improving the op- 
portunity to obtain the rest they too so urgently needed. From 
time to time, a skirmish took place, and Batteries B and F were 
both called on, on several occasions to reply to guns the rebels 
brought down on the opposite side of the TuUitinny to disturb 
our camps. The Batteries invariably gave the enemy all they 
wanted, and more too. Rebel deserters came in every day in 
great numbers. Once, on January 14th, a ist Lieutenant and 
Surgeon came in and reported that their Colonel would bring his 
regiment in, if assured of pardon. A lot of President Lincoln's 
proclamations of pardon were accordingly tied to a ramrod and 
fired over by a gun of Battery F. The only reply, however, was 
a bullet. The regiment had undoubtedly been withdrawn from the 
rebel lines. The supposition was confirmed at night by the sound 
of the wagons and artillery of the enemy moving towards 
Charleston. Next niorning no pickets of the enemy were visi- 
ble. Our pickets were pushed out to reconnoitre. They soon 
sent back intelligence that the enemy had retreated from our 
whole front. Several regiments were immediately thrown for- 
ward and the enemy's powerful works on the railroad, with the 
railroad and bridj;e, were seized and held, A regiment was 
also sent out on the road to Charleston, and at the little village 
of Pocotaligo, six miles away, formed a junction with the 17th 
Corps, under Gen. Blair, which had come up that day from Sa- 
vannah, by way of Beaufort and Port Royal Island. 

Sherman was now mustering his army for his "great next.' 



SHERMAN PREPARING FOR HIS "GREAT NEXT. 219 

His 17th Corps was at Pocotaligo. The 15th Corps now marched 
up to Cooswhatchie. The main body lay at Savannah ready to 
march at the word of warning. January 19th, Sherman wrote 
to Gen. Foster, turning over to him the city of Savannah and 
forts dependent, and indicating in general terms the course he 
intended to pursue, which was to strike out for the heart of 
South Carolina and smash things gjenerally in the State and 
then direct his march on Raleigh. Foster was to remain on the 
coast and advance on that cradle of treason, Charleston, and 
capture it, a disposition of matters most congenial to his 
feelings. 

Foster prepared at once to enact his part of the drama of the 
March to the North. A portion of his forces were sent to Morris 
Island and Bull's Bay under Gen. Potter, to operate from that 
direction and amuse the enemy with demonstrations. The rest, 
abandoning Devaux Neck as no longer a position of any use, 
he concentrated under Gen. Hatch at Pocotaligo. Amongst 
the former were Battery B and Battery F, 3d New York Artil- 
lery. 

The grand movement began February 1st. The 17th and 15th 
Corps advanced from the vicinity of Pocotaligo ; the 14th and 
20th from Savannah. Gen. Hatch took the wagon road to 
Charleston and marched to the river Combabee, holding in check 
the rebel left wing, while Sherman " smashed things " in the 
interior. Here, by the order of Sherman, he waited till the 
latter had reached the vicinity of the city of Columbia, mean- 
while entertaining the force of rebels on the opposite bank by 
demonstrations of a desire to cross. About the 17 th of Febru- 
ary, he pushed his way across the river with two brigades and 
Lieut. Clark's section of Battery F, and by slow but steady 
marches advanced to Charleston. He found the city evacuated. 
The rebels had fled in precipitation without waiting to give him 
battle. 

Lieut. Titus's section of Battery F and Battery B crossed 
the Combabee on the 20th with Hatch's rear guard. They 
reached the Ashepo that night, and the Edisto on the 21st, 
passing through a beautiful region, full of magnificent planta- 
tions. The troops foraged freely on the country. Chickens, 
honey, fresh beef and pork and fruits were the almost daily bill 
of fare. The day had gone by to be punctilious about subsist- 
ing on the enemy, and Sherman's bummers were not more suc- 
cessful in searching out the good things of the land than the 
men of his Coast Division under Gen. Hatch. " It is a war 
right old as history," said Sherman to Grant in extenuation of the 



r. O uJ; / -ii' 



220 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. --!. 

practice. The quotation is respectfully referred to Gen. Patter- 
son of the old Army of the Shenandoah for meditation. On the ] 
22d, still on the march, the army passed the house of a rebel i 
paymaster, from which the men obtained $75,000 in Confederate 1 
money. On the 23d, coming up with the head of the column j 
at Rantoul's bridge, Battery F was consolidated again. I 

Next day, Lieut. Titus took twelve teams to Willstown, on the i 

Edisto, escorted by a detachment of the 25th Ohio, to bring in 1 

some light artillery found in deserted rebel earthworks there. '. 

They had been abandoned hurriedly ; not a gun was spiked, a j 

rammer carried off, nor a carriage disabled. Titus brought j 

away four 6-pound rifles and two 24pound rifles. Several large i 

ones were left for lack of transportation. The enemy had the | 

best and strongest works, facing the Sea Islands in all direc- ■ 

tions. Lieut. Breck, the same day, visited one of them on the | 

Stono and brought in its guns. 

Batteries B and F reached Ashley river on the 27th to find 
that the infantry had already ferried across. They lay on the 
bank that night. Next day, towards night, they crossed, Bat- 
tery B in the advance, and moving down into the city, they 
camped on the spacious green of a long, imposing, castellated 
building, called the Citadel, or the Southern Military Academy. 

Since landing on Boyd's Neck, the Batteries had been three 
months in the field without camp or garrison equipage ; had 
fought many battles ; fired over 3,000 rounds of ammunition 
each, and marched two hundred miles in the enemy's country. 
The men showed the effects of hard campaigning in their sun- 
burned faces and rather ragged uniforms, but were healthy and 
in the best of spirits, and ready for more fighting at any moment. 

It may be interesting to note, that the road over which Gen. 
Hatch had advanced -to the capture of Charleston, was the 
scene of many hard marches and some hard fights of the Revo- 
lution. The British General Patterson came up by this route 
from Savannah in 1780, to join the siege at Charleston. At 
Rantoal's Creek, and other places upon it, Tarleton, Marion, and 
Col. William Washington had fights. 

The first artillery in Charleston was a detachment of Battery 
B, which, by Capt. Mercereau's order, had remained at Fort 
Shaw, Morris Island, since November, to act as its garrison and 
to take charge of the camp and garrison equipage of the Bat- 
tery. During the night of February 17th, the glare of an exten- 
sive conflagration caught the attention of our sentinels on Morris 
Island and the blockading squadron. Soon, tremendous con- 
cussions from the city told the tale of exploding gunboats and 



IN CHARLESTON. 22 I 

the destruction of military stores. About 7 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, an orderly rode into Fort Shaw to state that the rebels had 

evacuated, and ordered Battery B to report immediately at the | 

forts at the north end of the island. The men got there at 10 i 

A. M. They embarked on small boats, supplied by blockaders, | 

and were rowed up the harbor to the city. With what thrilling j 

feelings did they now look up to the old flag floating once more j 

over Fort Sumter, as they passed by the sloping heaps of broken i 

masonry that had once been its walls? Reaching the city, 1 

the detachment marched to Citadel Green, took possession there j 

and went into camp, and was joined there a few days later by ' 

the rest of the Battery. j 

The desolation of the once proud capital furnished a theme \ 

for curious observation and comment to the 3d Artillery boys, j 

who strolled all over it to see its scars and ruins. It was one • j 

of the saddest spectacles of the war. A large tract in the I 

wealthiest and handsomest quarter lay in blackened and smok- j 

ing ruins. Towards the river, in every direction, the buildings i 

were scarred and smashed, and the streets torn up by heavy I 

shells. Grass grew in the streets. Docks were dropping to | 
pieces from decay. Some of the docks, built during a happy 

peace, once thronged with shipping, were now deserted bv com- ; 

merce and given over to great grim earthworks and engines of j 

war. The population of the city had been reduced in four years j 

from 65,000 to 10,000, principally by the terror inspired by the ! 

shells thrown in from our batteries on Morris Island. j 

Gen. Hatch gave his artillery a short rest only on Citadel i 

Green. In the course of a day or two, he moved it out to a line j 

of intrenchments west of the city, extending across the peninsula j 

on which it was built from the Ashley river to the Cooper. Htre, '< 

Batteries B and F remained for a long time, their presence on | 

the lines being precautionary only. The men enjoved a good 1 
rest, and had an opportunity to erase the stains of travel 'from 

their equipments and armament and restore them to that state j 

of neatness, proverbial with the 3d Artiller>' in whatever depart- 1 

ment it served. i 

April 9th, salutes were, fired by the Batteries in honor of the ! 

fall of Richmond and Petersburg. The 14th was the day of the " I 

formal flag raising on Fort Sumrer, the identical flag that Major ! 

Anderson had hauled down in 186 r, in token of surrender, being ' 
hoisted once more with impressive ceremonies, Henry ^V'ard 
Beecher making an address at the Fort. National salutes were 
fired by Batteries B and F, as also by the ibrts around the har- 
bor, under the direction of Col. Stew'art L. Woodford of New 



222 3'^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEEn AKTILLEKY 

York, who was in charge of the details of the celebration. After 
the salutes, our officers went down to the Fort. A few days 
later, the mournful minute guns were fired on account of the as- 
sassination of the beloved Lincoln. 

On the 23d, information having been received of the armistice 
agreed upon between Gen. Sherman and the rebel Gen. John- 1 
ston, Lieut. Breck, with fourteen mounted men of Battery B, 1 
carrying twelve days' rations, rode out into the interior with a I 
flag of truce to communicate the fact to the rebel commandants j 
in our front. He got back on the 26th. The unwelcome tid- 
ings of a resumption of hostilities came on the 28th. Our Gen- 
erals being in duty bound to inform the enemy of the fact, Lieut. 
Titus,. with fifteen of Battery F and some staff officers acting as 
volunteers for the expedition, was sent out with another flag of 
truce, to announce the fact. He went to within sight of Orange- 
burg, meeting various parties of rebels on the way, and keeping 
a sharp eye out for rebel fortifications with a view to gather use- 
ful knowledge for future use. He saw none however. The 
enemy seemed paralyzed by events in the North and were not 
making efforts to prepare the country for defense. Titus de- 
livered his message and started back at a gait that would have 
done credit to Tam O'Shanter, having been warned to return 
rapidly lest the unscrupulous Johnnies should halt and capture 
his party. The whole eighty miles was made in less than 
twenty-four hours, forty rebels riding hard after the detachment 
down to our picket line at Charleston. 

May ist, Lieut. Crocker and Lieut. Clark, in command of 
sections, accompanied an expedition of two brigades towards 
Orangeburg to bring in some railroad rolling stock. Several 
other scouts took place, one of them, attended by Lieut. Breck 
with fifteen men, who came back May 27th with Gov. Magrath 
of South Carolina, a close prisoner, having taken him at Co- 
lumbia. 



GENERALITIES. 22$ 



XIII. 



WITH BUTLER. 

Generalities — H and M go to Virginia — Butler Wants More Batteries — E and K. 
Sent to ti'tm — Major Schenck — The Advance on Richmond — At Bermuda 
Hundreds — E Shells Fort Clifton — Tearing up the Railroad — On to Richmond 
—Fight at Half- Way House — On the Lines Before Drury's BluflF— A Tele- 
graph Put to Good Use — The Army of the James Surprised — Charge on 
Battery E — A Bloody Fight — Out of Ammunition — Ashby Down — Driven 
Back— The Losses— Butler " Bottled Up " — M at Fort Powhatan and Wil- 
son's Landing — K at Spring Hill — Has a Fight — Gilmore's Attack on Peters- 
burg — Smith Attacks — K. Shelling Batteries No. ii and No. 12 — The i8th 
Corps Carries the Works. 

The reader of these pages will have discovered by this time 
that there is ver)^ little unity of action amongst the component 
parts of a regiment of artillery, no matter how great its unity 
of feeling or how distinctive its reputation as a regiment. In 
the infantr\', the regiments fight e^i masse, in compact bodies and 
under their own several battle flags throughout the war. With 
rare exceptions, the history of any part of any individual infan- 
try regiment will comprehend the experience of the whole. It is 
different with artillery. To bring a regiment of artillery — espe- 
cially one of the magnitude of the 3d New York — into action, 
would require battles like Gettysburg and campaigns like that 
of '64 in Virginia. It is never done. A regiment of artillery 
is too large for the purpose. It is a brigade of itself; and, as 
in brigades of infantry, regiments go hither and thither at times 



224 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

away from the main body, on special service ; so in artillery, bat- 
teries go from the main body continually and share in operations 
in numerous departments. It is seldom that as many as three 
or four of the same regiment fight on the same field. The 
regimental flags are never carried into battle, but remain at head- 
quarters and seldom stir thence except to grace a dress parade. 
The history of an infantry regiment, considered in all its rela- 
tions as a part of a whole, may be the history of great campaigns. 
That of an artillery regiment may be the history of a great war. 
That of the 3d New York comprehends an important part of 
the War for the Union. Had we chosen to write it with the 
copiousness of historians who love to go down to the roots of 
things and relate all the causes of its campaigns, near and re- 
mote, this work would have expanded to twice its present size. 
Such a treatment of the subject in a regimental history, however, 
would be inappropriate, and we have made only sufficient ex- 
planation of the causes and objects of campaigns, to give the 
reader of this history a proper understanding of the "^specific 
services of the 3d New York. 

The connection of this regiment with the campaigns of "61 in 
Virginia, and of the whole war up to 1865, '" North Carolina, 
with the siege of Charleston and Sherman's great march, has 
already been told. These pages are yet to relate the important 
part performed by a battalion of four of its batteries in the sieo^e 
of Petersburg and capture of Richmond. " 

And now let us follow the fortunes of the 3d Artillery in Vir- 
ginia. 

In July, 1863, arose the necessity for a General of great vigor 
to command the Department of (lower) Virginia and North Car- 
olina. Gen. Foster was on the nth appointed to that command, 
and at once proceeded to Fortress Monroe, headquarters of the 
Department, to enter upon the discharge of its duties. He suc- 
ceeded Gen. Dix. In August, the i8th Corps, comprising the 
troops m North Carolina, was enlarged by the consolidation'with 
it of the 7 th Corps. 

Needing more artillery at Fortress Monroe, Gen. Foster or- 
dered a grand review of the 3d New York, at Newbern, before 
Lieut. Stanley of his staff. Acting Inspector General, so that 
the latter might be enabled to pick out two of the best Batteries 
to send him, the purpose of the review, however, remainin^^ a se- 
cret. The review came off October i8th. On the 23'd, the 
Adjutant road orders on dress parade, for Battery H, Capt 
Riggs,and Battery M, Capt. Howell, six guns each, to go to 
Fortress Monroe. 



REORGANIZING THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 22$ 

The departure of the Batteries, a few days later, with the 3d 
New York Cavalry, and some infantry, which had also been 
summoned to Virginia, was the sensation of the hour. Not a 
man in the regiment failed to envy their good fortune in going 
to a field where there was a prospect of more active service than 
North Carolina promised just tlien. 

They took boats to Elizabeth, N. C, and marched overland, 
via the towpath of the Dismal Swamp canal to Portsmouth. 
Battery H and the 3d Cavalry had two skirmishes with guerrillas 
on the way, at Camden Court House and in the Swamp. A few 
shells sent them flying on each occasion. Contrary to expecta- 
tion, the batteries had no active service for some months. H, 
reporting at Fortress Munroe, was stationed at Newport News, 
and remained there till March, when it performed outpost duty 
at Bowen's hill. Deep Creek, and Getty's Station, and, in May, 
t09k position till June 30th, near Fort Hazlitt, on the inner line 
■of fortifications at Portsmouth. M did outpost duty at Curri- 
tuck, Great Bridge, and around Norfolk, Suffolk and Portsmouth 
till May, being, in the spring of 1864, reorganized as *' Veteran 
Light Battery M." 

November 13th, 1863, Gen. Foster, by order of Gen. Halleck. 
went to Tennessee to relieve Burnside. He was succeeded at 
Fortress Munroe by sturdy old Ben Butler, probably one of the 
best Generals and the worst hated by rebels in the United States 
Army. Ben alwav-s had an irrepressible tendency to make him- 
self disagreeable to rebels, and when, in the spring of 1864, Gen. 
Grant took command of the Artny of the Potomac, for the pur- 
pose of inaugurating a campaign against Richmond, this 
tendency overcame him to an extent that he applied tor authority 
toco-operate in the movement. Nothing better suited the wishes 
of Government, and he was empowered to organize a column, 
to be called the Army of the James, to move upon Rich- 
mond, in accordance with a plan proposed by himself, by way of 
the James river. 

April, 1864, found Gen. Grant reorganizing the Army of the 
Potomac on the banks of the Rapidan, and consolidating it into 
the 2d Corps, Hancock's ; 5th Corps, Warren's ; 6th Corps, 
Sedgwick's; and 9th Corps, Burnside's. It found Butler, 
strengthening and fitting out the i8th Corps, Gen. \V. F. (Baldy) 
Smith's, at Yorktown, and preparing for the arrival of the loth 
Corps, Gilmore's, which had been ordered up from South Car- 
olina to reinforce him. 

Needing more artiller}', Butler sent his Chief of Artillery, in 
April, to Newbern, to pick out a couple of the best Batteries 

o 



226 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

there for service in the i8th Corps. A review being held, Bat- 
tery E, Capt. Ashby, and Battery K, Capt. Angel, arrested 
attention by their superior discipline, and received orders 
forthwith to proceed to Virginia, They came up on ocean trans- 
ports, and on the i6th, by the commanding General's direction, 
joined the i8th Corps at Yorktown, They pitched their camps 
amongst the others of the Corps, which were scattered around 
the town in every direction. 

Butler had now a full battalion of four Batteries of the 3d 
Artillery in Virginia, the best battalion of the regiment, by the 
way, comprising 500 splendidly drilled veterans, with 22 guns 
and 450 horses. A field officer to serve with it was wanted. 
Major Schenck happened along on the 22d, just in the nick of 
time, then being on his way to Newbern after successful recruit- | 
ing service at home. Butler stopped him at Fortress Munroe, 1 
and sent him to Gen. Smith, and he was assigned to duty as \ 
Chief of Artillery on the staff of Gen. W. H. H. Brooks, command- i 
ing the ist Division, i8th Corps. The Major remained on i 
Brooks's staff nearly two months. He was with him in all the i 
battles on the peninsula, until after the Drury's Bluff affair, win- 1 
ning the warm friendship of his confreres by his soldierly and i 
gentlemanly qualities. He was then ordered to report to Gen. j 
Kautz, commanding the Cavalry Division of the Army of the ! 
James, and was with Kautz as Assistant Inspector General i 
on his stafif^ until after the surrender of Lee at Appomatto.x. i 
At his own request he was then relieved and ordered to duty in | 
tt^ 85th Corps, on the staff of the 1st Division, as Acting As- j 
sistant Inspector General, Gen. Kautz commanding. He" was \ 
afterwards transferred to the staff of the Corps, as Acting As- j 
sistant Adjutant General, ^'hen the Corps went to Texas, the 1 
Major, by order, repaired to Syracuse, N. Y., for muster out of | 
service, July 15, 1863. 

The loth Corps arrived on steamers May 3d, brown as Be- 
douins from exposure to a Southern sun. The i8th Corps 
straightway fell to packing up for the expedition. 

On the 4th, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapi'dan, 
100,000 strong, for the advance on Richmond. Simultaneously, 
the Army of the James, 25,000 strong, embarked at Yorktown 
and Newport News, Batteries E and M of the 3d Artillery in- 
cluded. Battery H remained behind as the reserve artillery of 
the army till an emergency should require it to come to the 
front. Battery K marched to Newport News, but did not get 
aboard in time to go with the advance. 

A portion of the fleet at first sailed up the York river, to de- 



BUTLER S EXPEDITION. 22/ 

ceire the enemy as to its real destination, while the rest ren- 
dezvoused at Newport News. It lay there on the broad bosom 
of the harbor till night fall, a thunder cloud of war, dark, threat- 
ening and portentous, its great black ocean steamers and smaller 
coasting vessels, ferry boats, barges and sloops, crowded with 
masses of soldiery — its armored gunboats and fine staunch iron 
monitors, boding ill things for the enemies of our country. 

During the day, Gen. Kautz with 3,000 cavalry marched from 
Suffolk on a raid against the Weldon railroad, which he event- 
ually struck and broke. Concurrently a smaller cavalry force 
moved up the Peninsula, on an ostensible expedition against 
Richmond by that route. This movement gave the enemy the 
greatest alarm ; for twice before, that year, in February, Butler 
had pushed heavy forces of infantry up the Peninsula on real 
expeditions, one of them almost reaching the rebel capital. The 
enemy hurried his forces on the James to meet the threatening 
column. This was just what Butler wanted. 

At night fall, the armored vessels of the fleet rushed up the 
James. 

Next day, the rest of the fleet followed rapidly, having on 
board the artillery. Passing up the historic stream, at all the 
points commanding bends the bright parti-colored flag of the 
Union floated gladly on the banks, conspicuous against the dark 
green of the trees, showing where a detachment had landed to 
fortify the captured position. At Fort Powhatan, an old rebel 
work, a few miles below City Point on the south bank, Battery 
M landed with a few companies of infantry to become its gar- 
rison. 

The vessel bearing Battery E pushed straight for the broad, 
sprangly peninsula between the James and Appomattox, known 
as Bermuda Hundreds, reaching it at night. Butler was there 
with 10,000 men. The Battery got its guns ashore as soon as 
possible and went into bivouac for the night. 

While the last of the troops were landing that evening, Butler 
called a consultation of war of his corps and division command- 
ers, around a camp fire. He proposed to them to go right on to 
Richmond. Gilmore and Smith, commanding the two corps, 
opposed it, urging that if the Army of the James went on and 
received a defeat, it would break up the whole grand campaign. 
Weitzel favored it, and said if they would give him 10,000 men, 
he would take the advance and go on. The more cautious 
counsels prevailed and Smith was ordered to move out next day 
for the railroad and destroy that first. 

Smith marched as ordered and reached the road on the 7th, 



:i ,.:'.< . 'I :■', v.r •■ -•, ir " ■!' 



.11, ■ -., . ;. .: u» 



228 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. j' 

which he began to tear up, having meanwhile to fight the rebel 
Gen. Hill, who attacked him with a small force. 

The morning after Battery E landed, it was directed to repori 
to Gen. Weitzel as the reserve artillery of the i8th Corps — its 
20-pound Parrots being rather heavy for field service. By 
Weitzel's order the Battery moved out during the forenoon tc 
Cobb's Hill, on the Appomattox, an eminence which after- 
wards constituted the extreme left of the Bermuda Hundreds 
intrenchments. It was half a mile north-east of Port Walthal, 
where the railroad came down to some heavy coal trestles on the 
river. 

On the high west bank of the river, visible three miles to the 
southward over the broad, low lying, wooded islands, was a 
faint brown line on the verdant green. It was the celebrated 
rebel Fort Clifton, facing the stream, with a heavy battery of 
guns to dispute the passage of our gunboats up to Petersburg, 
seven miles away. The gunboats were even now firing at the Fort 
and Battery E was ordered to supplement their efforts. Giving 
its guns the requisite elevation, the Battery opened fire and soon 
its carefully calculated shots were dropping in and around the 
hostile work. Having received orders to that effect, Capt Ashby 
indicated to his enemy that he had come to stay, by going into 
camp. Here the Battery remained three days, having constant 
target practice at Fort Clifton, and once saving a Union gunboaq 
that was aground in the river by the rapid fire of its guns. 

The army meanwhile was making wild work on the line of thai 
railroad, tearing it up for miles and burning bridges while ai 
large force of reserve troops threw up intrenchments across thei 
throat or narrow part of the pennisula, from river to river,! 
along high ground, a distance of six miles. ! 

On the loth, Butler had to fight Beauregard, who came all thej 
way from Charleston to oppose him, but drove that»Gdneral toi 
Swift's Creek, within three miles of Petersburg. Then, turning] 
northward, he made for Richmond, ^working gradually up loj 
Proctor's Creek, within three miles of Drury's Bluff". ' I 

May 1 2th, Battery E joined in the movement. It left Cobb'sj 
Hill at daybreak and marched with Weitzel's division towardsj 
Richmond, but only got as far as the Petersburg and Richmondj 
turnpike. The roads were obstructed in the advance, so a returnj 
to camp for the night became necessary. i 

A mile beyond Proctor's Creek the army had encountered the I 
southernmost of the defenses of Richmond. A crooked line of. 
intrenchments stretched across the turnpike, extending a mile 
westward to the railroad, and beyond. Half a mile beyond there 



ADVANCING TOWARDS RICHMOND. 229 

was a second and stronger line, bristling with cannon, connected 
by rifle pits with the powerful fortification on Drury's Bluff, 
called Fort Darling, a mile to the eastward and rear. 

Next morning, the 13th, the army, deployed in line of battle, 
the i8th Corps on the right, the loth away off to the left among 
ravines and woods, prepared to attack the works. Battery E 
was ordered up, arriving about noon at a hill just beyond 
Proctor's Creek, on which, east of the road, stood an old tavern 
styled the Half-VVay House. It had been pretty well rum- 
maged by our men, and was now Butler's headquarters and 
subsequently Capt. Ashby's. The region was abundantly sup- 
plied with woodland, but just north of the hill there was an 
open space, cleared of trees, the stumps still standing. The 
rebel works, three-quarters of a mile in advance, were visible 
where they crossed the road. East of the road a dark grove in 
their front hid them. Weitzel's regiments were in line in the 
open ground engaged in a hot skirmish with a heavy force of 
Confederate infantry. 

Battery E halted on the hill, where it lay idle till 3 p. m., 
though burning to get into the fight, while a stream of wounded 
constantly poured by to the rear. Orders came at length. The 
Battery was to shell the rebel redoubt in the road. Lieut. 
Fuller planted his section in the turnpike, Lieut. Mowers his in 
the field at the side of the old tavern, the guns being placed just 
back of the brow of the hill, so that the recoil would carry them 
down where they could be reloaded without exposing the men. 
Then the volleying thunder of heavy guns rolled over the field 
and our shells flew screaming over both armies at the hostile 
work. The rebels returned the compliment with two 12-pound 
rifled guns, and shot pretty close, their shot and shell falling all 
around our guns, though luckily without damage. Their sharp- 
shooters plied the Battery hard with musketry also, but with 
equally poor success. One man only received a wound, that 
brave soldier, Sergt. Howe, and he was shot before we began " 
firing. A rifle ball entered his lungs. He was taken to the rear 
and never rejoined the Battery. The rebel guns fired but a 
short time. Battery E soon made it so dangerous for them that 
they ceased firing and were soon hauled off. Under cover of 
our cannonade, Weitzel's skirmishers advanced to the woods 
and cleared them of the enemv. 

The battle ceased at night fall. The army had gained ground 
and reposed that night on well earned laurels. 

Battery E bivouacked at the ILnlf-Way House, with the horses 
harnessed, the men sleeping on the ground around the guns. 



•,P), 



2^0 JD NEW-TORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

In^ accordance with a practice that lasted through the whole 
of this expedition, the troops rose next morning before sunrise 
and got under arms without drum or bugle, to foil any attempt 
at surprise. 

At day break, our pickets discovered tliat the enemy had 
evacuated their first line of works and fallen back to the second. 
Our army advanced and took possession. Battery E followed 
the movement. When near the woods on the right of the road, 
that have been spoken of, a halt was made to shell the second 
rebel line. Capt. Horace Fitch, Weitzel's aid, shortly after 
came down from the extreme front with word that the General 
wished to see Capt. Ashby. Ashby went forward. Weitzel had 
been up in a tree reconnoitering the second line with a field 
glass. He told the Captain to bring his guns up and place 
them near a little blacksmith shop, on the right hand side of the 
road, just back of the first line of rebel works. Limbering 
up, Ashby sent the guns forward on a run, Lieut. Fuller's 
section first, taking position in the road behind a breastwork of 
logs and earth. Belger's battery took position on his left and a 
third battery beyond Belger. 

Haifa mile in front, confronting us, were the Confederate in- 
trenchments, and ugly looking ones they were with their massive 
parapets and yawning embrasures. Just to the right of the road, 
on the line, rose up to view the strong point of their works, a 
massive bastion, or redoubt, mounting five guns, while over it 
waved three rebel battle tiags. The ground rose toward the fort 
so that it seemed to look down on us. An open space in front, 
filled with underbrush, felled trees and stumps, was the lair of 
thousands of sharpshooters. 

Immediately on coming into position, the rebel fort subjected 
Battery E to a heavy fire of shot, shell and bolts. These heavy 
missiles tore the ground in all directions, and filled the air with 
a continual roar. One shell struck the ground in the Battery 
and exploded. Sergt. Havens was wounded with a fragment, 
while Capt, Ashby and Simpson were knocked flat by the con- 
cussion. By another shell, Patrick Rickey's left leg was shot 
off and carried thirty feet, the same missile taking off a horse's 
foot, also. The firing was rapid and hot, and threatened every 
moment to destroy the Battery, but scientific gunnery proved 
not to be the rebels' forte, a fact that proved our salvation ; 
though doubtless the superior marksmanship of Battery E had 
something to do with the wildness of their firing, for we battered 
their works so well as to greatly interfere with the working of 
their guns, and finally to shut them up entirely. The large 



BEFORE DRURY S BLUFF. 25 1 

rebel flag was. shot away three times. During the duel, Lieut. 
Fuller acted with especial coolness and bravery. 

The enemy's sharpshooters also devoted much attention to 
Battery E, and expended an untold quantity of cold lead in an 
attempt to pick off the gunners. The sharp hiss of their bullets 
became familiar music before the day was out, but the veterans 
of the Battery worked on undismayed by them. Capt. Ashby 
puffed away as composedly at his big pipe amidst the hottest fire, 
as though there was not a gray-jacket within a hundred miles. 
Sergt. Ercanbrack's head was grazed by a rifle ball, but this was 
about the extent of the chivalry's achievements in that direction. 
Our sharpshooters had better luck. During the day they got so 
near the rebel lines as to be of material assistance in keeping 
the guns in it mute. The rebels could only load their guns 
then by pulling them away from the embrasures. Once they 
drew a gun back and put a mule in front of it, to conceal it 
while they loaded. Our skirmishers pierced the unlucky animal 
as full of holes as a skimmer. That experiment was not tried 
again. 

The tumult of battle subsided towards nightfall into scatter- 
ing, desultory firing, and ceased as the sun withdrew its beams 
from the field. On account of the hazard of leaving heavy guns 
in a position so exposed to assault. Battery E at night withdrew 
from the lines and bivouacked a safe distance in the rear. 

Next day, the 15th, the Battery went to the front early, to the 
old position, but lay idle all day, under a terrible fire of musket- 
ry. The men all lay flat on the ground. The firing was fearful 
and many narrow escapes occurred. During the day, a wounded 
rebel, a boy, in front of the lines, v/as brought in by several of 
the men, who, with Capt. Horace Fitch, went out and got him. 
The men cut his buttons off for curiosities. 

The army merely held its own that day. Butler not having 
men enought to assault, deferred it till next morning. 

At night the artillery again went to the rear. 

The infantry slept on its arms on the lines. Wistar's bri- 
gade of VVeitzel's Division held the woods on the right of the 
turnpike, being in the edge of the timber, behind a log and 
earth breastwork. VVeitzel's headquarters were in the woods. 
Hickman's brigade was on Wistar's right, and beyond, in open 
ground, a line of cavalry videttcs extended to the river, over a 
mile away. Brooks's Division lay in line of battle west of the 
turnpike, with Gilmore's Corps on its left. 

During the 15th, Beauregard, by a circuitous flank march, 
came up from Petersburg and reinforced the enemy in our front. 



232 ' $D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Weitzel expected an attack from him next morning, and made 
preparations to receive it. By his orders the telegraph on the 
turnpike was dismantled, and VVistar strung a quantity of the 
wire across the road and in Iront of his line, stretching' it from 
stump to stump, about eighteen inches from the ground. Hick- 
man did not do this. He says he never received the order. 

Battery E repaired to its breastwork near the blacksmith shop 
just before daylight. A dense fog shrouded everything in gloom, 
so that the drivers had to feel their way along carefully. The' 
guns being placed in position, while Belger, as usual, came up 
and went into battery on the left, the men kindled little camp 
fires and sat down to fortify themselves for a hard day's work 
with their morning ration of hot coftee, hard tack and meat. 
Wistar's rhen, on the right of the road, engaged in the same 
agreeable employment. 

Suddenly there was a terrible crash of artillery and musketry 
from the rebel lines. A huge shell tumbled on the ground un- 
derneath the limber of the gun of Belger's battery, nearest to 
Battery E, and bursting, hoisted the chest heavenward, shearing 
off the tails of the wheel horses attached to it, and wounding 
some of the men. The affrighted team of the limber swung 
around and dashed right amongst Capt. Ashby's teams, creating 
the utnriost confusion. One of our teams ran away down the 
road with its limbers, leaving our left piece without ammunition, 
while the other horses reared and kicked in consternation. 
Meanwhile, shells and bullets clove the air in a perfect hurri- 
cane, the whole rebel line having opened a hea\7 fire. 

At the first gun the cannoneers of Battery E scrambled to 
their pieces, regardless of overturned coffee pots and abandoned 
breakfast, and while the drivers restored order amongst the 
horses, they opened a rapid fire throuo:h the fog in the di"rection 
of the enemy. As Weitzel had anticipated, the rebels had re- 
sorted to a break of day attack, a favorite plan of theirs, to 
beat back our lines. Inspired by the presence of President 
Davis in person, they poured masses of infantry down upon our 
whole front, though attacking first and heaviest on our right 
flank, where Hickman was posted. They surprised Hickufan 
and routed him almost at once and then swung around, so as to 
get in our rear. 

Although the rattle of musketry beyond the woods betokened 
something of this sort to the mind of Capt. Ashby, Battery E 
kept steadily at work, firing as well as it could in the fog. Pres- 
ently the artillery fire on our position slackened and to the din 
of battle that raged along the line was added the unearthly 



BATTLE OF DRURY S BLUFF. 



233 



Confederate yell. An officer cried, "My God, they are charging 
on us." The guns, loaded with shell, were emptied once more 
in the direction of the sound, and then double shotted with can- 
nister. Ashby fell to the ground. The fog had lifted a little. 
He could see along the ground and caught sight of a heavy 
column of the enemy sweeping down the road in a mad charge 
to capture the guns. It came on like an avalanche. It reached 
the telegraph wire. It tripped over the unlooked-for obstruction 
and fell into disorder. Then shouted Ashby, " Fire," and round 
after round of hissing cannister hurtled into the ranks of the 
traitorous column, cutting it all to pieces and piling dead and 
wounded men on the ground in heaps. In less than two min- 
utes the rebels ran in a disordered drove to the rear, while our 
men swung their hats and cheered in wild enthusiasm. 

But the enemy had only retired to his old first line of works, 
a few rods away, from which, concealed in the thick fog, rendered' 
more impenetrable than ever by the smoke of our pieces, he now 
sent in heavy and murderous vollies, showing his great numbers. 

The attack on the right of the army was only too successful. 
Hickman's brigade, driven back in confusion, had fled across 
the country and towards the turnpike ; himself had been taken 
prisoner. The rebels had pressed forward nearly to the turn- 
pike and a little more needed only to be gained to put them in 
possession of the chief avenue of our escape. At this iuncture, 
the II 2th New York and 9th Maine made a successful stand 
against them, like the Boetian allies in Demosthenes, night attack 
on Syracuse, 413 B. C, while Weitzel and his staJT olTicers all 
tried to rally the 9th New Jersey and other routed Federals and 
check the retreat. One regular officer ran around with a laih in 
his hand and used it freely in recalling demoralized soldiers to 
a sense of their duty. 

The sound of heavy firing, in the rear of Rattery E and its 
companion artillery of the i8th Corps, inspired the rebels in its 
front to attempt a second charge, in the expectation of a sure 
capture of the guns. This time they were aided by a fearful 
cross fire from the right, which did no little damage to horses 
and men. Weitzel's entire division had drawn back, leaving the 
eneniy free to concentrate his fire upon the devoted batteries. 
Terrible vollies were poured in from front and right, and it was 
due to nothing in the world but its obscuration in the fog that 
saved Battery E from instant extermination. The whole vicinity 
of the blacksmith shop was a perfect hell. 

The second charge was delivered with even greater fury than 
the first. The Battery never quailed a moment. The gunners 



234 3D KEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

worked with all their might, never stopping to sponge the pieces, 
but firing as fast as they could throw in the ammunition. The 
demand for ammunition was very great. One limber would be 
emptied very quickly. Sergeant Miller would take limbers down 
the road to the rear as fast as emptied and bring them back full. 
This service exposed him to extreme danger, for the rebels raked 
the road with projectiles continually. He was faithful to the last 
moment and did splendid cool work. The Battery again re- 
pulsed the charge and sent the broken line flying for earthwork 
shelter. 

Beauregard meanwhile reinforced his left and ordered charges 
along the whole line. 

The artillery at this time was in a most critical situation. 
Without infantry support, every Union regiment having been 
driven avyay from its right, and no effective ones being visible on 
its left, in the next Confederate advance it was sure to be 
swooped up. Sergt. Miller was bringing up a fresh limber of am- 
munition for Battery E, when he heard some one sav that the 
Battery had been ordered to retire, but the orderly charged with 
a message to that effect to Capt. Ashby was afraid to take it up. 
Seeing Gen. Smith with his staff in a group in the field, on the 
left of the road, Miller rode up to him, learned that the Battery 
had been ordered to retire, and was commissioned by the Gen- 
eral to inform Ashby of the fact. He put spurs to his horse and 
galloped swiftly towards the front, but it was then too late. 

The third charge upon the artillery on the turnpike was made 
with determined fury. All sorts of ammunition was fired at the 
advancing column. xVothing sufficed this time to check it for a 
moment. The telegraph wire had evidently been removed and 
the rebels came right on. resistless and unswerving as an ocean 
breaker. Battery E had had no orders to retire and fought like 
heroes as long as there was a cartridge in the limbers. A solid 
shot only remained. Ashby cried, '' Fire that shot, bovs, and 
then get out of this ; we can't stand it any longer." As he said 
this a rebel ball struck him on the head, and he reeled and fell. 
The rebels were then right on the Battery. A hurried effort was 
made to draw off the guns. Sergt. Ercanbrack managed to lim- 
ber up the right piece and escape with it. But the rebels were 
springing ov«r the breastworks, and shooting down the horses, 
and the word was to save himself who could. A second gun 
was limbered up, but the horses were shot in their tracks, and 
the other guns were so mired by concussion in firing, being so 
heavy, that they coukl not have been stirred without the greatest 
difliculty, even had there been plenty of time. Ashby was helped 



RETREAT OF THE ARMY. 25$ 

upon the Umber of one of Belger's guns and carried off in safety, 
and then the men scattered and ran in the direction of Half-Wav 
House, down the road and across lots, whichever way seemed 
the most clear, carrying off the rammers and other implements 
of the guns. The enemy came into the Battery simultaneously 
on every side. The friendly fog alone prevented the capturing 
a large number. Lieut. Mowers very narrowly escaped capture, 
while private Loveland was actually collared by a stout rebel 
but got away by slipping out of his overcoat. 

The whole line fell back in disorder as far as the Half- Way 
House, where, through the superhuman efforts of the officers the 
two corps showed a new line of battle. Weitzel drew his sword 
while forming his regiments, a very unusual thing for him. Some 
of the commands that were badly cut up were sent to the Ber- 
muda intrenchments at once. Battery E being among the number. 
The whole army withdrew to the intrenchments at nightfall. 

In this sanguinary battle the Army of the James lost 4,000 
men, largely prisoners. The Confederates lost 3,000 killed and 
wounded. It was to them one of the bloodiest combats of the 
war. 

The superb conduct of Battery E in the battle was the theme 
of admiration of the whole i8th Corps. The unflinching fidelity, 
with which it maintained its ground till the last moment against 
the most powerful attacks, was, beyond question, the means of 
saving the army from a ruinous disaster. Had the rebels gained 
the turnpike, they could have cut the army to pieces. Gen. 
Smith said to Ashby, after the fight, " Your Battery fought splen- 
didly, Captain. It did everything that could be asked of it." 
la his official report to Col. Stewart, Capt. Ashby expresses 
"satisfaction at the steadiness and determination with which the 
men of my command stood to their guns until ordered to retire. 
My thanks are due to Lieuts. Mowers and Fuller, for the effi- 
cient manner in which they handled their sections." 

Several casualties occurred in the Battery, Frank Reed was 
shot dead. He was sitting on the trail of his gun, after repuls- 
ing a charge, when he was pierced through the head by a Minie 
ball. Jeff Portinga'e was wounded and taken prisoner ; after- 
wards e.vchanged. Nichols received a severe wound in the hip, 
and was left on the field, and subsequently died. Lieut. Fuller 
recerved wounds in the arm and leg. Ashby's wound, at first 
feared to be fatal, proved to be severe, but not dangerous. A 
few weeks in hospital in Fortress Munroe restored him to per- 
fect health. 

The otlier losses of the Battery were three guns, two limbers, 



) s 



236 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

and forty-four horses, the latter shot and left on the field. The 
Richmond newspapers pretended that the Confederates turned 
these guns on our own men after their capture. This is an utter 
absurdity. The guns were indeed not spiked, but by Lieut. 
Fuller's direction, the men trampled the fuses remaining at the 
time of the retreat into the mire. There was not a cartridge of 
ammunition left in the Battery, and the rammers were carried off 
in the retreat. 

On the subject of the responsibility for the loss of the guns, 
the following from a private letter of Gen. Weitzel to the authors 
will show at least where it does not rest. The General says : 
" Ashby's Battery was not to blame for the loss of its guns. It 
was suddenly left without any infantry support, when I in person 
was checking the enemy's assault on my right with the 9th Maine 
and 1 1 2th New York. Who ordered the infantry to fall back I 
do not know and never could ascertain. I remember, after I 
had accomplished what I had intended on my right, meeting 
Capt. Ashby on the turnpike. He was wounded. I immediately 
moved my infantry forward again, but it was too late to save 
Ashby's pieces. It was reported that some staff officer had or- 
dered the infantry to fall back so wrongfully." 

The rebels won those three guns at a tremendous sacrifice. 
Ashby fired during the action 419 rounds and one of the regiments 
that charged on him nearly sulTered annihilation. Several 
hundred met their death in the mad attempt. They were buried 
on the west side of the turnpike where they fell. A little en- 
closure to-day marks the spot. 

Batterj' E received guns to replace those lost, May 21st. They 
were navy Parrot guns, with holes for a cable, in the cascable, 
but army guns were finally obtained. 

Lieut. Mowers, Lieut. Rider and Sergt. Miller commanded the 
Batterytill Ashby and Fuller recovered from their wounds. 

Beauregard, following our army sharply down to Bermuda 
Hundreds, after the withdrawal from Half Way House, appeared 
before our intrenchments next day, and brought with him an ad- 
ditional division under Gen. Whiting. Whiting was at Peters- 
burg, the day of Drury's Bluff fight, and had been ordered to at- 
tack our rear, but the god of battles fought for Butler that day 
and Whiting was stupefied with drink and lagged on the road. 
It was a lucky escapi- for us. Fighting now ensued on our front 
for a fortnight. Ik-auregard was exasperated at the scare Butler 
had given all rebcldom by his bold advance,. and in a spirit of re- 
taliation tried vigorously to expel him from the peninsula. 
Nearly every day, his troops charged our lines ; but they were 



LOSSES AT DRURY's BLUFF. 237 

routed with slaughter every time they tried it, till it dawned upon 
them that Butler had come to stay, and they then intrenched 
strongly, from river to river, in a line parallel to that of the 
Army of the James, and about a mile distant. The Army of the 
James meanwhile, working day and night, perfected its defenses 
and in ten days had a line that could be held by a single corps, 
reaching from Cobb's Hill on the Appomattox to the James op- 
posite P'arrar's Island. 

Finding his field of operations circumscribed by the rebel 
works, Butler wrote rather ruefully to Grant that he was " bottled 
up " on the peninsula. His advance, however, had been of 
great service to the Army of the Potomac and its eftect was seen 
and appreciated. 

May 30th, the i8th Corps was sent to Grant to take part in 
the bloody battles at Cold Harbor on the Chickahominy. 

On the 31st, Battery E, having received its new guns, moved 
to the extreme right of the Bermuda lines and occupied a re- 
doubt on the bank of the James, to co-operate with our navy in 
an expected fight with the rebel rams and fire ships. The 
preparation we made to receive them kept them from coming, 
but the Battery remained on the bank of the river. 
^ Our men lay quiet now for several days, listening to the boom- 
ing of Grant's guns on the Chickahominy, where destructive 
combats were in progress. 

Let us now turn to the doings of Batteries K and M. 

Attached to the colored division of Gen. Hinks, Batterv- M 
had landed to garrison Fort Powhatan, the day of the ascent of 
the James, m company with a strong detachment of the divi- 
sion. A tew days later, the Battery went with an expedition to 
Spring Hill, an important and commanding eminence on the left 
bank of the Appomatto.x, opposite Port Walthal, and took part 
m an engagement, which resulted in the capture of the position. 

The 2ist found the Battery again at Fort Powhatan. On that 
day, the rebel cavalry from Petersburg swooped down upon the 
Fort, and the garrison was put to its mettle to drive thtm off. 
After a brief but earnest fight, the rebels retired with loss. 
Battery M received the warmest encomiums of the commandant 
of the post and enthusiastic cheers from the infantry. 

About this time one section of the Battery moved across tITe 
river to reinforce two negro regiments under Gen. Wilde, which 
were defendmg Wilson's Landing. On the 24th, Gen. Fitz 
Hugh Lee, of the Confederate forces, made a desperate attack 
with 2,000 cavalry on that post. Lee had unquestionablv been 
tempted to this enterprise by the prospect of cutting off the 



i9Jr •■; ; '';ii- ' ' -j- 



238 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLEKY. 

loyal blacks, and earning for himself the same bloody distinction 
as that acquired by Forrest at Fort Pillow, six weeks before. 
He summoned Wilde to surrender, intimating, at the same time, 
if the latter refused that he would not be responsible for the 
consequences. The force of that threat was perfectly under- 
stood. But Wilde bid the rebel bloodhound defiance. Lee in- 
stantly charged. The conduct of the negroes was superb. 
Reserving their fire until it could be delivered point blank, they 
then poured in a withering volley, emptying a hundred saddles 
at the first fire. The rebels pressed desperately on, and, though 
at first repulsed, returned again and again to the attack, and 
came near overpowering our defense. But the blacks fought 
them gallantly, and the artillery ploughed their ranks with shot 
and shell, and finally, after two hours fighting, they drew off their 
forces and beat a hasty retreat. They lost in this attack 300 
men. We lost but 40. The section of Battery M did excellent 
service throughout the fight, and its fire was most effective. 

A few weeks later. Battery M marched to the front before the 
city of Petersburg. Thereafter, till the 3d of April, 1865, when 
it entered the city of Richmond, it was constantly on the move 
or occupying with honor some prominent position exposed to 
the enemy's fire in the lines of siege of both Richmond and Pe- 
tersburg. 

Battery K came to the front May i6th, by boat from Newport 
News. 

Landing at City Point, a small collection of houses around 
some docks, where the railroad from Petersburg came down to the 
river, the Battery joined the colored division- of Hinks. In 
three or four days it moved to Spring Hill, where three regi- 
ments of Hink's colored infantry, a six gun negro battery and 
some cavalry had camped, and were throwing up a fort, facing 
southwards. The object of this fort was to hold the ground- 
it occupied for future movements of the army. The Hill stood 
opposite to Cobb's Hill and Point of Rocks, on the north bank, 
and it was the intention of Butler to connect it with the latter 
immediately by a pontoon bridge. The engineers built the 
bridge to Spring Hill very soon afterwards, the highway thus 
created crossing two small islands in the river on the way. 
• When the fort had been put in a state of defense, Capt. An- 
gel placed K's guns in it, and hauled up from the landing a 24 
and 32-pounder to arm it in addition. 

One morning the enemy came up in heavy force with a bat- 
tery of artillery from Petersburg, and attacked the fort. Plant- 
ing his guns a mile away, he indulged in the pastime of 



d [•;■.. 



BATTERY K AT SPRING HILL. 239 

bombarding it for a while, his shots bounding all over the fort. 
But Battery K opened fire and forced him to shift his position 
several times, and finally drove the guns off the field. The rebel 
infantry coming to the edge of a belt of timber, on the left of 
the turnpike that ran straight out southwards from the fort en 
route to Petersburg, simultaneously with the opening of the ar- 
tiller}', had a hot engagement with our infantry and cavalry-, which 
lasted nearly all day. Battery K shelled every detachment of 
the enemy that came in view, and did efficient service in beat- 
ing the enemy off. During the day the rebels extended their 
right to Broadway landing, a short distance below Spring Hill, 
and forced our men there to take up a pontoon bridge to save 
it ^ They also, planted a battery under the bank of the river on 
their left, and tried to riddle one of our gun boats, but the boat 
sent them back to higher ground with celerity, and they did not 
dare to face the music of her 50-pounders again. In the course 
of the action, Battery K entertained a welcome guest, in the 
person of the brave and beautiful wife of the captain of the gun 
boat Gazelle. She wanted to see the rebels, and came up to the 
fort to gratify that desire. Capt. Angel pointed out some of their 
cavalr>' to her, and had a gun loaded for her, and she fired a 
shot at them, scattering them in all directions. The presence of a 
lady in the smoke of battle was an unusual sight, and Battery 
K's boys were very enthusiastic over it ; the beauty and plucky 
bearing of the one who honored them by a visit on this occasion 
formed the theme of admiring comment. 

The enemy retired at night fall. During the day, Battery K 
fired 900 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

June loth, Butler resolved to capture Petersburg, in order to 
cut ofli"the great Lynchburg and Weldon railroads, which brought 
the rebel army in Virginia the bulk of its supplies, and he sent 
Gen. Gilmore to attack it on the north-east with 3.500 men, 
while 1,500 cavalry under the dashing Kautz should charge in 
from the south. Simultaneously, to distract attention, two gun- 
boats and Battery K were to bombard Fort Clifton defending 
the approaches up the river. The attack failed. Kautz did his 
share of the work well, driving straight into the city, but Gilmore 
strangely halted two miles from the prize, and then fell back, 
when Kautz was obliged to do the same. 

But now. Grant, after bloody battles at Cold Harbor, resolved 
to transfer the whole scene oi conflict to Petersburg and bring 
over the James his whole Army of the Potomac. He returned 
the i8th Corps to Butler and ordered an immediate renewal of 
the attack on the Cockade City in force. 



240 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

June 14th, Battery K at Spring Hill received orders to take 
four guns and march at daylight with three regiments of Hinks's 
division. Sergt. Gibbs was left in the fort in command of two 
guns. Leaving Spring Hill, Capt. Angel, with the other four, 
marched that night to the road from Broadway landing, and lay 
in the road till daylight, the horses standins: to the guns, the 
men sleeping on the ground and in the corners of the fences. 

About 3 A. M., troops began to cross the pontoon bridge. 
They belonged to the i8th Corps, which had been directed by 
Butler to go up and take the city. The crossing was made 
noiselessly on the hay carpeting of the pontoons. Martindale's 
division led the advance. After it had passed, Hinks's division 
fell into column. Battery K accompanying, and took up the 
march. Brook's division came after. A few miles out, at 
Friend's fields, we met a small force of the enemy intrenched. 
K rapidly shelled the opposing works, firing 62 rounds, and 
Hinks charged. The enemy fied. In the works, we found an 
abandoned 12-pounder, which the negroes fairly fondled and 
kissed in their delight. Pressing on, delayed on some roads by 
trees felled since Gilmore's advance on the loth, passino- the 
City Point railroad, at mid day the corps faced the outer* line 
of the defenses of Petersburg, a chain of formidable redoubts, 
connected by rifle pits, two miles and a half from the city, ex- 
tending from the river in a curving line southward several miles 
in length. It was built along a crest on the eastern side of 
Harrison's creek. 

The corps formed line of battle— Martindale on the right, 
Hinks in the center, Brooks on the left. 

Battery K halted on Rufnn's farm, in the door-vard of the 
comely house, while this disposition was being made. The in- 
fantry lay in the turnpike. Time passed away and the day 
began to. decline. Kautz had been sent with his cavalry to 
charge on the extreme left and Smith waited, from hour to hour, 
hoping every momtjiit for some indication that he had attacked! 
At length, Bat;cry K received orders to open the ball. Back of 
the farm house there was a belt of woodland a few rods throu^^h, 
which hid from our view the rebel works. Leaving behind t"he 
caissons, the Battery marched through the woods to a wheat 
field beyond and came out opposite a strong redoubt, built on 
high ground just south of the railroad track, denominated Bat- 
tery No. 5. Capt. Angel was directed to train his pieces south- 
ward, without regard to the work in his front, and shell two 
Other redoubts on the line almost a mile away, known as Bat- 
teries No. 1 1 and No. 12. The General commanding sou<^ht by 



SMITH S ATTACK ON PETERSBURG. 24! 

this means to draw the enemy's fire from troops in front of those 
redoubts and ultimately to silence them. K opened fire — the 
guns in echelon. The first shot brought down upon it the atten- 
tions of a dozen guns. In two minutes there was firing along 
the whole line, and a perfect torrent of iron swept over the erst 
peaceful wheat field, tearing up the soil, bounding into, over 
and around the Battery, under the horses, and amongst the 
limbers and guns, threatening every moment to destroy the gal- 
lant little band that had provoked the outburst. It was one of 
the hottest places it ever was in. The rebels had altogether too 
good a range upon us. When he had emptied his limbers, 
Capt. Angel ordered " Limber to the rear," and retired from the 
field. Getting a fresh supply of ammunition, he again marched 
to the wheat field, and, in a little different position, re-opened 
fire. A colored battery sent two guns to aid in these operations, 
and they did good service. After a short time, K returned to 
the farm house and stayed there till sunset. 

Smith, as evening advanced, grew desperate. Nothing yet 
was heard of Kautz, but the far less welcome sound of railroad 
trains rushing into Petersburg, did come to his ears, freighted 
with ill omen. He ordered a general advance along the whole 
front of the corps. To support it, Battery K went down to 
within 150 yards of Batteries Nos. 9, 10, 11 and 12. Gen. 
Smith came along on horseback, with one pantaloon leg in 
his boot, and wearing a straw hat, and showed Capt. Angel 
where to go. Evening had come on, and the works in front were 
then engaged in firing on their own Battery, No. 5, which Mar- 
tindale's men had just carried at the point of the bayonet. Our 
guns were planted in position without being discovered, and 
sighted through the gloom by the aid of the flash of the rebel 
guns. Presently, a deep murmur in the rear betokened the ad- 
vance of Brooks's infantry from the woods. Capt. Angel opened 
with every gun at once, and kept up a perfect rattle on the works. 
We drove every rebel from the parapets instantly, and silenced 
their fire on Battery No. 5. For five minutes they seemed para- 
lyzed. Then, two guns flashed angrily at us \ but their shells 
soared screaming overhead, and neither affected us nor the in- 
fantry, which now swept on rapidly to the works. A cheer broke 
out as the line drew near the redoubts, upon which Battery K 
ceased firing, and the next moment our regiments charged tu- 
multuously in amongst the rebels and drove them out in the 
greatest confusion. The whole line was ours, and the cheering 
was tremendous. We had captured 300 prisoners and r6 valu- 
able guns. 



242 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Battery K limbered up and went out to the turnpike, and ad- 
vanced to Battery No. 9, a large redoubt, open in the rear, on 
the left hand side of the pike, where it rested for a short time to 
indulge in the general congratulations. 

While there, a four mule team attached to a rebel wagon full 
of ammunition dashed upon the scene. Capt. Angel asked the 
darkey driver who that was for. " You'se fellows, massa." 
" Who sent you up >" " Those fellows, massa, " he said ; " they 
tola me to hurry right up." Upon realizing the situation, the 
amazed contraband grinned and danced about in a transport of 
delight. ^ Next day he drove a team for Uncle Sam. I 

Late in the evening. Battery K was ordered back to Ruffin's j 
barn to bivouac for the night. Having fed the horses, it started. j 
On the way it met a reinforcement of troops coming down from i 
City Point. It passed regiment after regiment, until, finallv, the j 
men somewhat astonished at the interminable length of the' pro- j 
cession, asked what troops those were. The reply came, " Han- \ 
cock's, the 2d Corps." That was the first our men knew of the j 
movement of the Army of the Potomac. The Batterj' reached J 
Ruffin's farm, and encamped. Just then a fresh column came j 
along, passing right through our park. It was the 9th Corps, 
under Burnside. All night long, infantry and cavalrj- and bat j 
teries of artillery and trains of wagons passed by the bivouac, j 
and our men all knew that a new and great campaign had been j 
inaugurated, and they were on the threshhold of great and his- j 
toric events. I 

Gen, Smith should have pushed on to Petersburg that night. I 
He could have gone into the city almost unresisted. Wise's i 
brigade only held the town. His failure to make that advance ' 
made the taking of Petersburg to depend not on a battle, but a 
siege. It was a lamentable mistake. 



THE I 8th corps reinforced, 243 



XIV. 



SIEGE OF PETERSBURG AND RICHMOND. 

The 1 8th Corpi Reinforced by the Army of the Potomac— E and K. Shelling the 
River Batteries— The Walthal House — The Siege Begins — E Throws Shell 
into Petersburg — Continued Shelling — E and K Fire in Concert — K Moves 
at Night to the Page House — Arrival of Battery H — E sends a Section to the 
Hare House— The Daily Battles — The Mine — K. Fires the City — M on the 
Lines — The Batteries Sent Back to Rest — lAgain at the Front — The Works — 
The Countermine — Various Bombardments — Capture of Fort Harrison — 
Rebels Attempt to Retake It — K. Saves the Fort — On the Richmond Lines — 
E's Fight with the Iron Clads — Events of the Winter — The End Near at 
Hand — Evacuation of Richmond — K.'s Race— Occupation of Richmond. 



There are in every war decisive campaigns, campaigns which 
if lost would turn the scale irremediably, and perhaps alter the 
course of empire. In history many such campaigns have oc- 
curred. Those culminating in the battles of Marathon, Water- 
loo, Saratoga, and Sedan, are among the number. The decisive 
campaign of the war for the preservation of the American Union 
was now about to occur. Napoleon, in one of his campaigns, is 
reported to have said to his staff, pointing to St. Jean d'Acre, 
that the capture of that town would decide the destiny of the 
world. The progress of events gave to the city of Petersburg 
in 1864, a similar importance in deciding the destiny of the 
United States. 

June i6th, 1864, the day after the advance of the i8th Corps 
upon Petersburg, recorded in the last chapter, that corps was 



244 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

joined by the larger part of the Army of the Potomac. Line of 
battle was formed during the day, the right of the i8th Corps 
resting on the Appomattox, Hancock's Corps next on the left, 
then Burnside's and Warren's and Kautz's cavalry. Meanwhile 
nearly the whole of the rebel Army of Virginia had come up 
and confronted us, posted behind a line of intrenchments in 
rear of the one, from which Smith had expelled a strong rebel 
force the day before. At 6 p. m., our army assaulted and carried 
part of the works. 

«" Batteries E and K, 3d Artillery, participated in the fight. E, 

then in the loth Corps, as masked battery on the bank of the 

^' James, marched at 8 a m. of the i6th. After traveling eighteen 

y miles, it reported to Gen. Brooks, before Petersburg, and went 

f into position on a hill, where the 18th Corps had pitched its 

headquarters. Towards evening it opened fire on a rebel work 

* across the Appomattox. The enemy threw one single 20-pound 

Shot in reply, when we knock^ over his gun, and he had 
nothing more to say. The section of Battery K, under Sergt. 
Gibbs, at Spring Hill, advanced a mile and a half up the river 
to a point on the bluff nearly opposite Fort Clifton, and engaged 
that work furiously for two hours, firing 180 rounds. Trr ops 
were moving down past Spring Hill, along the river road, wiiich 
ran just in rear of the brow of the bluft^ on v/hich the section 
was posted, and Fort Clifton shelled them. But Sergt. Gibb's 
guns at once dismounted one of the enemy's and silenced the 
rest. They were praised therefor, in General Orders. 

■'' The four guns of Battery K, under Capt. Angel, left Rufiin's 

farm at daylight, with Hinks's division, and came to the blurt 
on the Appomattox at the Walthal house. The reader will refer 
to a map of Virginia. The' channel of the Appomattox, from 
Port Walthal, runs due south nearly three miles ; then west a 
mile to Fort Clifton ; thence directly south again to Petersburg. 
From Spring Hill, opposite Port Walthal, a bluff extends along 
the bank of the river to the point where it bends west. The 
bluff thence continues directly on south, but the river leaving it, 

" , ■ there is, between it and the river, a broad low flat, a mile wide, 
both bluff and flat extending to where the river channel a!::ain 
turns west to go to Petersburg. About three miles from 
the city, there is a ravine or de{;ression in the bluff, through 
which the railroad from City Point comes down. Half a mile 
north of this ravine is the celebrated Walthal house, a fine resi- 
dence built near the brow of the bluff, on a pleasant but then 
deserted plantation. The turnpike from Spring Hill is east of 
it a quarter of a mile. Regiments, brigades and army corps 



ON THE WALTHAL FARM. 245 

continually passed up and down this road, and it became essen- 
tial as the very initial of operations against Petersburg to range 
batteries along the bluff to keep the batteries the rebels erected 
across the river quiet, so as not to harass our passing columns. 
Battery K reached VValthal farm at 9 a. m. It immediately 
began to throw up a breastwork, which by sunset would resist 
the impact of heavy balls. Along in the afternoon the Battery 
flung a few shot into a rebel work on a verdant eminence, called 
Archer's Hill, across the river, distant a mile and a half, firing 
over the heads of our infantry pickets down on the tiat. 

On the 17th, Battery E changed position to a fortification 
captured from the enemy, and during that and the i8th, both E 
and K shot hard at the transtluvial forts, keeping them com- 
paratively silent. 

With desperate fighting and great mutual slaughter, the Fed- 
eral army drove the Confederates steadily back both days, and by 
nightfall of the i8th the latter had retreated to their last line of 
intrenchments covering Petersburg on the east. It was a pow- 
erful line and from it our army failed to dislodge them. Grant 
then ordered the army to intrench and the siege of Petersburg 
began. 

June 19th, the i8th Corps withdrew temporarily from the lines 
and marched to Bermuda Hundreds. It had lost heavily in the 
battles of the last four days and took advantage of a lull in the 
fighting to reorganize. Batter}^ E, on the iSth, and K, (the 
whole Batten,',) on the 19th, also withdrew and joined the corps 
on the peninsula. 

On the 2ist, the corps again took its place on the right of the 
Petersburg lines, its presence being required to enable Grant to 
extend his left wing to the Jerusalem plank road. The two bat- 
teries attended the movement. E crossed the river at Point of 
Rocks pontoon bridge, (the regular crossing place,) at sunrise. 
By command of Gen. Stannard, the Battery went to the Wal- 
Ihal plantation, and at 2 P. M. turned the fire of its long Parrots 
on the rebel work on Archer's Hill, which was shelling our lines 
in front of Petersburg. 

That work, popularly kno\vn as the Chesterfield Battery, stood 
nearly at right angles to the river, facing southward. Its posi- 
tion enabled it to enfilade our lines of siege adjoining the Ap- 
pomattox terribly, they being only a mile and a half away, and 
it was a matter of vital importance to the security of the troops 
holding them to keep the fire of that battery down to the ex- 
treme minimum. Batteries E and K were chosen a large part 
of the time to do this work, and they did it well. They were 



246 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

not expected to batter down the target of their attentions, but 
silence its guns ; and though they did at times considerably dam- 
age its beauty with the quantities of iron they cast at it, they 
effected their design more by rapid shelling and quick dis- 
charges of solid shot, dismounting thereby the rebel guns and 
driving the artillerists out of the work. Their position on the 
Walthal farm enabled them to rake the rebel battery, which 
was a great help. 

But as we were saying, at 2 p. m., Battery E opened fire. 
Sergt. Miller's section engaged the Chesterfield Battery for two 
hours. Gen. Smith, who was present, wanted to see if we 
could fire a shell into the city from this point. So Sergt. Good- 
rich's section scooped away the earth so as to let down the trails 
of the guns to get the right elevation ; then, 24-pound shells sped 
through the air on a three mile flight toward the plainly visi- 
ble spires of the town. Four shells were sent in, dropping in 
the lower part of the town, being among the first thrown into 
Petersburg ; a few by another battery the day before were their 
only predecessors. Gen. Smith stood watching the firing, to see 
what Battery E could do. The gunners did their best and landed 
their missiles just where they were wanted. The General was 
highly pleased, and when the rebels across the river, who 
opened with lo-pounders had been shut up, he ordered the Bat- 
tery to intrench. A detail of negroes performed this work 
for it. 

Battery K, on reaching the Walthal farm on the 21st, took 
position on the left of and some little distance from Battery E, 
being near the ravine that has been spoken of. It was not en- 
gaged that day. 

On the 2 2d, however, it opened on the Chesterfield Battery. 
Four guns replied. Their shells nearly all went over, dropping 
and bounding into the turnpike traveled by the supply trains, 
creating consternation amongst the teamsters. Battery K's 
splendid three-inch Rodmans did no such loose shooting, and its 
lo-pound missiles tlew straight into the enemy's midst, where, 
supplemented by some 24-pcund arguments from Battery E, 
they raised a cloud of dust that fairly hid the hostile guns from 
view and soon silenced them. Our pickets by the river said 
that the rebels ran out of their v/ork in a panic. K fired 227 
rounds during the day. 

On the 2.^d, E fired slowly at the town all day ; also at Arch- 
er's Hill. K received some balls from the latter at breakfast 
time, which knocked the dirt over the men and spilled some 
coffee. Nearly a regiment had been strengthening the rebel 



tnt'u . ':.:!-i;i.. 



E AND K ON THE WALTHAL FARM. 247 

work that night, and they now felt disposed to be aggressive. 
Three hundred and thirty-two rounds from Battery K severely 
punished them for their temerity, badly disfigured their fortifica- 
tion, and made up for the spilled coffee. 

Grant's first attempt to extend his left flank, so as to take pos- 
session of the Weldon railroad, was repulsed on the 23d by 
Gen. Hill. This so elated the rebels that they were on the 24th 
exceedingly demonstrative along the whole line, particularly on 
the ri^ht. They even charged on the loth Corps, but were 
soundly whipped for their pains. Batteries E and K came in for 
a share of their civilities, and received a hot fire from the Ches- 
terfield battery, and a new work north of it, thrown up to protect 
the Chesterfield and call off our fire from it. The bombard- 
ment was furious, and Wm. Foley was killed in E, with a shell ; 
while in K, Blanchard and Barry were wounded. The rebels 
had five lo-pounders and two heavy pieces. The 3d Artillery 
did not take this infliction meekly, by any means, but now 
showed the Confederates some really scientific shooting. E 
opened the ball, its four guns firing one after the other in regular 
succession. When the fourth shot of the second round was 
fired, K, down by the ravine, took up the rhythm, and its six 
guns, with beautiful precision, fired twelve shots, one after the 
other, at the same regular intervals. Then E resumed and fired 
by sections. K again took up the cadence and sent in its fire 
by sections. Then a moment's pause, while both Batteries 
shotted every gun. Then, with a crash that shook the ground, E 
delivered a full broadside, instantly followed by a broadside 
from K. It was one of the prettiest things done on our whole 
intrenched front, and the two Batteries, having a perfect under- 
standing about it, and their wonderful proficiency enabling them 
to act like clock work, repeated the performance day after day, 
till it became the theme of the army. Generals, Congressmen, 
officers of the corps which were encamped around the planta- 
tion, and noted visitors came up every day to witness it. The 
effect was indescribably thrilling. The guns of both Batteries 
being carefully pointed, not one of these shots was ever thrown 
away, and the joint effort seldom failed to silence the rebel 
works in fifteen minutes. On this occasion the duel lasted 
longer than that, but resulted the same, the rebels hauling ort 
their guns with their prolonges. E fired 500 rounds ; K, 232, on 
that day. 

On the 25th, Battery M joined the range of Union guns op- 
posing the Chesterfield, and did good service in all the battles 
at that part of the lines up to the middle of August. It re- 
ceived the highest praises for its efficiency. 



248 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

All three Batteries engaged the enemy every day. K fired a 
great deal at a suburb of Petersburg, on the northern bank, 
called I'ocohontas, filling some large warehouses there full of 
holes. On the 27th, the Chief of Artillery said that E dis- 
mounted seven rebel guns. Privates Remington and Na^rle 
were wounded in E that day by the premature explosion of a 
piece. ^ 

At 8 p. M. of the 27th, K moved to a work on a high bank of 
the river overhanging the water, just north of the mouth of 
Harrison s creek. It bore the title of Battery 5, was within a 
mile and a quarter of Petersburg, and was supported bv the 
center of the 18th Corps. The rebels had a heaw force of 
sharpshooters across the river in the fields, in gopher holes and 
rifle pits. Capt. Regan's 7th New York Batter)' had been si- 
lenced by their fire. So Capt. Angel was ordered in at night 
to relieve him, his orders being to watch the railroad brid<Te at 
Petersburg, and shell any trains. The horses were placed for 
safety in the deep gully of Harrison's creek. This was the hot- 
test place the Battery had yet seen. Rebel sharpshooters 
patched It close. A hat held over the parapet would be imme- 
diately pierced with a ball, and an embrasure could not be 
opened without a score of bullets flying in almost on the instant 
Luckily no trains attempted to pass the railroad bridge, so Bat- 
tery K had httle to do here. 

»u'^ll?''fj"°'^ ^r^"^'^ ^°' ^"""^ ""'^^^s after, our failure to capture 
the Weldon railroad, a comparative lull in the general operations 
of our army. The time was improved to strengthen the in- 
trenchments and build a military railroad along our rear and 
running to City Point to transport troops and supplies 

June 29th, Battery K at night relieved some 30-pound and 72- 
pound artillery at the Page house redoubt, a work directly south 
of the position on the bank of the river, and about half a mile 
from It. Emergmg from Battery 5 at midnight, it entered the 
ravine of Harrison s creek, along one side of which ran a rou?h 
road. As it marched up the creek, the unavoidable chucking of 
the wheels was overheard by the rebels across the Appomattox, 
who fired into the ravine with some guns that happened to be 
in the right situation therefor. The enemv's shots just swept 
the opposite bank of the narrow pass. We could see the me- 
teor-hke tram of sparks of the burning fuse, as the shells Hew bv 
yet, though more than twenty were fired, not one came on our 
side of the ravine, or did any damage. The Battery got in at 
daylight. As the work had three embrasures on I v. three of the 
guns were temporarily useless, and had ^o be parked with the 



K AT THE PAGE HOUSE. 249 

caissons in the ravine, some distance in rear of the work. The 
other three were run in by hand. The Page house redoubt was | 

a mere nothing at this time to what it was when Battery K left j 

it. It was an important position, for it constituted one of the 1 

few places that commanded the city, and it was necessary to have 1 

heavy works, on account of the close proximity to the enemy's | 

lines and his heavy guns. Upon taking possession, Battery K | 

went to work nights. Toiling diligently, it strengthened and \ 

enlarged the redoubt, cut three new embrasures, built a strong i 

magazine, cut trenches and covered ways, and erected traverses j 

and tomb proofs, the latter being necessary for protection \ 

against those furious and disagreeable visitors, the rebel mortar I 

shells. In two weeks, Capt. Angel was able to bring up his i 

other three guns. 1 

June 30th, general firing took place along the lines. K fired | 

300 shots — some into the city, some at moving bodies, some at | 

rebel works. James Bessy had his right arm shot otf by the pre- | 

mature discharge of a piece. 

Artillery battles took place every day. The summer was so | 

dry and the roads so dusty, that the movement of a regiment of 
troops or a train of wagons or artillery, in either of the oppos- 
ing armies in the day time, was accurately revealed by dense 
clouds of dust. Johnnies and Yankees both fired at these 
clouds of dust whenever they made their appearance, provoking 
a return fire to silence them. July 2d, one of the most furious 
and exciting of these artillery battles yet took place at 3:30 p. M. 
The rebels opened with their heaviest guns. We had by this time 
100 guns in position in our intrenchments. The rain of shells 
uhich they now poured upon the rebel works was something 
wonderful in warfare. The enemy could not stand it, and after 
two hours' firing became silent. During the battle, Lieut. 
Mowers and Sergt. Goodrich, of Battery E, had a narrow 
escape. A shell passed through a tent in which the latter was 
writing and the former making his toilet. 

The Union artillery at Petersburg was reinforced on the 3d 
of July by the welcome arrival of four guns of Battery H, 3d 
Artillery, Capt. Riggs. They had landed at Bermuda Hundreds 
on the ist, leaving the other two guns at Wilson's landing. 
After two days in Butler's reserve artillery camp, they now 
reported to Gen. Smith and went into the trenches. Birch- 
meyer's section took position in the bastion next to its com- 
rades of Battery K, on the right of the City Point Railroad, and 
with solid shot cut down some trees masking a rebel battery. 
Fay's gallant section was put into the front line, just inside the 



ir 



250 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

old Petersburg race course, only forty rods from the enemy. On 
the 6th, Fay performed the handsome feat of blowing up a rebel 
magazine with a spherical case shot at 650 yards. Deserters 
said that twenty-five men were killed by the explosion. 

Next day the rebels made a rush for that part of our lines 
defended by H and K. Our lookouts saw flags move behind 
their works. The first thing we knew several regiments jumped 
out, fired a heavy volley, driving the staves of three battle 
flags into the parapet, they then fell back out of sight, but we 
soon had two brigades firing at us hot and hard. In a moment 
the rebels again jumped out and advanced. Batteries H and 
K met them with shot, shell and cannister, and tore their line 
to pieces, while our infantry manning the rifle pits two deep 
plied it with vollies of musketry. In five minutes the charge 
was repulsed and the enemy flying for his rifle pits. A second 
and third attempt met with a similar fate. K's ammunition be- 
ginning to fail in the course of the action the men brought a 
supply from the rear under a galling fire, the ground being 
highest back of the redoubt, thus exposing them to the sharp- 
shooters. Ordinarily the danger of going out and in to the re- 
doubt in the day time was so great that it was seldom under- 
taken. 

On the 8th, the right section of Battery E, Sergt. Goodrich's, 
was ordered to report to Turner's Division of the loth Corps, 
on the left of the i8th. Col. Burton, Chief of Artillery, on the 
section reporting, placed it in one of the most dangerous and 
celebrated positions on the whole Federal line of circumvalla- 
tion. The Prince George turnpike entering Petersburg from the 
east, (guarding which was the old rebel Battery 9 which the iSth 
Corps, supported by Battery K, stormed on June i6th.) when near 
the city, at a point a mile from the river, turns north at a right 
angle and runs up, just in rear of our intrenchments, to an in- 
tersection with the river road. West of this right angle, on the 
lines, was a battery, called probably from its proximity to the 
Hare House, the Hare Battery, though officially known as Fort 
• Stedman. It stood on rising ground, and groves of oaks around 
made it a beautiful spot. Within 400 yards of the rebel lines, 
and a commanding position, it was a prize for the possession of 
which more lives are believed to have been lost than at any other 
point on our lines. We captured it originally from the rebels. 
They continually charged on it in return. Before the siege 
ended they recaptured it, and it was again retaken by us. 
Goodrich's section, approaching this position on the 8th, unlim- 
bered the guns in the rear and ran them in by hand, sending 



K SHELLING THE CITY. 251 

the horses back to the rest of the Battery. The section became 
hotly engaged on the 9th. The enemy opened with heavy 
volleys of musketry, the first shot we fired. His artillery 
also opened, and our breastworks being light and insufficient, 
were nearly knocked down. Three days were now consumed 
in putting the work in defensive condition, and in rigging 
up mantelets, or bullet-proof mats of rope, to protect the 
men. The enemy meanwhile poured in an unremitting fire 
of small shot and cannon shot. Sometimes not a shot could be 
given in return. The men had to lay down and take it without 
reply. But this could not be long endured, for the rebel miss- 
iles raked the road in our rear, and did no small damage to our 
troops. On the 13th, Goodrich was opened on with fury, and 
returned the compliment so energetically that he shut up the 
rebel guns in twenty-nine rounds. Our infantry all around 
cheered at the result, and Gen. Curtis came in to the redoubt, 
hat off, and sabre in hand, to express his pleasure. In this fight 
Goodrich again displayed the qualities of a sterling soldier, ex- 
posing himself freely to watch the execution of our shot. While 
looking over the parapet once, his chin upon it, a ball buried 
itself in the earth just a few inches in front, filling his eyes with 
dirt The section engaged the enemy daily until the 22d, when 
it was relieved by the other section. It returned to the Walthal 
farm. On the 29th, it again changed places with the left sec- 
tion, the latter returning to Walthal. 

July 20th, liattery K got its other three guns into position at 
the Page house. It was engaged every day. Sometimes it si- 
lenced the enemy's batteries, to deter them from shelling our 
troops. It battered the railroad bridge over the Appomattox, 
when there was nothing else to do, and severely injured it. 
Five ditferent times it fired the city of Petersburg and shelled 
the part that was burning to prevent the flames being extin- 
guished. A large part of the firing was on the city. Conspicu- 
ous buildings and spires were made targets of and completely 
riddled. Capt. Angel visited Petersburg after the capture, and 
saw the effects of his shot everywhere. An old woman, living 
in a brick house that he had often fired at, without knowing who 
he was, told him the experiences she had had when "that ter- 
rible battery on the hill," pointing out the exact site of Battery 
K, opened fire. She had saved two case shot that had dropped 
on her house without exploding, and Angel recognized them at 
once as his ammunition. The old woman had a bomb proof in 
her garden, of timbers and earth, that she and her household 
fled to during the shelling. 



252 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

K continued to pay its compliments to the city in the only 
legal tender known \o it, case shot, fuse shell and percussion 
shell, until relieved. 

On the 27th, Lieut. Scotfs section of H came up from Wil- 
son's landing. One gun reinforced each of the other sections. 

On the gray dawn of the 30th of July, occurred a terrible 
tragedy of the siege, the Mine. Batteries E, H, K and M all 
had notice of the impending event, the afternoon before. A 
mile and a half from the Appomattox stood, on our lines, the 
strong Fort Morton, and immediately in front of it the working 
parties of the 9th Corps, Burnside's, had pushed their trenches 
up to within 150 yards of the rebel fortifications. Under a 
massive earthwork, which was the principal- stronghold on this 
part of the rebel line, there had been run a mine, and the work 
was to be blown into the air at daylight. The Batteries were 
notified that the explosion was to be the signal for a general ar- 
tillery engagement. At 3 a, m. every gun was shotted and the 
gunners waiting. The infantry was under arms. At a quarter 
to five, the mine was sprung. Our officers felt the earth shud- 
der under their feet, and, looking toward the south, they saw the 
terrible spectacle. A huge, dense, dark column of earth spouted 
into the air, bearing with it the guns and garrison of the fort. It 
rose slowly up, black and awful, and then unfolding, spread out 
like the smoke of a volcanic eruption. The sullen roar of the 
detonation came a moment later. Then there leaped out on the 
instant the peal of 120 guns from the Federal lines, and our 
bursting shells tore the crest of the rebel works along the whole 
front, and tossed up clouds of dust, that almost hid them from 
view. The battle was soon over as far as the infantry was con- 
cerned, Ledlie's division charging the crater, but not getting 
through, and being repulsed with the loss of 4,400 men. But 
an artillery battle raged nearly all day. The 3d New York Bat- 
teries opened on the enemy across the river, the guns of E at 
the Hare house only excepted. They were hotly answered, but 
succeeded in reducing their opponents to silence, when they 
turned some of their guns on the city. Battery K fired the city 
in three places. We could hear the'bells ringing to summon the 
firemen to the rescue, but K shelled the scene of conflagration 
vigorously, and it may well be imagined that little was done to 
stay the progress of the flames, * Nearly a whole square burnt 
down in that fire. K fired 1,000 rounds', and M, H and E each 
several hundred during the day. In the afternoon the rebels 
charged on the position occupied bv the section of E at the 
Hare house. They were repulsed by the infantry. 



THE MINE. 



253 



The mine having failed to enable us to capture Cemetery Hill, 
as was desired, and the artillery being exhausted by the' labo- 
rious services of the month, such batteries as could be spared 
were sent to the rear on the 31st, to enjoy a few days rest. 
Batteries E, H and K of the 3d New York were among the 
number. E, being first consolidated, went to Spring HilL It 
was first ordered to City Point, for the purpose of going to Wash- 
ington to aid in the operations against Early, the raider, who 
had burnt Chambersburg, and was raising Ned generally on the 
upper Potomac. But the order was rescinded. H encamped a 
mile in rear of the lines. It had been under fire twentv-six 
days, and had the following casualties : Corp. Tryon, wounded, 
on the i8th; Throop and Perkins, same, 30th ; Craver, same, 
mortally, 30th. K camped in rear of the lines. 

Battery M, with its gallant personnel, remained at the front. 
' The affair of the mine was a national disaster. In a country 
like ours, where the prosecution of national enterprises, such as 
that of a war, depends on public opinion, anything which tends 
to shock or dismay the country or encourage the opposition 
party, is a disaster to the cause. Our bloody repulse at the 
mine deserves, therefore, to be designated by that title, for it 
dejected the country and so strengthened the peace party of the 
North as to throw many obstacles in the way of a vigorous 
prosecution of the war. There was one at the head of the armv, 
however, whom it never swerved for a moment. Brave, hopeful, 
and determined, he left Government and the loyal men of the 
North to take care of those opening "fire in the' rear," and ap- 
plied himself afresh to the subjugation of the traitors in arms. 

A few days rest only was allowed to those sent to the rear 
to recuperate after the mine. The three New York Artillery 
Batteries received orders to resume places in the trenches 
agam, and came back; and all through August and September 
remained where the battle raged fiercest, being under fire with 
scarce a day's intermission. 

Battery E left Spring Hill for the front, August 2d. March- 
ing down the river road, the right section turned off on reaching 
the Rushmore house, half a mile north of the old place at the 
Walthal house, where, on the edge of the bluff, overlooking the 
fleet, a redoubt had been built, enfilading Fort Clifton. 

The left section marched on, and, at 9 p, m., entered the 
trenches near the Hare house, on the left of the iSth Corps, 
400 yards from the enemy's lines. The section went into the 
uncouth, rough looking, but massive breastwork, with tiiick, 
high walls, and so strong that no shot could hope to reach its 



DOfl 



254 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

defenders in the rear, except by horizontal fire through an em- 
brasure, or by being dropped in from above by a mortar, and 
that rarely if ever happened. Like all our works before Peters- 
burg, the embrasures were reveted with gabions, and the em- 
bankment partially so with plank, while the openings of the 
embrasures were closed against the shot of the sharpshooting 
fraternity by mantelets, heavy mats of rope, suspended from a 
stout stick supported on forked saplings, the mats having an 
aperture in the center, through which to thrust and aim the 
small, tapering muzzles of the Battery's Parrots. 

The adventurous volunteer, at this time, peeping over the top 
of this work, to catch a view of the two opposing lines of fortifi- 
cations, looked upon a scene of singular description. Before 
him lay trenches, excavations, abattis of trees, embankments, 
huge hemi-spherical bomb-proofs, lines of rifle pits, forts, and 
batteries, in what seemed to be inextricable confusion. The 
whole" surface of the earth for 400 yards, westwards, and as far 
as the eye could reach, north and south, was dug over, and a 
chaos of holes and ditches, and heaps and parapets of brown 
earth, covered the green hillsides and valleys in all directions. 
On close examination, however, the works would assume an ap- 
pearance of regularity. The principal lines of works could be 
traced out with considerable distinctness, the eye being assisted 
therein by the curling clouds of smoke that rose from the mor- 
tars and batteries posted at intervals along them. The rest 
would then appear orderly and systematic. Back of the rebel 
lines rose the gentle, rounded crest of Cemetery hill, with the 
spires of the city and groves of trees peering above it. 

The section of E at this point, Lieut. Goodrich commanding, 
had a lively experience on the 4th. It had been definitely 
known for several days that the rebels were tunneling out to- 
wards the large fort, on the hill on the left of the section, to un- 
dermine and blow it up, retaliating on us for the destruction of 
their fort and its garrison of 200 men, July 30th. On the 3d, 
everything was withdrawn from the hill to the next line in rear. 
About 5 p. M. of the 4th, the ground shook, a rumbling roar was 
heard, and a brown cloud of earth founted up one hundred 
feet in height, almost in front of the section of Battery E. In- 
stantly everv gun on the rebel lines awoke to action, and a pe- 
culiarlv rapid and close fire was poured upon us. Our infantry 
came up on the double quick, and formed two lines of battle in 
rear of I'>.ittery E's position. Some advanced to the breastworks, 
and seconded by the artillery, poured several destructive vollies 
into the lebels, who were swarming out to make a charge. Per- 



f ,'::■:? 



E CONSOLIDATED ONCE MORE. 



255 



ceiving from the derisive cheers from our lines that their mine 
was a failure, not a pound of dirt having been thrown by it into 
our lines, and staggered by the iron hail we hurled upon them, 
they fled incontinently for cover again. In half an hour the 
firing subsided. 

The 6th of August found E consolidated once more, under 
Capt. Ashby's command, and in occupancy of Battery 5, on the 
bank of the Appomattox. One gun was placed to bear on Pe- 
tersburg, 1,500 yards away, the rest on the Chesterfield Battery 
across the river. With E in position were four 8-inch mortars. 
The battery across the river had a bad habit of opening on E 
every night, about midnight, and firing for some hours. We al- 
ways returned the fire. Both sides bombarded freely now every 
night, principally with mortars. Sometimes forty were going at 
once, spanning the heavens with arches of fire of peculiar bril- 
liancy and beauty. In rear of E, on a hill, was mounted the 
celebrated "Petersburg Express," which on these occasions 
jomed energetically in the fray, firing over Battery E, sending 
Its enormous projectiles into the city. 

Battery H came up from the reserve camp on the 9th. Two 
guns went into works on the right, and four on the left, of the 
City Pomt and Petersburg railroad, where they remained inces- 
santly engaged until Sept. 25th. A few casualties occurred 
during this time, several of the men being wounded. 

Battery K relieved M near Friend's house, on the Petersburg 
road, and did good service there. M afterwards went to the 
Hare house. 

On the nth of August, the corps of Hancock was taken 
from the Petersburg lines and sent to the north side of the 
James, to attack the defenses of Richmond. The iSth Corps 
was accordingly stretched out along the works to help fill the 
gap, and, on the night of the 14th, Battery K marched to the 
J-arter road and went into position in some works there, which 
Dcjng poor the men repaired substantially. The Batterv re- 
mained there under mortar and musketrv fire, day and night, 
until August 22d, sending in well-directed' shots at the enemy, 
wherever they were deemed to be most calculated to do service. 

On the i8th, at i a. m., simultaneously with a night attack on 
Hancock s Corps, north of the James, the rebels opened a ter- 
nbie fire on the Petersburg lines, to cover that attack. It was a 
beautiful moonlight night, and the incongruity of letting loose 
upon the peaceful scene the horrors of war impressed itself on 
the men, who, however, answered the rebels 'steadily, and after 
two hours' bombardment silenced them. 



2^6 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

All the Batteries sustained a furious fire, and were hotly en- 
gaged from the iSth to the 21st. Warren's Corps at that time 
had gained the VVeldon railroad on our extreme left, and was 
fighting to hold it. 

The iSth Corps having relieved the loth Corps on the Ber- 
muda Hundreds lines, Battery K, on the 22d, marched thither, 
crossing the Appomattox at night. It got in just at daylight 
and ran four guns into Battery Marshall, at the central po'int^of 
the lines. Two guns were placed in Fort McConihe, 200 yards 
in front and to the right of the others. The Battery became 
engaged at once. Its first shot entered a rebel embrasure ; it 
silenced the guns in fifteen minutes. It remained here till 
September 2Sth, in action constantly. To give an idea of the 
work done by the Battery, itinay be stated that in the month of 
July it fired in action 1,511 rounds of ammunition ; in August, 
453 ; consisting of fuze shell, spherical case and percussion 
shell, — in all, ten and a half tons of metal. The experience of 
the rest of the 3d New York battalion was similar in every 
respect. 

Battery E after discharging from 50 to 250 rounds at the 
Chesterfield Battery and the town, until September ist, with- 
drew from the lines and went into camp in the rear for rest. 

August 23d, M occupied Fort Wilcox, near the crater of the 
Mine, and eng.iged the enemy only a few rods distant for two 
days. On the 25th, it went to Hatcher's farm, on Bermuda 
Hundreds, sending thence one section to Fort Anderson, in rear 
of McConihe, and two sections to north of the James, where it 
took position to defend our workmen employed in di<'^in^' 
Butlers Dutch Gap Canal. ' *° ° 

Battery E was brought up to the peninsula September 15th, 
relieving a regular battery at Cobb's Hill, which had been 
shelled out the day before. The rebels tried that on E next 
day, but found we had too heavy metal for them and they were 
discomfitted. Battery H came up to the peninsula from the 
Petersburg lines on the 25th. 

The whole battalion had now concentrated on the Bermuda 
Hundreds defenses. 

Having extended the left flank of his armv to the Weldon 
Railroad by the victories of August, and secured the ground 
gained by impregnable intrenchments, Gen. Grant resolved on a 
lurther extension of that flank and simultaneous extension of 
the right, lo VNarren's Corps was committed the duty of the 
operations on the lelt. That Corps did its dutv bravelv and 
well, lo Butler, with his loth Corps, commanded by Birney, 



CAPTURE OF FORT HARRISON, 257 

and the iSth Corps, now under Ord, -constituting the Army of , 

the James, was entrusted the work on the right. Butler accord- 1 

ingly crossed the James on the night of September 28th, at 1 

Aiken's landinj^, near the straggling little village of Varina. \ 

The following day, the iSth Corps, supported by Batteries H, I 

M and K, 3d New York, with other artillery, advanced up the ] 

Varina road, and encountering the outer line of the defenses of ' 

Richmond, just below Chapin's Bluff, carried it by storm, in- I 

duding Fort Harrison, its principal work, capturing fifteen guns. I 

The loth Corps assaulted on the New ^Iarket road and gained ] 

some trophies, while Kautz on the Charles City road charged 1 

nearly into Richmond. It was a day of desperate fighting and \ 

deeds of unrivaled valor. Our interest centers in the doings of ^ 

the rSth Corps. " \ 

The artillery brigade followed the infantry of the corps in the I 

road slowly up from the river. Our advance dispossessed \ 

the skirmishers of the enemy of four lines of rifle pits, one after ? 

another, and pressing on through a heavily wooded, deserted I 

region, at length, three miles from the landing, confronted the ] 

main outer rebel line. A hill, commanding the road, was crested | 

with the large work, Fort Harrison, mounting eight guns, and | 

from it ran right and left a chain of intrenchments, running \ 

southward a mile and a half to the river, and northward inter- i 

minably. Forming in the woods, the corps charged under a I 

horrible fire, concentrated upon it not only by the rebel infantrv ] 

and artillery posted behind the intrenchments, but the rebel | 

rams in the river, which kept up a vigorous shelling. We carried i 

everything. The rebels tied like sheep, leaving many prisoners 1 

in our hands. A section of Battery K, under Lieut Starrin. \ 

followed the infantry in to the Fort. It went in on the run J 

through the sally port. Before the pieces had fairly halted, the | 

men sprang off from the limbers, unhitched the horses, and I 

drove them off to a place of safety in the rear. This was a wise i 

precaution, for the rebels had only retired from the Fort, which I 

was open in the rear, to some log barracks, and they now as- '5 

sailed the new comers into the work with their shot. ' Had the | 

horses remained, there would have been great slaughter amon<:st a 

them. The guns of the section quickly opened with percussion | 

sheli at the barracks. Several of these destructive missiles ' 

were sent crackling through their walls. It stampeded the J 

rebels in a moment and they evacuated and ran with singular j 

unanimity and eagerness. The rebel rams and batteries in the 
enemy's second line of works, on the other side of the gully, 
in rear of Fort Harrison, were now throwing their iron into our 
Q 



258 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

position, taking many lives among the infantry. Gen. Burn- 
ham, among others, was kiliecl, but by a bullet. He was in the 
act of rejoicing at a shot fired by one of K's guns at a signal 
officer, visible on Chapin's Bluff, driving him off, when the fatal 
ball pierced him and he fell lifeless. The two guns of K were 
then ordered to the rear. At 4 p. m. three of K's guns were 
then ordered up again. 

A detachment of Battery jM, under Sergt. Martin, took the 
■works with the infantry' and turned some captured guns on the 
retreating foe, firing seventy-five rounds of ammunition. 

Butler attempted to carry the second line of the rebel works, 
after capturing the first. A gallant charge was made, but it was 
repulsed by Gen. Field with a loss to us of 300. 

The army encamped on the field of battle. 

Butler's advance alarmed the Confederate authorities, beyond 
comparison with any preceding events of the campaign. Gen. 
Lee at once came up in person, while his Quartermaster rushed 
reinforcements in from Petersburg by train loads. Gen. Field 
wished to attack and retake the captured lines that evening, but 
he was over-ruled by his superiors, who put off the- assault till 
next day. 

Next day the enemy found us fully prepared to receive him. 
When daylight dawned, a breastwork of rails, logs and earth 
had been thrown up across the open rear of Fort Harrison, and 
Battery K's six guns were rant^ed behind it with a strong sup- 
port of infantry. Battery H was in another part of the intrench- 
ments and the whole corps was judiciously and carefully dis- 
posed by Gen. Weitzel at important points. 

At 2 p. M., the rebels emerged from some woods opposite the 
Fort, and formed in three coiumns, for an assault. They were 
the men of the divisions of Gens. Hoke and Fields. Fields 
formed opposite to the Fort, Hoke on his left. Owing to some 
misunderstanding among the rebel commanders, one brigade 
charged before the rest were ready, so that their assaults failed 
to be made simultaneously, and they were accordingly very 
badly cut up for their pains. As the brigade which charged on 
the Fort advanced, it had to descend into the gully before men- 
tioned as running in rear of the ibrt. As it descended the slope, 
our infantry and Battery K opened a rapid and accurate fire, 
which mowed the enemy down in swaths. The rebels came 
to within 200 yards. Their courage oozed out at that point and 
they ran back, leaving the ravine strewed with dead and 
wounded. Battery H did equally good service in its front. The 
rebel assaults, twice renewed, were everywhere repulsed, but 



BATTLES AT FORT HARRISON. 



259 



. not until they had immolated 2,000 men in the mad attempt on 
our lines. 

Night fell on a bloody field ; but Fort Harrison and the in- 
. trenchments had been held and saved, and a brilliant victory 
perched upon the Union banners. For saving the Fort, Battery 
K deserves to be accorded the principal honor. 

Fighting was renewed on the i8th Corps's front the followint^ 
day, October ist, and again on the 2d. in which the artillery 
bore an active part. On the 2d, the rebels opened on Fort 
Harrison, (now called Fort Burnham,) with a mortar batter}', on 
our working parties trying to throw up works. So many men 
were brought down by their fire that the survivors could hardly 
be kept at work. Forty were killed and the floor of a building 
converted into a hospital was covered with wounded. Battery 
K was invoked to silence the hostile battery, which it did with 
a few sharp, quick discharges. The infantry was the wildest lot 
of men on earth at the result. They commenced to cheer and 
the cheer went all along the lines. In a short time the mortars 
began again. K opened once more on them and reduced them 
to silence a second time. At night four guns of the Battery 
were moved to camp in rear of the Fort, the place being too ex- 
posed to the heavy shells of the rebel rams, which they were 
continually dropping in the vicinity of the works. 

On the 7th, the enemy made a sally from Richmond and 
attacked Kautz's cavalry on the right flank of the army. After 
a brisk fight, the assault was repulsed. When the firing com- 
menced, Capt. Angel limbered upj the four guns of K in camp 
and moved at once, without orders, to Fort Burnham and en- 
gaged the enemy until the battle on the right was over. The 
Battery remained in the Fort for a long time, and made itself 
comfortable quarters, a bomb proof and so on. 

Butler's victory was of signal importance to our cause. It 
gave us the outer line of defenses of Richmond for several 
miles, which we converted at once into a line of siege, and it 
placed us within easy striking distance of the city where we 
could await an opportunity to strike an effective blow. By re- 
quiring Lee to detach troops from his forces at Petersburg to 
defend Richmond, it materially aided Gen. Grant in all his 
offensive operations thereafter against Petersburg. 

There now ensued a lull of three weeks in the larger opera- 
tions of the department. Mutual bombardment and picket 
firing alone relieved the monotony. 

Ever since the taking of Fort Harrison, our left flank had been 
annoyed by the shells of a flotilla of rebel iron clad rams and 



i:-i- 



260 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

gunboats in the river. A new fort was built on the bank of the 
river to surprise these boats and drive them off. It stood a mile 
above Dutch Gap Canal, on the north side, and was called Fort 
Brady. Into this, during the night of October 20th, Battery E 
was ordered from the Bermuda Hundreds lines. The guns were 
in position by daylight. At that hour the rams and gunboats 
came out from under a distant bank of the river. Battery E 
and two large guns in Fort Brady with it opened lire. The 
rams replied and also the rebel 100-pound Brooks Batter}' on 
the south side of the river. Our shot drove the wooden gun- 
boats out of range very soon. The rams stood our fire for an 
hour and a half, our 20-pound and 30-pound shells crackling on 
their iron armor like hail. At length the smoke-stack of one 
was nearly shot away, and one of our shells burst in the after- 
port of the Drewry\ disabling seven men, and they all having 
been struck about twenty times apiece, they fled up stream, one 
by one, and sought safety beyond the range of our guns. Bat- 
ter}' E was subjected to a powerful shelling during the engage- 
ment and fought with determined bravery. The only man hurt 
was Michael Lynch, Capt. Ashby's Orderly, a brave, fine fellow, 
who, while on horseback, had his foot carried away by a 100- 
pound shell from the Brooks Battery. His horse was killed by 
the same missile. 

The further services of the 3d New York Batteries in this 
department are briefly told. 

Battery E, October 25th, moved to the vicinity of Fort Burn- 
ham. The right section werrf on to the lines, north of the work ; 
the left section, south of it, in Battery No. 2. November ist, it 
marched to Camp Holley, at Spring Hill, on the right of the 
Darbytown road, on the extreme right of the loth Army Corps, 
three miles north-west of Deep Bottom. Here it went into win- 
ter quarters. December loth, the Battery was turned out by 
picket firing, and found that the rebel Field was making arecon- 
noissance in force. He came to within 300 yards of our line:^. 
We opened on his picket and other parties wherever they ap- 
peared, firing 160 rounds. At night, the enemy retired. After 
that there were occasional alarms, but no more fighting till the 
close of the war. 

Battery M, after the taking of Fort Harrison, remained on the 
lines of earthworks, north of the James, all winter. Most of 
the time it was at the fortified post of Deep Bottom, in an im- 
penetrable swamp on the extreme richt of the Union line. In 
November, the latter part, it was on the Bermuda lines, and was 
in action 5e\'eral times. Marching thence, December loth, one 



;a ;; 



t>:'S 






IN WINTER QUARTERS. 26 1 

section took position at Camp Holley. Two sectfons went into 
Battery No. 8, near by. On the lath, two sections moved to 
Batteries No. i and No. 2 on the main line of the siege, one 
section remaining at Battery No. 8. The material of which this 
command was composed was of the very best quality. Owing 
to the hardships of the service, the sufferings of the men in this 
campaign were sometimes severe. Exposed to inclemencies of 
the weather, through heat of summer and cold of winter, often 
without tents or shelter, in the trenches, at the outposts, on the 
march, situations all of them common, indeed, to all, they bore 
themselves, nevertheless, with peculiar courage, fortitude and 
devotion. They had a fighting Captain, and always stood by 
him faithfully and patriotically. They were splendidly disci- 
plined, too, and made one of the best batteries in the service. 
As evidence of this, it may be mentioned that during the winter 
of 1864, an order was issued by the corps commander, that a 
furlough of twenty days would be granted each week, to be 
given to him, who should be deemed the best soldier of each 
brigade by a board of three commissioned officers. In the ar- 
tillery brigade, the prize was given successively for several weeks 
to CapL Howell's Battery, until an order from headquarters 
withdrew that Battery from the lists, that others might have a 
chance. 

Battery H, after shifting its position on the Richmond lines 
several times, on the 31st of October put four guns in Fort Burn- 
ham and two in a battery near Fort Brady. December 4th, the 
Battery moved to a lunette fort on the main line, on the left of 
the New Market road, a mile from Fort Burnham, where it re- 
mained for the winter. Camp was pitched some distance in 
rear of the fort 

Battery K about the same time moved to a redoubt on the 
right of the same road, for the winter, camp being made of log 
huts in rear of the work, the caissons and horses being quar- 
tered at Spring Hill. 

The winter slipped away quietly in the Army of the James, 
only now and then an event happening to create excitement. 
The 3d New York battalion received a large accession of new 
recruits, in drilling whom, and in regular camp duties and camp 
recreations, the time was principally spent. 

Offensive operations were resumed in March, the rebels this 
time taking the initiative. Grant had in contemplation a strong, 
final effort to extend his left flank so as to surround Petersburg. 
when a tremendous assault was delivered at daylight of March 
aSth, on our batteries at the Hare house, by the rebel Gen. 



262 3^ NEW-yORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Gordon. It came very near cutting our army in two. Fort 
Stedman was captured and its guns turned at once on our own 
lines. But, taking advantage of a moment of hesitancy in the 
rebel attack, we charged back, drove the enemy out, and even 
advanced our own lines by the capture of a part of his. Then 
Grant took up the offensive. The bulk of the 19th Corps was 
quietly withdrawn from the Richmond lines, and all that could 
be spared of the whole army was massed on our extreme left. 
Then Grant struck out on the 29th, and a series of terrific bat- 
tles raged for four days on our left, while day and night our guns 
on the Petersburg lines kept up a rapid bombardment. 

In our forces north of the James, commanded now by Weit- 
zel, the excitement day by day grew to be intense. All knew 
that the end was near at hand. The booming of Grant's guns, 
continuously heard, showed that the army was gaining ground. 
And though the rebels in our front played bluff to the extent of 
their power, and strove to keep up an appearance of being pres- 
ent in force, their bands playing on all sides at night, and bodies 
being constantly marched in plain sight to and fro, yet they 
could not conceal that they had sent the last man that they 
dared to, to reinforce Lee in the fight with Grant. Officers and 
men went out every night to watch the bombardment of Peters- 
burg, one of the most brilliant spectacles ever seen in any war. 
On the night of Sunday, April 2d, all were on the qui vive. 
The bombardment was unusually brisk. We could see the flash 
of every gun and the track of every shell. Mysterious signal- 
ing went on along the rebel lines continually. Rockets rose 
from Richmond, and signal lights waved in succession at sta- 
tions, going south till lost in the distance, with rockets inter- 
mingled here and there. Back again the signaling would come, 
and so till late in the ni^ht, and mystery and expectation filled 
the air. One of the ofliicers of Battery H, 3d New York, while 
at the redoubt under his command, saw a bright light in the di- 
rection of Richmond, and soon after saw a stream of fire shoot 
into the air, followed by a boom and jar that shook the ground. 
These explosions continued, and it seems that they came to the 
vigilant ear of Weitzel. Our pickets were ordered to advance 
and capture a rebel, and at last by that agency and from contra- 
bands who came in from Richmond, we learnt, with unspeakable 
rapture, that Richmond and Petersburg had been evacuated. 
The tidings flew along the lines like wildfire, and the troops 
cheered and shouted like mad as they learnt the glorious news, 
and excitement prevailed evervwhere. 

Capt. Angel, Chief of Artillery on Weitzel's staff, now re- 



CAPTURE OF RICHMOND. 263 

celved orders to march at daylight with Battery K and the 5th 
Pennsylvania Battery, as escort to the 3d Division, 24th Corps, 
(colored,) by the New Market road to Richmond. Weitzel 
waited till daylight for fear of rebel torpedoes in the road, and 
then ordered the advance. 

The march into Richmond was a race. The regiments of the 
a4th Corps strove to outstrip each other on the road and the two 
batteries did the same. And a pretty adventure it led to, too, 
on the part of the latter. The batteries plying whip and spur at 
length got ahead of the infantry and found themselves abreast 
and going down hill on a lively trot towards a suburb of Rich- 
mond, called Rockets. At the foot of the hill, a stream crossed 
the road, and the bridge over it was not large enough for two. 
Battery K used the lash freely and made a rush for the bridge, 
and by dint of exertion managed to crowd the Pennsylvanians 
away from it so effectually as to capsize one of their guns and 
caissons with the teams into the creek. The rest of their train 
came up standing, while Battery K thundered on by them in 
triumph. Gen. Devon viewed this proceeding, however, with 
some impatience. He rode up and made a few highly spiced 
remarks about going into an enemy's city artillery in front, and 
Battery K was accordingly reined up until the infantry came up 
and took the advance. It then resumed the march and was the 
first battery of Federal artillery in Richmond. 

The city was on fire as we entered, having been kindled by 
the rebe!^ previous to evacuation. The main business street was 
falling in ruins its whole length. Gen. Weitzel had already 
arrived and the populace thronged the streets and waved their 
hats and handkerchiefs and cheered a welcome of great friendli- 
ness. The colored people's joy knew no bounds and they were 
very demonstrative. 

We cannot here dwell on the particulars of the occupation 
of Richmond. They are better told in the more pretentious 
histories of the war. We may say, however, that the city was 
at once placed under martial law and the artillery did guard 
duty till order was restored, the flames subdued and the troops 
from the fprtifications brought up to garrison the place. Bat- 
teries E, H and M were all brought up as soon as possible and 
the battalion of the 3d New York thus once more consolidated. 

The battalion camped in the city. Here it remained till 
ordered home for muster out. A portion of the time Battery K 
and one other bauery were stationed in Manchester across the 
river. 



264 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



XV 



IN THE ARMY OF THE OHIO. 

ScliofieU i» North Carolin»— Sherman** Engineers Studying up the Brnfge Qoertion 
— Stewart's Map — Band-Box Artillery — The MoTcment on Goldsboro — At 
WUe's Forks — Intrenching in the Woods — The Desperate Assaults of Hoke 
■—The Band-Box Artillery Repdiing a Surprise — In Kinston — AdTance to 
Goldsboro— Foraging — The Signal Guns — Sherman's Bummers — Junction 
with Sherman — Adrance to Raleigh — Sorrender of Johnston — The Great 
RcYicw— Return to Newbern — Schofidd's Farewell. 

The closing scenes of the vrar in North Carolina now engage 

our attention, and our narrative returns to that State. We are 
now to glance at the brave services of five companies of the 3d 
Artillery, with the forces of Gen. Schofield, in co-operation with 
the forces of Gen. Sherman. 

And first a few general incidents and remarks. Butler having 
failed in November, 1864, to capture Fort Fisher, commanding 
the entrance to the harbor of Wilmington, N. C, Gen. Grant 
sent Gen. Terr}% with the joth Army Corps, 10,000 strong, to 
make a second attempt in January, 1865. Terry was entirely 
successful. He assaulted the fort on January 25th, and carried 
it, after a bloody and terrible fight. This was the first important 
incident of the year in North Carolina, and it had a direct bear- 
ing on the campaign about to be inaugurated by Gen. Sherman, 
with the full concurrence of Gen. Grant. 

Sherman, then at Savannah, was soon to "dive into the inte- 

, rior again and disappear from view." In a letter to Gen. 

Palmer, he said, " Goldsboro is the strategetic point I shall aioa to 



.^ 



GETTING GUNS FOR NEW BATTIRIES. 26? 

secure in North Carolina." Anticipating that after his march 
through South t^arolina, he would be in need of clothing and 
subsistence, he desired to establish himself, after reaching North 
Carolina, at some point where he could have railroads to the 
coast to supply him with all the articles he needed. At Golds- 
boro he would have them, two in number, one to Newbern, one 
to Wilmington, and Terry was sent to Carolina to make the 
latter sure, by capturing its terminus, and then by advancing at 
the proper time to Goldsboro, and opening it up to travel. 
Terry remained quietly at Fort Fisher for some weeks after his 
victory, \yaiting for further developments. 

The District of North Carolina had been commanded since 
April 25, 1864, by Gen. Innis N. Palmer. In January, 1865, by 
order of the War Department, it was separated from Butler's 
Military Division of the James, and transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the South, under the authority of Sherman. Gen. J. G. 
Foster took command of North Carolina as part of that de- 
partment, January i6th. Gen. Palmer, however, retained com- 
mand of his District, now called District of Beaufort, having 
under him at Newbern and in the State, about 5,000 men. 
Among the number were five Batteries of the 3d Artillery, viz : 
A, C, D, G, and I, each having 180 men, or 900 in all. All 
were mounted, except Battery A. I, being an old company, had 
had guns for some time, and C, D, and G had obtained arma- 
ment through the efforts of Col. Stewart, who, it may be said by 
the way, had no little difficulty in getting it, especially for D and 
G. His requisition for guns had been approved by the Generals 
commanding the district and department, but for some reason it 
encountered the opposition of Secretary Stanton, and fresh 
etforts only served to make the iron Secretary obstinate. But 
Col. Stewart had set his heart on mounting the new batteries, 
and he very seldom made up his mind to a thing of this sort 
without effecting his purpose. Horses, picked up here and 
there were given to the batteries to learn the riding-school drill, 
and the Colonel resolved to see the President Leaves of ab- 
sence were not granted then. So he managed to be sent to 
Washington as bearer of dispatches. Arriving in that city, he 
went first to the arsenal, to assure himself that guns were to be 
it n 1 ^ y ^""'^^^ °" *^^ President. Mr. Lincoln looked on 
ine Lolonel s application with favor, and, remembering the early 
history of the regiment, detained the Colonel for half an hour 
to hear the recital of its subsequent campaigns and brilliant ser- 
vices He was profoundly interested, and concluded the inter- 
view by writing a few words on a slip of paper, which he asked 



'■'-l- 






266 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

the Colonel to hand to Secretary Stanton. The slip was pre^ 

sented the same day. The Secretary looked a little black, | 

and gave the Colonel a look like that of a raging lion, as he t 

discovered that the President had ordered the mounting of the ] 

two batteries. After satisfying himself that there were guns to ', 

be had in Washington, he then issued an order for their transfer j 

to Col. Stewart, who took it in triumph to the proper authorities, | 

and soon had the precious cannon loaded upon a vessel and on j 

their way to Newbern. Horses were obtained for the batteries I 

• then without much difficulty. ' 

As the time approached for Sherman to begin his march from 
Savannah, the importance of securing Goldsboro as a new base 
of operations, became more and more apparent. " If Lee lets 
us get that position," wrote Sherman to Grant, " he is gone up." 

Grant now determined to send reinforcements to the army in 
North Carolina, so that when a demonstration was made, it 
might be of such magnitude as to put its failure out of question. 
The 23d Army Corps, known as the Army of the Ohio, 21,000 
strong, commanded by Maj. Gen. J. M. Schofield, was selected 
for the purpose. It was a splendid body of men, had never 
known defeat, and had served with Sherman before. In con- 
junction with the Armies of the Tennessee and Cumberland, it 
had, under that General, aided in the capture of Atlanta, the 
previous summer. It was now brought around from Tennessee, 
and, on the 9th of February, Schofield arrived in North Caro- 

• lina with his advance by boats from Annapolis. Md. He landed 
at Fort Fisher, and the same day issued an order assuming com- 
mand of the State. His first object was to capture Wilmington, 
which lay some twenty miles up from the fort. He entered that 

• city on the zzd. Leaving Terry, with his loth Corps, in occu- 
pation there, he then sent around Gen. J. D. Cox's division of 
the 23d Corps by boats to Beaufort, and thence by rail to New- 
bern, preparatory to an advance from that point on Goldsboro. 

Meanwhile, Sherman had, on February ist, started from 
Savannah and Pocotaligo and was now marching through South 
Carolina, leaving a track of devastation behind him ten miles 
in width. 

One of his last orders, previous to marching, was directed to 
Gen. McCallum, chief of his construction and railroad building 
corps, under date of January 29th. It directed the General to 
" transport Col. W. W. Wright (second in command to Mc- 
Callum) and his operators to Newbern, ♦ * * ^nd 
to prepare timber, iron, cars and locomotives adapted to the 
road of North Carolina, enough to build out to Goldsboro, when 



STUDYING UP THE BRIDGE QUESTION. 26/ 

yoii can get possession ot the road." The order was obeyed, 
and in due time the General arrived in Newbern with his en- 
gineers. Rightly anticipating that the rebels would burn the 
bridges and destroy the railroad leading up from Newbern to 
Goldsboro, the one we valued most, as soon as they discovered 
our intention to advance along the line of it on Goldsboro, he at 
once applied himself assiduously to gain all information possi- 
ble, relative to the road, so that, when our army advanced, he 
might be in a position to restore it as fast as the rebels tore it 
up. In this, Col. Stewart, who had formerly been Chief En- 
gineer of the Army of North Carolina, and accompanied the 
grand Foster expedition of '62 in that capacity, had the pleasure 
of rendering an important service. Stewart had had the rare 
good fortune to find an engineering treasure, when the 3d Ar- 
tillery first arrived at Newbern in April, 1862. In a house in 
the town he discovered the map of a rebel engineer, delineating 
the whole river country from Morehead city to Raleigh, laying 
down every bridge in the entire distance. The length of each 
bridge was given, with its name and exact location. The Col- 
onel laid it carefully aside at the time, knowing that it would be 
of use some day, and had afterwards established its accuracy, 
at least in part, by measuring the long railroad bridge over the 
Trent at Newbern and others toward Morehead city. Measure- 
ments in all cases agreed exactly with those stated on the map. 
It was fair to infer that the figures in relation to bridges to- 
wards Goldsboro and Raleigh must also be exact. And this 
afterwards proved to be the case. The map was of great service 
on the Foster expedition, but more so now. When McCallum 
arrived at Newbern, he invited Stewart, as former Engineer, to 
a private consultation. The Colonel of course complied, and 
took his map with him. McCallum was delighted with it beyond 
measure, and said " it was the best thing they had found yet." 
After a long interview, the results of which one of the General's 
staff took down in short-hand, the General saw his way perfectly 
clear and was able to layout his work for the campaign at once. 
He accordingly sent men into the woods, and ha:d not only a 
sufficient quantity of ties cut to rebuild the road, but had timber 
^ot out for the bridges and piled up by the side of the road. 
Then, when we advanced, his men put the timber on railroad 
trains and sent it to the front, and whenever a bridge was burnt 
he was able to put it up again with a celerity that perfectly as- 
tounded the retreating rebels. It enabled us to keep up a 
sharp pursuit. After Johnston was captured, he inquired among 
our officers for " the man who could build bridges faster than 
he could burn them." 



2618 3D NEW-VORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

The last days of February were enlivened at Nevvbern by the 
sodden advent of a number of rough-looking, weather-beaten, 
western regiments, with tattered battle flags, from Wilmington, 
composing the advance brigades of Cox's division of the 23d 
Army Corps. Cox assumed command at Newbem, and en- 
camped his men just outside the town, to snatch a little rest, 
preparatory to the grand forward movement, which was now 
near at hand. There was of course a great deal of fraterniza- 
tion between Palmer's regiments and Cox's, in the meanwhile, 
and the men visited each other's camps. Attention seems to 
have been particularly attracted at this time to the natty appear- 
ance of the 3d New York. It was a part of the thorough and 
splendid discipline, infused into that regiment, peculiarly by Col. 
Stewart and afterwards adopted and maintained by officers of 
all ranks, to require the utmost attainable neatness throughout 
in uniforms, arms and equipments. Buttons, buckles, and the 
iron and brass work of the gun carriages and caissons were 
always polished, the guns shone like mirrors, the harness was 
always blacked, and slouchiness in uniforms while on duty was 
not endured for a moment. The Western men showed a pro- 
pensity to ridicule this, and considerable was heard at this time 
about "the band-box artillery." Our men took it good natured- 
ly, and their superb conduct in the field, a few days later, 
entirely altered the ideas of the Western men ; the popular 
phrase was then " Well, well, these band-box boys can fight, after 
all." 

March ist, the troops, assembled at Newbern, were organized 
by Gen. Cox for the expedition. He formed them into two Dis- 
trict of Beaufort divisions, each about 6,000 strong, and en- 
trusted them to the command of Gen. I. N. Palmer and Gen. S. 
P. Carter, respectively. To the 1st Division he assigned the 
following artillery: Battery C, :^d New York, Capt. Mercer 
commanding, six guns, Rodmans ; Battery D, 3d New York, 
Capt Van Husen commanding, six guns, Rodmans ; a Michigan 
battery, four guns. To the 2d Division he assigned the follow- 
ing : Battery A, 3d New York, Capt. Russell, serving as heavy 
artiller>', armed with muskets ; Battery G, 3d New York, Capt. 
Wm. H. Kelsey, six 12-pound Napoleons; Battery 1,3d New 
York, Lieut. Richardson, four 12-pound Napoleons. 

Two guns of Battery I were left at Newbern. Also, the 24th 
New York Independent Battery, which, by the way, on the 6th 
of March, became incorporated as one of the companies of the 
3d Artillery, receiving the designation of Battery L. This Bat- 
tery was raised in the fall of 1 861, in Monroe and Wyoming 



n,.' 



r1 ^'.;•^^■^^ 



•'! 



'i ;- 



THE FORWARD MOVEMENT BEGINS. 26Q 

counties, N. Y., under the captaincy of Jay E. Lee, mustering in 
December 6th, as Company B of the Rocket battalion. The bat- 
talion being soon after broken up, the company became the 24th 
New York Battery. Going to North Carolina in 1862, it had 
done excellently there since, and won distinguished laurels at 
"Kinston," "Whitehall," and "Goldsboro." " Newbern" 
and "Plymouth" were also inscribed on its flag. Entering 
the 3d Artillery at this time, it now filled the place, which, up 
to this date, had been nominally occupied on the rolls of the 
regiment by the ist New York Battery, the latter being now 
dropped by direction of the War Department. 

The forward movement from Newbern began on the 3d of 
March in obedience to the orders of Gen. Schofield. Several 
regiments marched at daylight, Battery A being among the first 
organizations on the road. They went out by the Neuse turn- 
pike and pushed rapidly on to Core Creek, eighteen miles from 
Newbern, and a little beyond. Various regiments and batteries 
followed, all rendezvousing at Core Creek at sunset, after a hard, 
wet niarch, the roads being so boggy that the men sometimes 
waded in mud and slush to their knees. By orders of Gen. 
Cox all were in the lightest marching order possible No 
baggage was taken save shelter tents, blankets and extra rations. 
The troops encamped for the night at Core Creek, and alon^ the 
sides of the road forking to the left at this point and run°ning 
diagonally across the upper end of Dover Swamp on its way to 
an intersection with a highway, leaving the Trent road in a sim- 
ilar manner and running in a direct line to Kinston. Our ad- 
vance camped near the railroad, about midway between the 
Neuse and Trent roads. 

The day of this advance. Col. Stewart was assigned to dutv 
bv Gen. Cox as Chief of Artillery of North Carolina at 
Newbern. 

Troops of all descriptions continued to arrive at Core Creek 
every hour during the 4th, 5th and 6th, until Palmer's and Car- 
ter s divisions had all come up. The 4th was rainy, increasing 
the bogginess of the roads, and everybody was wet and uncom- 
lortabie, the shelter tents of the infantry and the paulins of the 
artillery attordmg only a partial protection against the elements 
Ihe 5th was a better day and quite endurable. 

The army broke camp at daylight of the 6th and moved slowly 
ahead towards Kinston. The country here was almost a dead 
level, and so heavily shaded with thick pine woods that the 
drainage was poor and the roads, which were mere crioomy 
lorest avenues, were muddy beyond description. Besides the 



270 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

impediment of mud the army encountered in its march a block- 
ade of the roads for miles by trees, which the rebels had not failed 
to cut down so as to fall across them. Every axe in the army 
was pressed into the service and men were sent to the front 
from every regiment and nearly every battery to wield them, 
constituting a large pioneer brigade, which, moving in the ad- 
vance, cleared away the trees with all the speed possible. The 
army made only about six miles, however, during the day, and 
then encamped in the mud for the night. Heavy picket firing 
took place after dark at the front. | 

Next day, the 7th, the two divisions again advanced, meeting I 
with the same experiences of muddy and blockaded roads, and 1 
driving back strong parties of the enemy, who skirmished sharp- j 
ly in their front. A few miles out they approached South West \ 
creek, a goodly-sized tributary of the Neuse, which ran across 1 
our route at right angles. This stream, taking its way through \ 
the forest, was, in this part of its course, bridged at two points, I 
about two miles apart, viz : where it was intersected by the I 
Neuse road and the road before referred as coming from the \ 
Trent river. Here we found the rebels, prepared to dispute the j 
crossing of both bridges, with infantry and artillery in strong \ 

■ force. Our skirmishers, advancing to the edge of an opening j 
along the side of the creek we were on, engaged the enemy to \ 
draw him out, while Lieut. Stevenson's section of Battery D j 

came up to within range of the bridge on the left, and shelled j 

a rebel redoubt thrown up on the other bank. The enemy re- j 

plied with artillery, with unexpected animation, though without j 

doing any damage beyond breaking the trail of one of j 

Stevenson's pieces, and wounding a horse. The skirmish hav- | 

ing developed the strength of the enemy, our army was de- | 

ployed into line of battle. Palmer on the right, covering the j 

Neuse road and the railroad a mile to the left, our extreme left 
flank being opposite to the bridge, whose defenders were shelled 
by the section of Battery D. The locality was known variously 
by the name of Wise's forks, or British cross roads, deriving its 
name from two roads that ran across between the Neuse road and 
the turnpike on our left, crossing each other in so doing like an 
X. At sundown, Stevenson was recalled from the front, and, 
having fired a hundred good shots at the enemy, marched 
through the woods, which covered this whole region, and in 
which our line of battle was formed, to the extreme right of the 
line. He then made a new trail ; by morning, Battery D had 
six effective guns again. Upon Stevenson's recall. Battery I 

'supplied his place on the turnpike, but some distance in rear of 



:- :kjU 



■INTRENCHING AT SOUTH-WEST CREEK. 27I 

the position he had occupied, being supported there by Col. Up- 
ham's regiment, the 15th Connecticut, a new and large command, 
and by Col. Bartholomew's, the 27th Massachusetts, which were 
posted each side of it in the woods. 

Previous to the advance from Newbern, Gen. Sherman had 
made known to Schofield his wish that this column should ad- 
vance cautiously and take no great risks. In deference to these 
instructions, Gen. Cox forebore to attack the rebel intrench- 
ments at South West creek, and instead of that ordered the 
army to intrench, to await the arrival of Couch, with the 2d Di- 
vision of the 23d Corps, who was now coming up across the 
country towards Wise's forks, from Wilmington. At nightfall 
the work began. A line of works was traced out through the 
voods, parallel to the creek And a mile or so from it. Every 
regiment and battery having an axe then sent a stout volunteer 
with it to the front, and, as the night deepened, the forest rang 
with the sturdy blows of the woodchoppers along the whole line. 
The trees at first were all cut so as to be just ready to fall. 
Those on the extreme right were then toppled over. Falling 
against their next neighbors, they pushed them down, and so it 
went along the entire line. Trees were falling for as much as 
ten minutes. The pioneers then attacked the prostrate trunks, 
cut them up, and formed a barricade of logs along our whole 
front, as a foundation for the works. Infantry and artillery then 
called into requisition spades, tin plates, and bayonets, and cov- 
ered the barricades with earth three or four feet high. The axe 
men meanwhile advanced and made a wide slashing, cutting 
down the timber in front for 200 yards. A clear space 
was thus created, which could be swept by our fire with telling 
effect, while the fallen trees made an abattissure to derange and 
demoralize any column that might attempt to charge through it. 
Battery A had t^venty or twenty-five axes at work all through the 
night. Other batteries had a few. By morning the works were 
done, and the infantry and artillery all either posted in them or 
in camp at such convenient places in the rear as to be able to 
re.-\ch them on a moment's notice. 

Theconstructionof these works, so energetically pushed, was 
admirably timed. Hard fighting took place on the 8th. Hoke, 
who had been expelled from Wilmington by Schofield, had now 
been reinforced by part of Cheatham's Corps from Tennessee, 
and attacked our position in strong force. The works did ex- 
cellent service in the battle. 

Hearing nothing especial from the enemy on the morning of 
the 8th, early in the day Gen. Carter sent out the 15th Connec- 



r.^l.i 



272 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

ticut, 27th Massachusetts, a squad of the 12th Cavalry, and 
Lieut Seymour's section of Battery I, from the breastworks, 
under command • of Col. Upham, to see if the rebels were still 
at the bridge. Advancing a mile or more, till within r,ooo 
yards of the bridge, the guns unlimbered and shelled the 
rebel position and some buildings near by it, called Jack- 
son's mills. Our shots failed to provoke the least reply. Sey- 
mour continued firing at intervals for about three hours. Then, 
without the slightest warning, the din of battle broke out on 
every side of him in the woods, in the rear, with all the fury 
of a tropical tornado, and swept rapidly down towards the spot 
where he was posted. Hoke had brought around three entire 
brigades of rebels," and interposed them between Col. Upham's 
little force and our works. Seymour realized the situation the 
moment he heard the chorus of those unmistakable short, sharp,, 
rebel yells and the sputtering fire of musketry. He instantly' 
limbered up the guns and msde a rush to get to the rear. One 
piece, being in the road, got a good start. It met the rebels 
coming on down the road and through the woods,' in a heavy 
line, yelling and shooting, and thundered right through their 
midst, they very discreetly taking themselves out of the way of 
his unceremonious charge. The piece was saluted with a shower 
of bullets, however, as it sped through the line, and one of the 
drivers, named John Bennett, was shot through the body. He 
retained his seat till the gun reached the works in safety, when, 
being helped down from his horse, he died instantly. The 
other piece met with a less fortunate fate. Being out of the 
road, in a deep thicket, some moments elapsed before it could 
start, and it had hardly gone twenty yards before the gray coats 
came pouring through the forest all around it. A hundred 
rifles emptied their lead «pon the horses, and several of 
the gallant animals bit the dust under that withering fire. The 
drivers instantly jumped down from the horses' backs, and the 
cannoneers from the limbers, and ran into the woods. Some 
escaped ; but John Hart, James Hart, John C. Langham, 
Addison J. Hawks, and Anthony Kellaborn were captured, 
and soon found themselves presided over by a rebel guard. Our 
handsome gun was also taken, there being no possible rescue 
after the shooting of the horses. 

Though flanked and surprised, Col. Upham's infantry made a 
desperate fight. The 27th Massachusetts plied the bavonetand 
made a resolute and partially successful attempt to break its 
way out through the rebel line. But the enemy was too strong, 
and 700 men of that regiment and 15th Connecticut, and 12th 



.f.-r. 



HOKE ATTACKS OUR WORKS. 2/3 

Cavalry were captured. The rest found their way back to the 
works singly or in squads. 

Immediately after the discomfiture of Col. Upham, Hoke 
made a strong attack on the left and center of our works, occu- 
pying the right at different times by demonstrations in some 
force in that direction. Aware that we expected the arrival of 
Couch in a few days, he attempted to crush Cox before Couch 
should come up, in imitation of the strategy of Napoleon. 
Filling the woods in our front with infantry, he poured a steady 
fire of musketry into our position, and ever and anon tried to 
charge with heavy columns through the slashing and abattis of 
felled trees that strewed its surface upon us. He found every one 
of our regiments in position, however, and our works crested with 
gleaming rifle barrels, angrily spitting lead upon his advances, 
and cannon, vomiting shot, shell, and cannister. The batteries 
of the 3d New York were at the works, with nearly all their 
guns, and whenever, amongst the trees across the opening, the 
gray lines appeared, the thunderous reverberations with which 
they filled those gloomy woods were not more awful than the 
carnage inflicted by the storm of iron hurled upon the advanc- 
ing rebels, whose assaults they invariably checked. The hardest 
fighting occurred in the center of our long line. We were 
weakest in that place, and Hoke made a persistent effort to 
pierce us there. He carried a. skirmish line of rifle pits, and 
pressed the main works hard. Battery C and Battery D, the 
latter with four guns, were at this point, and the enemy subjected 
them to a galling fire both of musketry and cannon shot, and at 
one time it seemed as though we must be driven from our posi- 
tion. But the men behaved in splendid style, and stood to their 
posts in the hottest of the fray, without faltering for a moment. 
At the critical juncture, an opportune reinforcement arrived from 
Newbern, in the shape of Gen. Ruger with a division of in- 
fantry from Schofield. Coming up on the turnpike on our left, 
the new regiments stacked knapsacks hastily by the roadside, 
and ^ bustled off, one after another, to the threatened center. 
Their arrival put new strength into our army, and we wreaked 
ample vengeance on the rebels for the capture of the men of 
Col. Upham. After a short interval of heaVy firing, the enemy 
desisted from the attack, and soon retired, leaving the slashing 
and the woods beyond strewn thick with hundreds of his dead 
and dying men. As he began to yield, Col. Malloy's brigade of 
Carter's division charged out and retook the lost rifle pits. 

Our loss in this affair was slight, owing to the efficient protec- 
tion afforded by the breastworks. That of the rebels was severe 
R 



274 3° NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ^. ■* • 

and amounted to several hundred killed and wouuded. Battery 
C, of- the 3d New York, had \Vm. A. Foster killed, and Patrick i 
Quagley, Edgar Kane, DeKalb Hummel, Thomas Welch and I 
John Ackerman wounded ; also two horses disabled. Battery " 1 
D lost five horses. | 

Battery A, 3d New York, was briskly engaged at various times i 
through the day in the center of our lines. Battery G came | 
into action on the left and silenced two rebel guns at 1,800 ' 
yards distance. One of them was possibly the captured gun of i 
Battery I, which the rebels shelled us with at times during the i 
day. . I 

Scattered firing took place through the night of the 8th, The I 
troops slept on their arms in their little shelter tents close be- 
hind the works. On the 9th, it rained nearly all day. It was 
dismal enough for our men in the dripping woods, but they en- 
chared all discomforts without a murmur and remained ceaselessly 
on the alert and were instantly at their posts whenever the rebels 
showed a disposition to assault. Hoke skirmished sharply from 
dawn to sunset and towards evening assaulted on the right, but 
was repulsed. Part of Battery A did picket duty in front of 
the works to-day and James Griffin was severely wounded in 
the arm with a bullet while so engaged. On the left of our 
lines, the rebels limited their attentions to a vigorous shelling. 
Our artillery was not allowed to reply. We had three batteries 
there — G and I, of the 3d New York, and the Michigan battery, 
and Lieut. Richardson, commanding I, ventured to suggest to 
Gen. Carter, who, with a group of officers, sat on a knoll near 
by in the rear, in conversation, that our guns could shut the 
rebels up in short order if he would grant permission. A 
splendid looking elderly officer in the group spoke up in reply, 
" You'll all have business enough to-morrow." It was Gen. 
Schofield, who had just arrived from Newbern. The General 
was quite correct in his prediction. 

Hoke spent the 9th in arranging a little piece of strategy by 
which he yet hoped to compass the defeat cf our forces at South 
West Creek before the arrival of Couch. The character of it 
was unfolded in the early forenoon of the 10th. 

The breastwork-s which extended along the front of our posi- 
tion, after crossing the Kinston turnpike on our left flank, 
turned at a right angle and ran to the rear, parallel to and cover- 
ing the pike, extending through thick woods a distance of half 
a mile or more to a road running out westward, on which Couch 
was expected to come up. For the defense of this part of the 
li n^, Batteries G and I and the 6th Michigan were stationed. 



HOKE TRIES AGAIN. 275 

Battery I made its own breastwork here, using logs for a founda- 
tion and throwing up the dirt with their all-useful tin plates. 
The front of the work was protected by the same sort of a 
slashing as in other parts of the position. 

Up the westward-running cross road, spoken of above, our 
officers were beginning to turn anxious eyes hoping to discover 
the advent of Couch. In his stead, however, on the morning of 
the loth, there suddenly and unexpectedly appeared the unwel- 
come apparition of a whole corps of butternut-coated rebels 
under the command of Hoke. Under cover of the woods they 
had managed to creep up almost within easy musket range of 
us without betraying the magnitude of their movement. They 
had a dense, deep column on the road, and in the woods on 
their right a perfect cloud of regiments and brigades. And 
now, pouring in heavy vollies of musketry, they made a desper- 
ate rush at our lines. The peculiar circumstances of our situa- 
tion, buried as we were in the heart of the forest, from the con- 
cealment of whose thickets an enemy was liable to burst at any 
moment, had, however, prepared our men for just this very con- 
tingency. They had been from the first in momentary readiness 
for action, and scarce had the rebel charge fairly begun before 
we met it with a withering and demoralizing fire of cannon shot 
and musketry. One of I's guns was in the pike commanding 
the cross road. The moment the rebel column came in sight, 
it opened upon it with every variety of missiles in the 
calendar. Shot after shot tore its way through the butternut 
ranks, ploughing them in the direction of their greatest depth 
with deadly execution, while the infantry plied them hotly with 
musketry. Under the influence of its own momentum, the 
column still came on, but more slowly and still more slowly, 
while the gun kept steadily and pitilessly at work upon it, and 
great gaps^and lanes opened in it, and finally within a few rods 
of our position it halted. A moment later, it lost all formation 
and order and ran in ever>' direction in confusion for shelter in 
the woods. In the road were left scores of prostrate forms, 
stiffening in death or writhing in pain, and arms and equip- 
ments in profusion. 

Meanwhile the rebel brigades in the woods had made a simul- 
taneous advance. It can scarcely be called a charge. It was 
not fast enough. But it came on grand, compact, steady, like a 
tidal wave. Upon it Battery G, from a knoll in rear of I, 
now directed its most strenuous fire, seconded by the other 
guns of I, while the infantry greeted it with a rapid hail ot 
small shot. The rebel line melted under the punishraent we 



276 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

put upon it, and its men were falling by scores ; but it pressed 
on with a courage unsurpassed on any of the battle fields of the 
war until it reached the abattis. It stood here for a while ex- 
changing rapid and heavy vollies with the Union works. The 
roar of the battle at this time was terrible. The woods acted 
with the acoustic force of a mighty sounding board and the 
varied sounds of the conflict, caught up and reverberated on all 
sides, made a pandemonium which those who heard it do not 
particularly long to ever hear again. The defenders of our 
attacked left flank were reinforced early in the action by several 
regiments and Battery A from the right of Carter's division. 
They came into position on the extreme left and added their fire 
to that to which the rebels were already subjected. As Battery 
A crossed the turnpike on a double-quick to reach its place in 
the works, a harmless volley was fired upon it from the woods ; 
but some of the bullets went over and fell among Gen. Carter 
and his staff officers who were watching the battle, killing two of 
their horses. After a stubborn fight of about ten minutes dura- 
tion the rebel line was repulsed and hurled back to a place of 
safety in the heart of the woods. 

As the butternuts retreated, the boys in blue sprang to their 
feet and gave tremendous cheers. These jubilant shouts were 
the means of a second Confederate defeat. Hoke had placed 
a large body of troops oj'posite to our center, with instructions 
to lie in ambush and await the moment when he should signify 
his victory on our left by cheers. They were to charge. When 
they heard our men shout these rebels came out of their thicket 
and made the prescribed assault, which, as we were then at lib- 
erty to give it all necessary attention, was signally repulsed. 

But the battle was not over on the left flank yet. The enemy 
had reformed his broken lines, and in a few moments charged 
again, under cover of a heavy fire of sharpshooters. The as- 
sault was not so resolute as the first,- and was repulsed with 
heavy slaughter. 

The rebels rallied once more, however, and now made the 
most desperate and persistent assault of the day. They charged 
into the abattis with the most utter recklessness, and then v.ork- 
ing tiieir way through, they came raging on, until some of them 
were actually shot down within six feet of our guns. It was the 
crisis of the battle, and artillery and infantry toiled at their re- 
spective arms to the utmost stretch of their energy. So rapid 
was the firing that the sound was one continuous roll oi thunder. 
In this a.ssault the enemy met his heaviest loss. The main body 
of the charging line was at last again hurled back in complete 



;, r i'« j:'.. 



COUCH ARRIVES. 2/7 

rout, but nearly a thousand of the men, entangled in the abattis, 
could not escape, and accordingly fell down on the ground and 
held up their hands. Slackening our fire at this, a regiment of 
men charged out of the works and captured the whole lot. They 
were mostly Alabamians. 

Cheer after cheer rent the air and made the forest aisles ring 
at the glorious result, and comrades sought each other out for 
enthusiastic congratulations on the victory. All instinctively 
felt that that was the last of Mr. Hoke for some time to come. 
As that daring leader's horse had dashed riderless into our lines 
during the fight, some thought it was the last of him forever. 
It turned out, however, that Hoke was not killed. He had only 
been unhorsed and defeated. 

The fight, in its severity, was but half an hour's duration alto- 
gether. Our loss scarce exceeded 200. The Confederates lost 
over 2,000. Four hundred of their dead and wounded were 
found on the cross-road and in the abattis alone. Owing to the 
protection of the works, although under galling and incessant 
fire, the 3d Artillery had few casualties. They were Thomas 
McHenry and James Thompson, Battery G, wounded. Also a 
few horses killed and wounded. Our army captured in all at 
South West creek about 2,000 prisoners. 

Hoke's punishment unfitted him for further aggressiveness 
after his repulse, and he quietly withdrew to his works. 

The snatching of a victory from what at first threatened to 
be a terrible disaster to our army in this battle, was largely, if 
not mainly, due to the heroism, steadiness and thorough disci- 
pline of the 3d New York Artillery. This was never acknowl- 
edged in official reports, but the army saw it, and knew it, and 
Schofield's veterans did not withhold their complimentary and 
cordial expression of it. There was not so much talk about 
" band-box artillery " after that as there had been. 

On the evening of the loth, Gen. Couch reached Beaver Dam, 
eight miles from Schofield, and communicated with him. Capt. 
Russell and some men of Battery A, out on a scout on our left 
flank, saw his approach, and announced it in camp to the gen- 
eral satisfaction. Next morning the reinforcements marched in 
to camp, our men cheering them heartily. Their arrival again 
consolidated the 23d Corps, which was now swelled by the in- 
corporation of the troops of the North Carolina department, and 
Schofield found himself at the head of a brave, victorious and 
exultant army of 20,000 men. 

Simultaneously with Couch's coming up, Hoke decamped. 
Our lookouts could see rising from the country in every direc- 



,">'.; !>. '■■ ■ ;: r^'VO^ 



278 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERV. 

tion the smoke of the bridges he burnt behind him. Having 
rebuilt the bridges, Schofield felt along out to the locality of 
Kinston bridge on the 13th, and on the 14th advanced in force. 
At Kinston bridge he encountered two lines of earthworks of 
the most formidable description, covering all approach. Erected 
since 1862, they had embrasures for nearly a hundred guns, and 
were so strong that if well garrisoned they would have resisted 
100,000 men. Not a rebel was there to stay our progress, how- 
ever, and laying a pontoon bridge while the engineers were 
repairing the half-burnt country bridge, Schofield marched 
out to it and crossed the river with the division of 
Gen. Greene (formerly Palmer's.) On the north side there 
were still heavier works, running in zig-zag lines along the 
river and out into the country, garnished with bastions and 
forts, with parapets six feet high and twelve or fifteen through, 
twelve foot ditches, and covered ways so deep that army trains 
would be completely hidden in them. These, too, were aban- 
doned, and Schofield, passing on, entered Kinston without op- 
position, in one of the hardest rain storms of the season. 
Throwing his troops out all around the town in line of battle, he 
ordered them to intrench immediately. The rest of the corps 
came up on the 15th. By working day and night, in two or 
three days the corps had a respectable line of fortifications along 
its entire front, sufficiently strong to be held by a slender 
garrison. 

Strong detachments meanwhile were posted in the captured 
works on the south side of the Neuse, covering the county 
bridge, and at the railroad bridge, also. Near the former there 
were many sights of interest. In dense pine woods, west of the 
works, there was a cavalry camp concealed, a city of barracks 
and stables. In the river, above the bridge, there remained a 
rebel iron clad ram, burnt by the retreating rebels, resting on the 
bottom. The graves of the dead of December, 1862, were found 
near the little house by the bridge. The rebels and Union men 
were each buried in a row. In constructing their works the 
Confederates had dug down nearly to the bodies of the fallen 
heroes. The elements had worn away the soil still more, so 
that now rows of skeletons, white and gleaming, protruded 
above the surface of the ground. On the north side of the 
river there w^as a magazine the rebels had tried to explode on 
our approach. Pouring out si.x barrels of powder loosely on 
the floor, they had placed six enormous shells in the midst of 
it, and laid a train of powder from it in a little gutter in the 
ground, to several hundred yards distance. Some of the first of 



NEWS FROM SHERMAN. 



279 



our men across the river fortunately saw the train and scraped 
away the powder, breaking the connection. Gen. Carter ordered 
Capt Russell to clear out the magazine. The delicate and dan- 
gerous duty was performed by Sergt. Willis Watson and a small 
detail of men. Not knowing but that they might at any moment 
explode a torpedo (the roads, at least, were full of them,) they 
explored the work carefully, till they found out what was in it, 
and then threw the contents into the river. 

While at Kinston, Schofield received tidings by courier from 
Gen. Sherman, who had penetrated the State as far as Fayette- 
viile. Writing from that place, under date of Sunday, the rath, 
Sherman said : " We reached here yesterday, and will be de- 
layed until Tuesday or Wednesday, putting down pontoons. I 
will utterly destroy the arsenal and other public property, and I 
hope to get up some shoes and small stores from Wilmington 
before we leave. I will then march in compact order straight 
for the bridge across Neuse river, south of Goldsboro. I expect 
to make junction with you thereabouts. If I do not find you 
there, I will feel towards' Kinston and Newbern. * * * * 
Keep your command well concentrated, on the defensive, ad- 
vancing as fast as the railroad is built ; but reach Goldsboro, if 
possible, and fortify. * * # * Hoping to meet you in ten 
days, I am your friend, d>'C." Sherman had had a toilsome 
march through the mud of South Carolina, but had driven 
Johnston steadily and swiftly before him, living on the fat of the 
land. He was now in North Carolina, in the very best of 
spirits, and only resting to clean his columns of contrabands 
and refugees, by sending them under escort to Wilmington. 
The order above quoted from contained another piece of in- 
formation of a great deal of interest to Schofield. It said: 
' On making junction with you, I want you .to make your com- 
mand 25,000, and call it the center, thus restoring our old At- 
lanta organization." The 23d Corps still retained the name of 
Army of the Ohio, which had distinguished it in the Atlanta 
campaign, and Schofield contemplated with satisfaction the 
prospect of being soon united with his old comrades in arms of 
the 14th, 15th, 17th and 20th Corps, under their beloved com- 
mander, Sherman. 

Skirmishmg took place around Kinston for several davs, but 
the Confederates were not present in anv force. Hoke had 
gone to reinforce Johnston. The principal 'source of apprehen- 
sion was the turnpike to Goldsboro being full of torpedoes, a 
fict that was discovered by a detachment of the 12th Cavalry, 
which was pushed out on that road toward Mosely Hall on a 



280 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. ' 

scouL These infernal traps were percussion shells set on end 
in a hole in the ground, covered with a piece of tin and dirt. 
Horse, man or cannon wheel pressing on the spot where one of 
them was concealed was certain to be blown to pieces. A horse 
and rider were blown up by one of them within sight of our in- 
trenchments. A New Hampshire man at length cleared the 
road of these deadly traps by going out alone and ferreting 
them out. 

The grand movement on Goldsboro now approached its 
crisis. There were now three Union columns in the field, viz : 
Schofield's, at Kinston, on the line of the Newbern railroad ; 
Terry's, the loth Corps, on the railroad coming up from Wil- 
mington ; Sherman's, at Fayetteville. Johnston confronted the 
latter with 45,000 men, covering Goldsboro and Raleigh. Each 
of the former had in his front a small force. 

Gen. Schofield now received by the hands of a scout a dis- 
patch from Sherman to advance from Kinston, as follows : " I 
am now (the 14th) across Cape P'ear river, and to-morrow shall 
draw out ten miles, and next day, if weather is favorable, will 
begin to maneuvre on Goldsboro. I shall feign strong on 
Raleigh. * * * You must push vigorously towards Golds- 
boro, with the absolute certainty that I will engage the 
attention of Joe Jolmston's army to the west and southwest of 
Goldsboro. Let the railroad construction party push their 
work. ♦ * * You must now push boldly as possible straight 
on Goldsboro, and I will do the same. Joe Johnston may try 
to interpose, in which case we must strike him as near at the 
same time as possible. ♦ * * Consolidate your command 
at once into an army, the center of this. Gen. Howard has the 
right wing. Gen. Slocum the left. You can have Terr\-'s troops." 

Having partially reorganized his army, Schofield detailed the 
brigade of Harlan, including Batteries A and G, 3d New York, 
to remain and guard Kinston and the bridges, and on the 20th 
broke camp and marched with all the rest of his forces straight 
towards Goldsboro. Batteries C, D and I, the latter of which 
had now been reinforced by its other section from Newbern, 
accompanied the movement. Our line of march lay through a 
more populous region than that before traversed and there were 
fine farms all along the route. The men foraged liberally. In 
a letter to Schofield, Sherman had said, " We can go wherever 
we can live. We can live wherever the people do, and if any- 
body has to suffer let them suffer." Hence, no sentimental 
tenderness towards rebels existed at headquarters of the Army 
of the Ohio. The men were allowed to forage for provisions as 



VjjI 



CAPTURE OF GOLDSBORO. 28 1 

freely as they pleased, and they certainly did ransack the region 
for chickens, fat turkeys, plump calves, pigs and other choice 
contraband of war with loving and conscientious thoroughness. 
The 3d New York displayed good searching qualities during the 
march and a profusion of poultry, hams and other epicurean 
temptations, dangling from the gun carriages and caissons by 
night fall, showed that our boys had secured their share. Per- 
sonal violence to the people, however, received the sternest 
reprobation, and the sentiment on this subject is fitly shown by 
the fact that on reaching Goldsboro, by Gen. Schotield's order, 
a private of the 12th Cavalry was shot to death with musketry 
for having ravished a woman. 

The army camped at night eighteen miles from Kinston, over 
half-way to Goldsboro. 

Next day, March 21st, the bugles blew for reveille before day- 
light. At 6 o'clock, we resumed the march. The railroad 
builders followed close behind, working an immense force of 
negroes and others in the repair of the road. Heavy skirmish- 
ing took place at the head of the army, but Schofield drove 
everything before him, and in the afternoon entered Goldsboro 
in triumph. The divisions hurried up as fast as possible and 
going through the town they formed line of battle and began to 
fortify at once. 

Nothing being heard from Sherman or Terry, Gen. Schofield 
directed Gen. Carter to post a battery on the river side of the 
town and signal to Sherman by firing salvos of three guns and 
single guns at intervals, that we had taken for him the city which 
was the objective point of his great march. Battery I was 
ordered out for this purpose. It remained in position, firing 
signal guns and beautifully executed salvos, nearly all night. 
Schofield, Carter and other officers of rank set around a camp 
fire near the battery, listening for a reply, occasionally putting 
their ears to the ground in the hope of hearing distant cannon- 
ading, transmission of the sound of which through the air might 
be interrupted by woods, 6-c. Towards morning, we got an 
answer to our firing, which we then soon after discontinued. 

An announcement of his arrival was also sent to Sherman by 
courier. It reached its destination in the morning, and Sher- 
man wrote to Gens. Howard, Slocum and Kilpatrick, " General 
Schofield reports this morning from Goldsboro. So our cam- 
paign is an eminent success." 

Joe Johnston did not interpose between Sherman and Scho- 
field as anticipated; but defeated by the former on the 21st 
near Bentonville, retreated towards Smithfield and Raleigh. 



282 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

On the 22d, Schofield opened up communication across the 
river with Terry. He also discovered that " Uncle Billy," as 
.the men loved to call him, was near at hand, by the arrival of 
straggling parties of those precious fellows — "Sherman's 
bummers." 

Such a looking lot of apparitions never before mingled among 
men. Sherman, at starting out from Atlanta, had issued an 
order to the effect that " the army will forage liberally on the 
country during the march." Every section in the army obeyed 
the mandate with literal exactness ; but there was a class of 
them- which displayed unusual talent in this line, and wandering 
away from their commands they ran independent lines of forag- 
ing of their own, only keeping near enough to the main column 
to be safe, and often ranging way ahead of it, and these, the 
bummers par excellence, were the ones who began to come into 
Goldsboro. Tough as hickory from their 600 mile tramp ; brown 
as nuts; their uniforms torn, patched, stained with mud, and 
pieced out with astonishing garments appropriated from planters' 
wardrobes ; laden with spoils ; some riding on cows ; some in 
carriages drawn by mule and cow teams, — these men presented 
an appearance that baffles description. 

On the morning of the 23d, Sherman rode into the town with 
his staff". He was received with the wildest enthusiasm. Battery 
I fired a Major-General's salute in his honor. During the day, 
Slocum crossed the river by pontoons and other bridges in the 
vicinity and went into camp north of the town. The regiments 
were all full of fire and life, but sadly in need of new clothing. 
Troops continued to arrive for several days until the whole army 
of 75.000 men had been concentrated around the place. Sher- 
man's first solicitude was to reclothe his army. He required an 
immense amount of supplies therefor ; but these had been col- 
lected at Newborn in readiness, and now the railroad and 
wagon roads were taxed to their utmost capacity to bring them 
to the front. The troops left at Kinston to guard our communica- 
tions saw trains of from 200 to 500 wagons come down almost 
daily, and, loading up from the railroad trains and steamers in 
the river, return with their valued stores. 

March 25th, Sherman ran down to Newbern by rail and took 
thence a boat to City Point to confer with Grant. 

A reorganization of the army was now effected at Goldsboro, 
and Schofield, receiving the troops of Terry, formed the Army 
of the Ohio anew, and took his place in the center, in accor- 
dance with the programme suggested by Sherman. On the 2 2d 
he announced Lieut.-Col. Kennedy, of the 3d New York, as 



IN CAMP AT GOLDSBORO. 283 

Chief of Artillery in the Field in his command ; that officer 
having, at his own request, been relieved as Mustering Officer 
of the Department of North Carolina and assigned to active 
service. Kennedy had acted as Mustering Officer since April, 
1864. There was now placed under him all the batteries in the 
6eld in Schofield's command, thirteen in number. 

Sherman returned to Goldsboro on the 30th of March, and 
resumed the study of " the grand and beautiful game of war." 
He proposed to make his next move to the support of Gen. 
Grant April 30th orders were issued to that effect, the army to 
march on the loth northward on the line of the AVeldon Rail- 
road to the Roanoke. Schofield prepared therefor and brought 
up Battery G, from Kinston, the day the order was issued. By 
his direction, the same day. Batteries C, D, G and I, of the 3d 
New York, were detached from the District of Beaufort, and 
constituted the reserve artillery brigade of his Army of the 
Ohio, under the command of the Chief of Artillery in the 
Field. 

Tidings of the Union victories at Petersburg changed the 
programme. Grant telegraphed, "Push Johnston and let us 
finish up this job at once." 

Sherman immediately ordered an advance on Smithfield, where 
Johnston was encamped in force. The march began on the 
loth. The Confederates fell back. We occupied Smithfield 
till the 1 2th, when, hearing of the surrender of Lee, Sherman 
made a rush for Ivaleigh, entering and passing through on the 
13th. Johnston still kept out of his way, and fell rapidly back. 
Our army was rushing eagerly on, on the 14th, extending its 
flanks to prevent Johnston escaping, when the latter sent in a 
flag of truce and asked for an armistice. It was granted, and 
the Union and Confederate armies halted, within striking dis- 
tance of each other, to permit of negotiations for a surrender. 
Gtrn. Schnficld encamped at Raleigh. The armistice was pro- 
tracted till the 26th, Gen. Grant meanwhile coming down to give 
Sherman his counsel in regard to the situation. On the 26th, 
the whole army, infantry and artillery, was called under arms 
for an advance, but Johnston came to terms thereupon at once. 
The four years' war for the Union was over, and the integrity of 
the Republic was saved. 

There is little further to tell concerning the 3d Artillery's ex- 
periences in the field with Sherman. Encamping at Raleigh, 
the four light Batteries remained there till the 2d of June. Dur- 
ing this time there was a grand review of the whole army, lasting 
three days. It took a whole day to review Schofield's command 



! !? • 



284 3^^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY, 

alone. Col. Stewart came up to attend this. He stood by the 
side of Sherman, in the principal street of the city, as the artil- 
lery brigade, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Kennedy, passed, and 
received the General's warm commendation on the soldierly 
bearing and splendid appearance of the 3d New York Batteries, 
with their guns gleaming like burnished gold, as they moved by 
in review. They were by all odds the handsomest in the whole 
artillery brigade. The General spoke approvingly of Batteries 
B and F, which he recollected as having seen at Coosawhatchie 
and Pocotaligo, having heard of their exploits in that de- 
partment, and, after the review, alluding to C, D, G, and I 
again, he told Col. Stewart that he had never seen finer looking 
volunteer artillery than the 3d New York. 

June 2d, Gen. Schofield ordered the 3d New York Batteries 
to proceed at once to Newbern, by easy marches, turn over their 
guns and get ready to go home. On the 5th, Lieut.-Col. Ken- 
nedy was relieved from duty as Chief of Artillery in the Field, 
and directed to rejoin his regiment. 

The light Batteries found Battery A already in Newbern on 
their arrival. It had been sent thither from Kinston, April i8th. 

Gen. Schofield issued the following orders to the troops of the 
Department of North Carolina, on the 13th of June. He said : 
" The time has arrived when I must bid farewell to many of my 
old comrades of the Army of the Ohio, and doubtless the 
time will soon come when we, all must separate. It is a fare- 
well tinged with no feeling of sadness, save for the loss of our 
brave comrades who have fallen. Our thoughts at parting are 
of duty faithfully done, of hardships and dangers bravely met, 
of batdes fought and victories won, of our glorious Union saved 
from destruction and more firmly re-established on the basis of 
freedom for all, of dear homes and friends to which we are re- 
turning, rendered ten-fold more dear by the price it has cost us 
to preserve them, and of the grateful welcome that awaits us 
among our friends and countrymen. * * * ^jy comrades I 
bid you farewell, and may Almighty God bless and reward you 
for your patriotism and fidelity in the cause of Liberty and 
Union." 

June 15th, the five Batteries at Newbern, with the field and 
staff of the regiment, were ordered home for muster out. 



MUSTER OUT STATISTICS. 285 



XVI. 



MUSTERING OUT— GENERAL STATISTICS. 

Muster Out Statistics — The Battles of the Regiment— General Reflections. 

With the month of May, 1865, ended the necessity for the ex- 
istence of the larger part of the Army of the Union. The rebel 
armies had dispersed. Civil government had been re-estab- 
lished in the Southern States. Telegraphic orders were accord- 
ingly issued from time to time during May and June, from the 
War Department, for the muster out of the various classes of 
volunteer troops. June 19th, orders were issued for the Bat- 
teries in the department of North Carolina to go home, and 
other orders, about the same time, for those in the Military Di- 
vision "of the James and the Department of the South, to do the 
same. The batteries in Virginia, viz: E, H, K and M, were 
the tirst to comply. Their final muster-out rolls having been, at 
the cost of much overhauling of papers and an immense amount 
ot penmanship, properly made out, they turned over their guns 
anil equipments at Richmond to the United States Quartermas- 
ter, and received their honorable discharge from the service. 
'IVansportation was furnished them by rail via Elmira and Bing- 
h imton to Syracuse, N. Y., where they were paid off, and then 
scattered to their homes. Batteries A, C, D, G, I, and L, 
turned over their guns and equipments in Newbern, which was 
the designated depot therefor, and, with the field and staff, took 
boats thence for New York citv. They went on to Albany and 
Syracuse, and were disciiarged and paid off in the latter place. 
Batteries B and F left their guns in Charleston, taking receipts 



286 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

from the Quartermaster, and went home via Washington. They 
mustered out in Syracuse. 

The membership of the regiment at the final winding up of 

its affairs was 2,200. The total number of men received into it, 

from first to last, was 4,408. Its membership at the different 

' stages of its career (not counting the ist New York Battery, the 

so-called Battery L), was as follows : — 

1861 — May 22, 742 ; July i, 729 ; August i, 712 ; September 
I, 639 ; October i, 619 ; November i, 600 ; December i, 542. 

1862 — Januar}' i, 657; February i, 681; March i, 1,093; 
April I, 1,336; May i, 1,317; June i, 1,314; July i, 1,303; 
August I, 1,293; September i, 1,271; October i, 1,475; No- 
vember I, 1,600; December i, 1,604. 

1863 — January i, 1,698; February i, 1,572; March i, 1,570; 
April I, 1,539 ; May i, 1,445 \ June i, 893 ; July i, 873 ; Aug- 
ust I, 876; September 1,862; October i, 860; November i, 
1,048 ; December i, 1,048. 

1864 — January i, 1,048; February i, 1,074; March i, 1,101: 
April I, 1,504; May i, 1,716; June i, 1,705; July i, 1,675; 
August I, 1,675 ) September i, 1,645 > October i, 1,905 ; No- 
vember I, 2.488. December i, 2,550. 

1865 — January i, 2,529 ; February i, 2,372 ; March i, 2,370; 
April I, 2,177 ; May i, 2,160 ; June i, 2,200. 

The regiment lost by disease, 247 men : killed in action, 15 ; 
taken prisoners and died in Andersonville, Florence and Rich- 
mond prisons, 70 ; wounded in action, 235 ; lost by desertions 
•(bounty jumpers, &:C.) 347. It also lost 11 guns in action — lo 
by capture, i by explosion. 

The regiment fought 64 battles, sieges and skirmishes, partici- 
pating prominently and with credit in some of the most impor- 
tant and decisive of the war. The names and dates of these 
are presented for recapitulation herewith. They are as follows : 

Martinsburg, Virginia, June 11, 1861. 

Lovettsville, Virginia, August 9, 1861. 

Fort Macon, North Carolina, April 25, 1862. ' ' - • 

Washington, North Carolina, September 6, 1862. 

Rawles Mills, North Carolina, November 2, 1862. 

South West Creek, North Carolina, December 13, 1862. 

Kinston, North Carolina, December 14, 1862. 

Whitehall, North Carolina, December 16, 1862. 

Goldsboro, North Carolina, December 17, 1862. 

Springbank, North Carolina, December 17, 1862. 

Newbern, North Carolina, March 14, 1863. 

Deep Gully, North Carolina, March 13, 1863. * 



BATTLES OF THE REGIMENT. 28/ 

Blount's Creek, North Carolina, April 9, 1863. 
Gum Swamp, North Carolina, May, 1863. 
Core Creek, North Carolina, May, 1863. 
Bachelor's Creek, North Carolina, May, 1863. 
Seabrook Island, South Carolina, June 18, 1863. 
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, July, 1863. 
Tarboro, North Carolina, July, 1863. 
Fort Wagner, South Carolina, July i8, 1863. 
Siege of Fort Wagner, South Carolina, July 18 to September 
5» 1863. . 

Morris Island, South Carolina, August 22 to August 30, 1863. 
Camden Court House, Virginia, November 3, 1863. 
Dismal Swamp, Virginia, November 3, 1863. 
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, November 2 
to November 5, 1863. 

Newbern, North Carolina, February i to February 4, 1864. 
Bachelor's Creek, North Carolina, February i, 1864. 
Beech Grove, North Carolina, February 2, 1864. 
Brice's Creek, North Carolina, February 2, 1864. 
Folly Island, South Carolina, February 9, 10, and 11, 1864. 
Fort Clifton, Virginia, May 9, 1864. 
Harrison's Church, Virginia, May 11, 1864. 
Drury's Bluff, Virginia, May 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1864. 
Harrison's Plantation, Virginia, May 15, 1864. 
Spring Hill, Virginia, May 18, 1S64. 
Fort Powhatan, Virginia, May 21, 1864. 
Wilson's Wharf, Virginia, May 24, 1864. 
Siege of Petersburg, Virginia, May, to taking of Petersburg, 
Virginia, 1864. 

Ruffin's farm, Virginia, June 16, 1862. 

Petersburg, Virginia, June 16, 1864. 

Walthal Farm, Virginia, June, 1864. 

Druid's Fields, Virginia, 1S64. 

Dutch Gap, September, 1S64. 

Chapin's Farm, Virginia, September 29 and 30, 1864. 

tort Harrison, Virginia, September 29 and 30, 1864. 

Fort Burnham, Virginia, October 3, 1864. 

Fort Burnham, Virginia, October 7, 1864. 

Rebel iron clads, James river,-jVirginia, October 22, 1864. 

Honey Hill, Georgia, November 30, 1864. 

Deveaux Neck, Georgia, December 7, 1864. 

Camp HoUey, Virginia, December 10, 1S64. 

Gardner's Bridge, North Carolina, December 9, 1864. 

Foster's Mills, North Carolina, October 10, 1864. 



^'A i ,-y > 



288 3^ NEW-YORK. VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Butler's Bridge, North Carolina, October 12, 1864. 

Point Comfort, North Carolina. February, 1865. 

Wise's Forks, North Carolina, March 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1865. 

Richmond, Virginia, April 3, 1865. 

Plymouth siege. North Carolina, April 20, 1864. 

Johns Island, South Carolina, February i, 1864 and July 9, 
. 1864. 

James Island, South Carolina, July 9, 1864. 

South Mills, North Carolina, 1864. 

Pocotaligo, South Carolina, July 8, 1864. , 

Camden, South Carolina, April, 1865. 

Ashepoo, South Carolina, February 8, 1865. 

In view rff the number of bloody, engagements on this long 
list, the non-military reader may find himself musing on the 
slight losses of the regiment in killed and wounded. It is 
natural to form an opinion of the extent and value of the services 
of a regiment on the number of its casualties. Thus, we know, 
as a matter of course, that the 75th New York, the iiith, the 
i6oth and 138th, (all regiments from Cayuga county,) did gal- 
lantly in action and were in the thickest of hotly fou^t battles, 
because they were so thinned down by bullet and shell. But it 
would be incorrect in the highest degree to found opinions of 
that sort, in regard to regiments of artillery, on such a basis. 
Artillery has a different mission on the battle field and fights in 
a different way. As a rule, it fights at long range and under the 
cover of earthworks or crests of hills. Infantry, as a rule, fights 
at short range and is more exposed. Artillery inflicts terrible 
injury, but incurs little. So far, in fact, is it from being true 
that the value or extent of the services of artillery is tested by 
its losses of men and horses that the reverse is actually the 
case. It is a military axiom, to use the language of Gen. Barry, 
the greatest artillerist in our army during the war, that the value 
of the services of batteries and battery commanders on the held 
of battle is shown " by their skill and judgment in so covering 
their batteries, that even under a heavy fire, their losses and 
expenditures are small," due attention, of course, having been 
first paid to the securing the greatest tfficacy of fire. The few- 
ness of casualties in the 3d Artillery, considering its active par- 
ticipation in great battles and long sieges, is, therefore, a circunv 
stance that stands to its credit. 

A better idea of the usefulness of the regiment will be gained 
by considering what it accomplished. And first, in battle, the 
execution of its batteries was fearful. It was one of the great 
characteristics of the regiment that it could not be excelled in 



.we. 



SERVICES OF THE REGIMENT.] 289 

any department In which it served for its intellisjence and pro- 
ficiency in handling: its guns and its accuracy of fire. The regi- 
ment was famous for it, and at Kinston, Goldsboro, Washington, 
Johns Island, Honey Hill, Drury's Bluff, Petersburg and Wise's 
Forks, the slaughter it inflicted will compare favorably with 
that inflicted by the infantry and in several of these actions was 
undoubtedly greater. In many of these and other battles, it 
won the day, and in some it saved the army from disaster. 

In the sieges its record is equally good. Nothing that field 
guns could do could be done any quicker or surer by any bat- 
teries in the service than by those of the 3d Artillery. It could 
shut up a hostile redoubt, clean a parapet of sharpshooters, 
knock down a signal tower, scatter a working party, or repulse 
a charge, with a facility that invariably won the admiration of 
commanders and men. At Macon it did more than all others 
to obtain that glorioue victory. In North Cirolina, the posts it 
garrisoned sustained heavy attacks and sieges, and in all the 
varying fortunes of warin that State never lost a fort, redoubt, 
or post. Battery -L (the old 24th New York) was at Plymouth 
in April, 1864, when that place was taken, but that was nearly a 
year before the battery joined the regiment. 

Though less showy, -the ser\'ices of the regiment in building, 
mounting the armament of, and garrisoning the forts which made 
our foothold in North Carolina impregnable, and in doing gen- 
eral engineer duty, were not less useful. Its moral power was 
also great, and subserved two valuable ends. It deterred the 
rebels from assaulting our fortified posts -in anything but strong 
force, so that when they did set active operations on foot against 
us, they had to withdraw large bodii-s of troops from their other 
armies therefor. It also contributed "largely to detain a large 
force of rebel troops continually in the State to guard the poinrs 
exposed to the powerful expeditions which our Generals in North 
Carolina were able at various times, and liable at all times, to 
send out. 

While the regiment was yet an infantry organization it did 
valuable service, and was one of the most useful regiments in 
the division to which it was assigned. It was always readv to 
fi^ht. It did heavy guard and picket duty throughout its whole 
Virginia and Maryland experience. It did valuable engineering 
duty at Muddy Branch and Hancock. For a long period, it 
guarded the supply trains of the division — an important trust. 
And in the blaze of summer, the rains and mud of fall, and the 
asperities of winter, it bore the hardships of long marches and 
almost shelterless bivouacs with readiness and unmurmuring 
endurance. s 



290 3^ NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

We can only add that, in its services, in the standing and 
ability of its officers, and in the character and morals of its 
men, the 19th Infantry and 3d Artillery was an honor to the 
County, in which it took its origin, and to the Empire State, in 
spite of the cloud that overhangs some of its earlier days. 



FINIS. 



I-^T'H v.M,-V/'' 



MUSTER ROLLS 



OF THE 



19TH New York Volunteers 



AND 



3D New York Artillery. 



MUSTER ROLL. 



Names and Final Rank of Every Member of the 19th New York Volunteer 
Infentry and 3d New York Volunteer Artillery, Except Deserters; With 
Dates of Rank and Muster Out (or Promotion) of Officers, and Specification 
of those who Died in the Service.* 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Colonfl*— John S. Clark. May 17, 1861; reslfyned Dec. 23, 1861. James H. Ledlie. 
Nov. IH, l.s*;i; promoted to Brifradier-General Dec. 24, lbti2. Charles H. Stewart, 
Jaa. 1, ixil-i; mustered out July 15, IStS. 

/.^tw/*fl</;,^(■„/</«,'/*— Clarence A. b.'ward, May 17, 1861; rpsigiipd Sept. 'iS. 1S61. 
James H. Ledlie, Sept. 28, IWl; promoted. Charles H. Stewart, D.-c. ii, 1M">I: pro- 
moted. Heury M. Stone. Jan. 1, l^*«-'i; died of yellow fever at Newberu, MuyJO. 
ItW. Terenee J. Kennedy, Oi-t. 2, lWi4; mustered out July 15, I860. 

^f^^jr>r>^—oeLTnca H. Ledlie, May 17, 18<n; promoted. Charles H. Stewart, Dec. 3:1, 
l-^rtl;" promoted. Henrr M. Stono, Dec. 2:1. ISiil; promoted. Solomon (Jil.,-k Jan. 
a. 1S»;2; rosigmed May ^"2. iy<>3. Terence J. Kennedy, Jan. 2a. lNi2; prononvl. LJ. 
win S. Jenney, Jan. 1. 1S*>.3: mustered out Sept. 22. WA. Theodore H. S< h.-mk. 
Sept. .•10, is»>i; mu.stered out with the regiment July l.i. 18<«. William S. IJull. Nov. 
»), IsiVt; never joined resiment. Wm. J. Rii;;:3. Sept. 2:3. 1K6J; mustered out July 
15, l,vi5. James R. AngeL, appointed Brevet-Major by the President to rauli from 
March i:}. 1S<m. 

A-'iut'triU-lleary M. Stone, May 17, 1.%!; promoted. J. Fred. Dennis, Dec. 2:1, 
l"*!!; returned to Battery E Nov. 18, 1W)2: mustered out June 2, istl-l. .\U'X. 11. 
Davin. Nov. IH. 1862: promoted to Captain and A. A. G. on Gen. Ledlie's staff Dee. 
a«. Wi2 James S. Puller, returned to Battery E. Geo. W. Leimanl. 2d. Dec. 24, 
l"xl-i: rellevi-d at his own request March 9, 1865. Jay E. Storke, April 14, 1865; mus- 
tereil nut with recriment. 

.s.,r-;^,.;i»— Theo.lore Dimon, May 17, ISiil; mn.stered out June 'i, 18tvl. Wm. W. 
Knlk'ht. June :i. isr^l; resigned June 1, 18»>1. Alfred D. Wilson, May 2J, 18tVt; nius- 
tert-d out with recriment. 

.l-.*/..',;Nf-.<'(/-(/,v>;,*_Kenj. W. Howard. May 17. 1861; appointed Surpeon In regular 
»rriy Sept. 11, IHiil. Wm. W. Kni-ht, Oct. 17, ISili; promoted. Bradford S. Miiulv, 
June W. l-^c); appointed Surgeon lat U. S. Cavalrv Dec. 11, l.so:!. Arehiliahl K. 
Mudie, March 22. IKtU; resisned May 6, 18<')5. Francis W. Benjamin, Sept. IJ. l""l: 
mustered out with re','lmeiit. 

r/..;/.,',n'i»— Henry W. Fowler, .Tune 1, 1861; resigned Sept. 30, 1861. William Hart. 
Oct. 17, l.s;i ; resigned 31ay 20, W>:i. 

• The. n»m«8 of the men of the 19th are taken from the Muster-In Rolls of tlie riu-niK-tit 
»nfl from ihe reglmcnlal descriptive booit. Those of the 3d Artillery from tlie Hum .Mu»ur 
Out KolU. 



294 "^ 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

(^tarterm*! stern— John. Chpdell, May 17, 1861; resigned July 31, 1862. Frpd W 
Pnnce. Aug. 1, 18fid; resigned Feb. 24, lWi.3. Samuel B. Tobey, Jr., April 2.5, 1863- 
relieved at his own requpst Dec. 31, 1S*>3. Paul Fay, Dec. 3. lSti3; same jfay 1"' 
1864. Wm. A. Kelsey, May IT, 1S64; promoted Sept. Zi, 1864. Ogilvie D. Ball, Feb! 
25, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 

ConunikMary — Georjjo E. Ashby, July 1. 18»>1; promoted March 10, 1862. 

State Pat/maMer—Pa.ul B. Woodruff, 3Iay 17, 1861. 

Serffeant-Jfiijors—F. G. Smith, May 22, 1861: reduced Oct. 31. 1861. James Fuller, 
Nov. 1, 1861; promoted. George E. Sherwood. April 10, 1862; mustered out June Z, 
1863. Milan B. Goodrich, June 20. 186.'$; promoted March 8, 1864. Jay E. Storke, 
Mav 3, 1864; promoted Dec. 26. Charles E. Waldron, March 4, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment. 

CommiMMry-Sergennt^—GeciT^^ Humphrey, July 12, 1861; reduced Julv 2:3, 1862, 
E. C. Manning. July 23, 1862; promoted to Ut Lieutenant 1st Union S. O. Vols. 
April i86, 186.3; mustered out June 2. James VanVleck, Aug. 1, 186;$; promoted SeptI 
14. E. Barton Wood, Oct. 13. WJ3; appointed Quartermaster-Sergeant Dec. 16! 
Albert C. Devendorf, Dec. 16, 18t«; promoted Oct. 2, 1^64. Amos H. Dean. Jan. 20, 
1865; appointed Quartermaster-Sergeant April 4. Geo. H. Wright, April 4, 1865: 
mustered out with regiment. 

QuarterjnnMer-^SemeiDitt—'^^raneXXohey. Aug. 12, 1851; promoted March 10, 1862. 
Paul Jay, March 10, 1862; promoted Jan. 1. Geo. W. Leonard, April 25, 186.3- pro- 
moted July 3. Burton S. Milln. Oct. 12, 18C)4: appointed 1st Lieutenant in Ist N. C. 
Col. Art. Feb. 22, 1865. AnUiS H. Dean. April 4. lS<i.'5: promoted April 25. 

Hcmpitiil Steirerrfa — Charle* A. Caiilkins, May 22, 1861 ; dis<?harged by order Mc- 
CTellan March 4, 1862. Retihen R. Worth. March 4, 18<i2; reduced Dec. 9. Ulysses 
Jeffrey, Dec. 9, 18«)2; mu.stered out June 2, 1863. Geo. F. Liebman, June 3 1863- 
mustered out Oct. H. 18<i4, Wm. F. EUlridge. Jan. 28, 1.S65; mustered July 15, 1865.' 
J. Rowland Brownell, Oct. 7. l.'-*)4; reduced Dec. 17. 

Dnim JfiiJorK — C. Higgrenbotham; transferred to band. Andrew Hollenbeck, Jan 
1, 1862; mustered out Jan. 1, l«»s3. 

F^e Major— mrAUx C. Adle, May 22, 1861; reduced Sept. 29, 1862. 



THE BAND. 

[Enlisted by Major Giles, Nov. 19. 1861. Mustered out aa a Band, May 2, 1862, by 
order of Gen. Bumslde, and consolidated.] 

Sherwood S. Ball. Oran D. Bates,* AshbeJ W. Carr, Henry C. Carr,* Geo. E. Carr, 
Robert A. Dyer, Calvin F. Dafgett,* Thomas Egan, Benj. V. Fowler. Henry F. 
Funk; James C. Gould. <li.'d at H.waock, March 1, 1H62, of fever; Henrv L. Hall, 
Charles H. Herberm-r, Thinim.s W. Judson,* Wilbur F. Leete, Lester Martin, Lem- 
uel Peabody, Eraatua H. Pierre, Edward M. Parmelee. 



COMPANY "A," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated May 22, 1863, and two years* men mustered out June 2d.] 

Ciiptii in*— John T. Baker, April 25, 1861; resigned Nov. 7. Charles White, Nov. 5, 
ISCl; June 2. lM»i.3. 

Firxt ^/«'w/»'H.j;.'f»— Charles Tomllnson, Nov. 5, 1861; mustered out with company. 
John T. Potter, April It), I>"i2; sanu\ 

.SfTiV-i/ir*— David MfCrcrv. Harur-tt N'agle, Edgar B. Warren, David F. Bottewell, 
Robert Haynt-s. Van I'.-.ir.-n Wilkin.s.m, Wm. Ferjnison, Wm. H Hurd. 

(■V>ry).>r<(/*-Briidfor(l W. Dcud. Bishop E. Ames. Murray Chattteld, Orson Clark, 
Peter V. Orepnman, Fnuik W. Payne, George W. Monroe, David Thompson, James 
Clark, Frank Putiiani. K. H. Spi-nccr. 

/>/-i/«imcr — Fri'dtTirk 1). Wright. 

Fi/t'i — Charlert Anthony. 

• DlBCbarged May 2, 1S&.>. 



f»'- 



MUSTER ROLL. 295 

Prirat¥'*—^ffm. Ashton, Charles W. Bancroft, Chester D. Barnes, Charles Beitz. 
Andrew Bower, Wm. H. Boynton, David F. Bothwell, Charles W. Brokaw. Orant^o 
E. Birch, Henry Brown, Charles A. Caulkins. Willis Collier, Myron B. Crans-.u, 
Isaac Cordon, Fayette Choate. John B. Coyle. Henry C. Cobb. Wm. H. Crosier. Jas. 
R. Dady, John H. Davidson, Wm. Dresser," Lorenzo Daniels, John J. Duratt, J-im.a 
Dyer, David Everts. Robert E. Firth, Wm. Frair, Daniel W. Goodridge, John Frc.st, 
Thomas H. Funi.-ss. RoUin S. GifBn, closes Grant. Charles Grover, Fayette Knu- 
}{erford, Lyman T. Haines, Franklin O. Harden, Peter E. Hummel, Charles T. Hiy;- 
genbothani, Fn-deriok Hitchcock. Dannieril. Hoppiusr; Henry Hoagland, died Dec. 
15, 1>*1; Wm. H. Hoppinc, Jasper Howe, Ulvsses F. Jeffries, Jotham Jayne, Horain 
B. Johnson, Georue W. Johnson, Charles ii. Kirkpatrick, Henry C. King, Joseph 
KenJiedy. John W. Law, Henry Loveland, John Lynd, James M. Law, Orlando 
Lillie, John F. Lowe, Abner Livingston. Thomas H. Marks, George A. Mosher. Al- 
bert W. Jloulton, Henry McXab, Jaraes Marks, Charles S. Nelson, Dwight Powers, 
Charles Patten, Jamea Peterson, John H. Pomeroy. Thomas E. Post, Esquire (J. 
Pollock; Charles E. Qiugley, died at Hancock, Feb. 18. lS*i:i; David Ray, Charles H. 
Richardson, Joseph Rundle, H. J. E. Roffee, Frank G. Smith, Wm. Spinner. Mar- 
ceUus S. Slater, ALfred Spoor, Joseph Spoor, Wm. C. Smith. Halton B. Stalker. Da- 
Tld W. Stewart, George H. Stringham, Wm. E. Sandford, Wm. Swetland, Judah K. 
Taylor, Giles Taylor, John Theurer. Samuel B. Tobey. Jr.. Major Truax, Oscar E. 
Van Buskirk, Frank O. Vauderheyden, Wm. H. Van TasseL, Charles C. Whipple, 
Myron Watts, T. D. Walker, Wm. Whipple, Daniel Wilcox, John Wall, Henry L. 
Warner, Edwaxd D. Wlieatoa, Richard S. White, Elijah White. 



BATTERY "A," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 3, 1865.] 

CnpUiln — Samuel P. Russell, Sept. 23, 18t>4; mustered out with Eatteij- 

firxt Lieut i>iiuiiti*—Vfm. Richardson, Sept. 3, 18tv4; and Charles H. Davis, mus- 
tered out with B.ittery. 

Sf<on.,l f.ifuten<i)itM— Edwin C. Rockwell, Sept. 23, "'64; and Edward Cunningham, 
Sept. ai 1N«14; mu«tere<l out with Battery. 

.•>rr<jf,inU — James W. Svinderliu, (Jt-orge H. Battanvs, Willis G. Watson. Samuel 
Edmonds, David Thompson, Philip A. Faatz, John L Brinkerhoff. Nelson Johns'ju, 
Nathaniel A. I'ike. Wm. Ferguson. 

t'orfM^nii'i — Joiiiah B. Brinkerhoff. Erastus W. Allen. George H. Stringham. Ed- 
ward Eelfs, Biiwen B. Harkness, Erastus Smith, Theo. Kelsey, John E. Bidw--il. 
Artemua W. Bodman, Wm. E. Dodrick. Demerick Pease, Alex. Metlack, David 
TbumiLson, Charles P. White. Edward A. Ladue. 

.P"i;?rr»— Wm. Blakely, Charles P. WUkins, Jr. 

PririitfM — John Able, Wm. A. Appleton, Charles Applegate, Jr., James B. Annin. 
Enplebert Addis, Jos. A. Adams. Hamilton .Applegate, Eli P. Babcock, Jotin Br. n- 
nan, EdwiL Brennan. Albert Bruce, Jr., Thos. G. Bell, Jos. Bulhand. A. S. Bostwirk, 
A. R. Boyutoo, Wm. Brown. Martin J. Balliet, David Bulkley, Wm. L. Bramun. il. 
B<>han. Ri.tj^rt O. Burgess, Francis R. BourelC John Bnidy, Charles B. Boiita, Saiu'l 
E- n»>vi,'r. Jas. V. B\itt.s, .\lva B, Botsford, John C. Brown, Mason L. Butts, Charles 
H. Brii,t..l, Francis W. Barnard, Wm. Bn.xcom, J. B. Berry, Patrick Buckley. Ciivs- 
tiT Bills. Hiram BlaisdelL, Wm. Breckenridge, Darwin F. Briusdale; Charlt-s L. 
Browa, died at Newbern, Oct. iS. l>^r,i. of yellow fever: John .S. Cummings, R.ia- 
»..m Clark. Cuylcr W. Coates. Bradford CleavelaniL Charles Carter. John Chirk, 
Th.-maK Carliii. Eugene Couklin. H.-nrv Cook, Andrew A. Coe. Almon Ca.se, J. ihii H. 
Cukiln. Andr.w C.ipp. Justice .\. Chaffee. Jas. Castlcr, David Crayton. .•Vnsuii i/'l- 
llwri, John Crayton, Edwin H. Carpenter, Martin V. Covert. Jos. .M. Cooley, Jai!i>s 
McC.Junfll; .I,ruin.> S. Chaffee, died at Newljern. April ;21i. l,si'i.5, of intlammaticm 'if 
the lungs; Wm. (). Duvall. Jr., Hulbert Duratt, John M. Dawson, David D.-n;- ii. 
L«'vi D.-ck.-r; .Martin Dousjlass, died at Roanoke Lsland, N..v. 27. lSti4, of f.>\ ,r; 
KU.nnce D.-nuhu^; Charles S. Dexter, died at Newbern, Oct. CS, 18*i4. of vcll.w 
fever; James Dunn. <llcd at Xewb.-rn. Jan. IH, IStio: Geortre J. Easterbrooks. J' ■<■ ^■ 
EUton. L.-wis K. Ellis, .Moses Ewin.s, Wm. T. Eldridge, Wm. Fertruson. J"hn l-:>it- 
t.ry, Hiram Foll.-tt. Il.'iirv W. Fav. Thomas Fergusou. John Frost, Thonins Fo;.;., 
James P. Fanning'. Levi t'nll.r. Wm, Fiero, Moses R. Gillicrt. Kphraim (i.-ifr-y 
KoUin S. fiiihii. Jiiriu-,3 <irifllu. Gcorce D. Gillett. Squire E. Hop|>er. .^ylvottT -->. 
Hubbard, Jos. W. Uauuuoud.-i, Jtihn Hunter, Corydou Haines, Hiram Harkm-.i. D.i- 



296 



3D NEW-fORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



▼id Hibbard, Martin H. Hompe, Lyman Hawes. Henry D. Harley, Patrick Hallan, 
Fred. Hitchcock, John W. Hallett, Delos Harring, Amos Holcomb. Vtm. H. Hark- 
nelL, Benj. F. Hatch; George Henderson, died May 7, 1865, of typhoid fever; James 
Kema. Andrew G. Kemp, John Kelley. Ambrose J. Knapp, Samuel Kemp, Charles E. 
Knapp, Edward A. Laduo, James Lantice. Wm. Lyddon, Cassius M. Liuce, John 
Ladue, Joseph Landin, Daniel Lane, Charles W. Lebanon, Adelbert Lawrence. Da- 
rid Lee, Thomas li. Ladue. Charles W. Lewis. John M. W. Mattoon: Nelson Mosher. 
missing in action near Butler's bridge, X. C. Dec. V2. WA; Perry N'. Miles. Robert 
3Iaok, Peter 3IcGovem. John H. Merritt. Wellington W. Mclutyre, John 3IcConnell, 
Andrew J. Mason. Marcus O. Morris, James McConnell, Theo. S. McKissick, Patrick 
Mesket, Wm. H. MiiUoy, Thomas Murray. John McKeon, James S. McKissick; Jas. 
A. Morrison, died at Newbem, Xov. IH, 1864, of typhoid fever; Cornelius W. Mat- 
toon, died at New York, April -iA, 18»i5; James H. Kelson. Volney S. Nelson. Michael 
Nolan, Alba Naracon. James Prime, John Page. George H. Phillips, Asa B. Pidge, 
John E. Rice, John Rattiiran. Lee Rusco. L. A. Ransier, Frank Raines. Jas. A. Ran- 
dall, John H. Smith. Andrew H. Smith. Thoniaa H. Strong, John Sutcliffe, Samuel 
Sperria, David D. Sheldon. David. B. Srursis, Henry D. Squires. Edwin M. Scott, 
John G. Slawson, John Seeley, Patrick Smith. Hiram Stewart. George A. Swan. De- 
lancey D. Stone, Henry M. S'elover, Wm. A. Stone, John L. Selover. Dexter Smith, 
Squire O. Stockwell, James Sperl, Charles A. Tumier. Jos. Thompson. John 3L 
Tbomaa, Au.smer O. Titus, Simon Townsend, Jos. B. Turner, Andrew J. Tuttle. 
Wm. A. Tuttle, John Van Alstyne, Fred. Van Alstyne; Wm. H. Van Wagner, died 
at Newbem, Oct. 5, 18#V4. of fever; Charles R. White. Alex. Wallace, Milo Webster, 
John M. West, Franklin Whalen. John Wright. Albert D. Wheeler, John Williams; 
George W, Werner, died in the service; Horatio Yates. 



COMPANY «B," 19TH INFANTRY. 

(Consolidated February 22. 1862.] 

rnn*nin — Terence J. Kennedy, April iU, 1861; promoted to Major 3d Artillery, Jan. 
23, 18q2. 

>t;«f LUritenant — John Poison, resigned Jan: 24, 1862. 

SH'Mid LUvteiutnt — Henry C. Dav. r^^signed Feb. 6, 1862. 

SerQeantH — Andrew J. Cowan, Vt'ta. H. Gault, David C. Hutchinson, WiUiam H. 
Barnes. 

/>r/)on-/?*— Walter H. Rodgers. George Burt, Albert F. Adle, Edgar H. Titus. 

Drummer — Theo. M. BrowTi. 

Fi/er—mr&m C. Adle. 

Priraif-ii — Wm. H. Baxter. Howard Beardsley. James H. Betts. James Blackman, 
John L. Blowers. Ni<holas C. Bradt, Cornelius Bradt; Thomas Bums, died Feb. 28, 
1'^}; George Brill. Jonathan Bush, V.in Buren Carlton, Wm. P. Culver. Thomas S. 
Devoe, Jervis E. Daniels. Adelbert Dady, John Dunn. Lycurgus Ellis. Edwin Evans, 
Charles H. Fowler. Jamfs Fnizce. Charles Green, Theodore Goff, John Groves. Wm. 
H. Garrett, Geo. Hick.^. Edwin Hall, Georgia Hall, L^aae S. Hall, Healey G. Harmon, 
Charles Harris, Henry L. Hall. Edwin .k. Havr-ris. Edward Howard, Henry F. Jeu- 
aer, Hiram Johnson, Wm. H. Johu.son. Charl.-s Johnson, Allen Kilburu. John Long. 
Wm. Leach. Albert A. Lewis, Jnhu Mabev. Winchester G. Mattison, George McGee. 
Thomas McLaughlin. Charh's Monroe, Tliaddeus J. lilurphy. Thomas J. O'Hara, 
Elias Ostrander, John S. Palmer, E.^quire C. Pollock, Wm. H. Pullock. James E. 
Portingale, Charle.s W. Rash, Conrad R.iskofT, Robert Riley, .A. B. Rockwood, Theo. 
Rogersi. John Sh'^a. Wm. P. Siddons. John Sniiicg. Franklin D. Smith. Elisha W. 
Stanton, Charles Sweet; Harlow .Sherwood, accidentally shot at Hancock. Feb. 18, 
l'^';2; .\mos Thompson, Edward Timmons. Stephen rtt>-r, Frederick Vandenburg, 
John D. Van Duseu, James Vaa Gorder, Richard H. Weaver, Flavius J. Webster, 
Samuel Winters. 



BATTERY " B/' 3D ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 13, 1865.] 

r,?j^.Mi>#— Joseph J. Morrison. Dec. 18, I'Wl; appointed Colonel, 16th New York 
Artillery. James E. Ashcroft, assigned to the Battery in 1S»>J; mustered oat June 



MUSTER ROtL. 297 

22. WA. Thomas J. iiercereau, Oct. 3, 1864; mustered out with Battery July 13, 
llj«)5. 

firnt LieuteniiT>t»—Sa.rauf'l Clark Day, promoted to Captain of F. Edward A. 
Wlldt, Jan. 18, IWW; died Nov. 30, I81VI, of wounds received at Honev Hill. S. C. 
0<'o. C. Breck, Jan. 27. IHtVj; mustered out July 13, 1865. Geo. H. Crocker, Xov. 15, 
l!*i4: rouatered out with B.attery July 13, 1865. 

S>''-iyr"/ /Jt- lit r 71 <iji ft — John W. Hecs. Jan. 23, 1861; promoted and tranaferref*. 
Danif-l Folk, Jtin. 27, lS(;-,>: same. Richard Jones, March 2, 1865, and Thos. H. I. 
Martin, May 1, l.s<>o; mustered out July 13, 18(J5. 

S^nj^'iiit/i — Charles W. Klopseh, James Yates. Daniel Sneeshall, Joseph Collin?, 
Gardner D. Gould. Nelson Elliott, Jas. M. Staples, Geo. E. Fisher, Patrick Lahan, 
Hamiltnu Otis, Ansel Holmes, Miles T. Crocker, John B. French, Stephen O. Whit- 
more, Jacob D. Penuell, Sam'l D. Vanderheyden. 

CoriioniU — Edfrar A. Sanders, Henry B. Greenway. Ralph Somers, Edgar J. 
Lyons, Charles Gunn, Jacob D. Pennell, James Gray, David Sterling, Thomas 
Hnlihan, Chan. D. Philips, Geo. W. Howe, Aaron Bellows, Geo. J. Greening, Wm. 
B. White, Henry S. Dickerson, James Hennessy. James Broomtleld. John Robinson, 
Janes Ferpison, Bennett J. Denson. John E. Huntington, David Kingsley: Geo. P. 
White, dit'd at Newbem Nov. 28. 18ti2: Charles Young, died on Seabrook Islai:d 
July I'J, K**«>i; T. J. Webster, Ferdinand Halstead, Theo. Fisher, Hugh McPike, 
James Yates. * 

S'lglfru — Joseph Helbert, John Ackerman. 

Art!tictr»—¥red. Mettel, John Wilson. Darius Matthews, Charles Gunn. 

/Yir*;f<f*i— Stephen Albro ; Daniel Abbot, died at Beaufort, S. C, Oct. 26, 1863 ; 
Wm. Booth, Alfred Burlew, Albert W. Butler, Wm. Basmer, Charles H. Branch, 
Friend Baker, Henry Borke, Lee Bookstaver. Loren S. Bradley, James Broomtleld, 
Jno. W. Bennett, Henry Baurlin, John Buchanan. Frank Barney ; Jacob Bnurlin, 
died In tTie service ; Egbert Coduer, Charles Counsell, Henry H. Cornwell, Silas 
Criss, Wm. P. Crowell, David B. Cannovan, Sylvester Corey, Jacob Cordes, Wm. 
E. Curry, Pat. Curneen ; Eugene Cypher, died on Morris Island, Oct. 11, 1«6'J ;Alex. 
Campbell, Wm. Crawford, Peter Colburn, Geo. D. Clark, died Nov. 19, 18t;2, at 
Newbern ; Saml. Chambers, died Jan. Ifi, 1865 ; Joel Coon, Jos. H. Daw ; Alfred 
Durbin, died at Hilton Head, Feb. 27, lau ; Franklin Duncan, died on Morris 
Iflland. Dec. 3, IHtvJ ; Lawrence Donlan, Wra. Duffy, Abram Dean, Henry J. 
Di(kerson,_ Geo. Dachart, Loren Demond, Patrick Davy, Martin Demond, Samuel 
D.irbln, Waterman L. Davis, John Durgy, Jloitimer Durgj", James Dunn, Hugh 
Donovan, Daniid O. Driscoll. John Defour, Wm. B. Daniels. Wm. Durbin, Lewis S. 
Dyer, Chas. H. Dres.^er ; Geo. W. Dinehart, discharged on account of wounds 
rr.f-iv-d at Honey Hill, Nov. 30, 186J ; Charles English. Jno. S. Earle. Dayton 
Edward, James H. Eckersou. James Finn, Wm. French. Gilbert B. Follett. Gho. J. 
F..iit.-r, James J. Ferris, John M. Failing, Wm. H. Failing, Walstein A. Failing, 
Spt-ncr France, Wm. B. Fuller, Harlow Finger, David R. Forrest. John Farrt-ll, 
Jamns Farrell, Wm. Franklin, Theo. Fisher. David Finger. John M. Fenton : Edwin 
11. Fish, died at Hilton Head, Nov. 3, IS^H ; Henrv Finlayson, died at David's Lsland 
Hospital April l.-). WVl ; James R.Grant, Elliott H.Gordon. CharU-s (iray, Alex. 
Oniom, James (iilmore, Geo. J. Greening. Jame.-; R. Grant. MichaeKJalvin. Norman 
Oo.i.lell, Sylvester Griswold, Ahner Gilbert, Holland E. Groom : James H. (irHeumg, 
died D.'c. 25. lSf4, at Hilton Head, from wounds received at Honey Hill : John 
Oault. di^d on Morris Island, Oct. 9,1863, of disease ; Otis Hamilton, John Hill, 
David W. Hibbard. Geo. Kurd, Johnson Henries. Delos C. Hubbard. Ornn 
n-.!con\b, Pat. HoUhan. A. Halstead. S. Hombeck, Chas. W. Harfiraond. Ferdinand 
lUii-t.'rtd. John Hardin, Albert Henries, Wm. Heathers. Chas. A. Hill. Abram H. 




' 1. I ""• ^-'''^'n ^I- Le.ster, James Logan. Peter Laugdon ; Edward Lock- 
wood, tjlej , it Newbem, May 20, l8t;2, of fever: John Leach, died in the a^^rvice ; 
»»rreD .Miller, Darius A. Mathews, John Mahon, Delos W. M.arvin. Francis 
? urray, Pat. .Mah.m. John McCullough, Robert Munrett. Frank Munrett. Mi.'liael 
Jlaetll. Alex. Ml Carroll. Michael McKone, Geo. W. Mathew.s. Stephen Mathews. 
Jauie* McLaughlin. James S. Moore. Andrew McKinnev. Martin Mvers. Hugh 
t V. 'aV' J"I'" ^''""1"'. Ge,). H. McLaughlin. Warren Miller, Andrew J. JIathews. 
J"hn .Merann. Charlen Murray: Wm. H. .Miller, discharged on account of woun(!« 
w ,'■'*'■;'"' Honey Hill; Kliiis Meister, Lester J. Martin; Patrick Mulligan, di. .1 »t 
Milton Heijd. July 2ii. iw^j; Frank .Male, died ou Morris Island. S. C. Dec. II. I"^^ : 
"otfh McPeak. died of disease, at Newburu, June 24. WA ; Horace .Morse, die.l Ht 
^^.••rbern, Oct. 4, 1S64; Eugene Nye, Marion Olmsted, Willard Olmsted, Joshua K. 



298 



3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



Osterhoudt. Dennis O'Keefe. Daniel O'Driscoll, Rhinehardt Osinser. Danl. E. 
Oakley, Michael O'Hara. Peter Pitman, Joseph Pigeon, Wm. H. Parker. James 
Porter, James Pringle, Charles E. Penner, Alonzo Powers, Calvin J. Porter. Charles 
W. Perry, Jacob D. Pennell ; Wm. Place, died at Newbern. July 7. ISHi: Daniel M. 
Palmer, died on Morris Island, June 10, 1804 ; Franklin M. Penner. died at 
Charleston. S. C, March 1.5. 1S6.5 ; Thomas V. Powers, died on Morris Island, 
Feb. 10, IHf'o ; .Tames Quinn; Thomas t^uigley, died on Morris Island. Sept. 2.S. IS^VJ; 
Francis M. Rice, Charles Remolds, David Rosmond, Ansrustus RolL Stephen 
Roeers, Charles A. Rector. £dward Richard.'^on, Elias HI Raymond. John F. 
Kobinson, Lawrence Riley. Wm. Roberts, Thomas Rlley^, Joseph Stansbury. Henry 
Simpson. Alfred Sweet. Alfred Snow, Joseph E. Spanlding. Daniel Sneeshall. David 
Seward, Charles Shank. Seneca Shank. Alex. Simpson. Charles H. Simp.son, Michael 
Smith. Jas. A. Sawyer. James H. Smith. Dennis Sheehan. James M. Simpson. 
John B. Sturge, Ecbert Stephens : Lafarette Seaman, died at Convalescent Camp, 
Va., Dec. 13. l.S*>?; John Scullv died on V. S. ship Cofmopo/ifan. off Morris Island. 
Aug. 20, 18f>B ; Pat. Sharkey, died at Newbern, July 23, 1H«53 ; David Stewart, died at 
Morris Island, May 17, 1>^'V1 ; Wm. Thompson. Jos. W. Taylor. Jas. B. Travis. John 
Travis, Sidney Terrv, Henry Terry. Jlichael Taylor, E. A. Travis. Robert Tate, 
Wm. Tobin ; Henry 'filton, died on Morris Island. Sept. 3<3. lStt3, of disease; John 
Vandenhoof. Geo. W. Van .Mstine. John Van Sickle, Samuel Wheeler. Seth 
Wheeler, Ralph Wheeler, Jeremiah Waite. John A. Waite, Calvin Watson, Chas. F. 
Weeka Thomas Williams, Robert White. Thomas J. Webster. Wm. Widner. David 
Watson. Andrew Watson, Andrew Weaver, Jos. Williamson; Henry Wilev. died at 
Charleston, S. C, April li, 1863 ; Philo S. Young, died at Hilton Head, June Itt, Itko. 



COMPANY " C," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated May 22, 1863, and two years'" men mustered out June 2.] 

Captain — James E. Aehcroft, .\pril 2.'5. l.Vil; transferred to 3d. 

fimt LieittenajitM — Samuel Clark Day, May 22, 18*51; transferred to 3d Artillery. 
Charles B. Randolph, Jan. 24. IH*)2; mustered o>it June 2. 18W. 

Second Lieufeiwittn — Charles ft. Graves. Jan. 24, 1S<J2: resigned April 18. 1863. 

Serffennts — Adolphus W. Newton, .^lunzo Jordan, Edward C. Manning. William 
Ounn, David C. Hvitchinson. Peter Hummell, George Burt. 

Ow;>om/*— .\ndrew .S. HoUenbeclc, Wm. E. Bi.shop, Wm. E. Smith, Menzo Griffin, 
Charles Reed, Patrick Dillon, Levi H. Havens, Wm. P. Harrington, Thaddeus J. 
Murphy, Wm. Seeley. 

J>rummer — Joseph Winters, drowned at Ealorama, June 28, 1861. 

Fi/er—y^m. Seeley. 

PryratM — Wm. H.'.\dams, Hiram C. Adle, Nicholas Antoine, Jeremiah Barnard, 
John Benedict, Cornelius Bradt. Nicholas C. Bradt, Alex. Bowles. Thomas Biirtrara, 
Wift. H. Barnes. Wm. H. Baxter. Sherwood S. Ball, Oran D. Bates, Julius Buckley, 
Wm. Benton, Peter Campbell James Cavana;;h. Robert H. Conwal. Richard D. Con- 
nolly, James E. Close. Jeremiah Currau, Patrick Deinpsey, Timothy Dillon. John 
Ehinn, John Deuel, John Decker. Eher S. Dunbar, John Dean, Thomas A. Deverall, 
John Davis: Leroy B. Ellis, died at Baltimore, Oct. 6, 18t'>l ; Ira Edwards, Edwin 
Evans. James French. James Frazee. James Feuton, Samuel Gilbert. John Groves, 
ChasGurlev. Lewis (Jurley, Theo. GofT. Chas. Grav, Geo. Hall, Geo. Hicks. Henry 
L. Hall, James Hall. Peter HartsuET. Wm. H.-witt, Lemi Howe, Geo. Howe, Thomas 
Hopper, David Honeywell. Charles A. Hill, S.-th H. Haskell, James Halpy. Thomas 
Jefferson. Hiram Johnson, Isaac Jacobsou. Wm. H. Johnson, Joseph Keenan. Rich- 
ard Kolch, (Jsiar Lan::ford. Theo<lore Lantrs. Albert Lewis. James Leary. Daniel 
W. Loring. George Martin. Henry McLaviuhlin. James McKennev, John 3Iurray, 
Bernard McEln^v. John Myers, .\lbert Masters. Winchester G. >fattisou, Thomas 
McLaughlin, Nelson Newman. Marvin Oluev, F.lias Ostrander, Martin A. P.ilmer, 
Albert C. Parker. E. M. Parmelee. John UandalL Conrad Raskoff. Robert Riley, 
Beojamin Randall. Isaac Rider. James L. Riu'htmyer. John Ryan. Clark Saunden*, 
Wm. P. Siddon.s. John Sinagg. Thomas Skidmore. James W. Sloat. Charles Sweet, 
Charles Smith, Peter Jcmes. Daniel Sticker. Vinton F. Story. Henry H. Seymour, 
Charles S%veet. Jeremiah Skinner. Ira Swift. Oliver Scandliug. .Xinlrew J. Taber, 
John Twist. Charles Van Tasso), John D. Van Dusen, Heiirj- Van Buren: George 
West, died at Hancock, .\pril 13, ltS*>2; Marcellua Weir, Alonzo Williams, Hiram 
Wood, FlaviuB J. Webster. 



'c : "■ -f'i,;ojftsiJi»t 



MUSTER ROLL. 299 

BATTERY "C," 3D ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 14, 1865.] 

Captain— Wm. E. Mercer, August 31, 1863; mustered out with Battery. 

Fir^t LU>it(n,irifx—Ja.mea S. McVey, Sept. iiS. 18H.3; mustered out with Battery. 
Enoch Jones. Aur. 13, lM*i-J; transferred JIarch 4. 18tv5. George W. Leonard, ".d. 3iay 
8, l«ftl: muster.-d out July 14, IStS. Ezra B. Wood, March 4, 1805: resigned May 10. 

Sf<;mi/ LUnttiuiutH—Yim. H. Sanford. Aup. 31, IStvi; transferred July 27, WW. 
Clinton D. Starrinc Sept. 1, IWW; transferred Aug. ->«, 1604. Osilvia D. Ball, Aug. 
27, \HA\ transf.rred Feb. 25, 1805. Wni. H. Coffin, March 4, 1865; and Martm \\ eb- 
ater, April .jti. l.s<;,'^,; mustered out with Battery. 

.■vr;/^. Ml r,«— Edward Stanley, Oliver T. Sevmour. David "Wilkinson. Charles Jones, 
Charl.-H M. Bates, Charles A. Nelson, John' Kane. Thomas Peet, Wm. H. Goodrich, 
Edwin D. Lisher, Edgar W. Seymour, Henrv Kilbum. Evan J. Evans. 

r.>r/,«r(;/«_Joseph Wicks, Emery J. Abbott, Americus Miller. Wm. D. Jones. Wm. 
W. Burdl.k, M. K. Dickinson, George S. Bradlev, Wm. Kirkner. Curtis D.Wash- 
burn, Charles A. Walker, Thomas Welch. Daniel B. Sanford, Daniel T. Santry. Al- 
bert T. Jones, John Russell; Lucius L. Prescott. died Jan. 17, 1804, of wounds re- 
ceived from an explosion of ammunition; Ezra B. Wood, CharlemaKue T. Burley, 
David C. Hawley. Myron A. Babcoek, Benjamin Shepard, Charles Walker, Charles 
Cook, H. S. Omans. 

.Su://*"/-*— Stephen J. Whitton, Wm. E. Webber. 

Artificer — Wm. M. Redmond, John W. Stemp. 

Jr(i(7»n<r— Gilbert Welch. 

Ouitlon — George P. Hotchkiss. 

Prirateit—John. Aekerman, Abram Antone, John Bates, Peter Bean, Wm. Birt, 
Geo. S. Bradlev, Charles Baswort, Ttfomas H. Bass, Wm. H. Bass, Geo. Buskirk, 
Edward H. Bu-e, Jerrv H. Burke, Edward Becker, Philo K. Burch, Myron A. 
Babt-ock, Wm. W. Burd'ick, Chancellor G. Ball. Nelson A. Burdick, Wm. M. Bee- 
man, Wm. A. -Barton, C. T. Burley. Geo. H. Brown, Harvey L. Brown, Ephraim 




-. --. _ ..... Conway. Thomas Daley, - 

DttviH, Henry H. Dinneck, Moses B. Dickinson. John F. Downs, Wm. M. Demon, 
Jsmea F. Dickinson, Daniel Davis. Amos H. De;i.n. Eugene Dewitt, Davis Evans, 
Evan J. Evans, Cha.s. A. Ellis, Joseph Ellis, John M. Ellis, Geo. French. David 
Flnley, Fred.-rick Fi-lshmire, John Fox, Harvey J. Ferris, Alex. J. Flint. Wm. 
Frmnre, Alonzo Fox, Lewis Ford, Charles Farnar; Wm. A. Foster, killed in action 
»t Wise's Forks, N. C, March 8, 1805; Beni. F. Ferry, died in the service; Jas. 
GrcKlfellow, Samuel Greenfield, Isaac Gale, Levi Glerchauf, Thos. H. liay, Wm. B. 
Gape. Jacob Goodman; Adelbert E. Green, died at Newbern Nov. 1. lNi-1. of yellow 
f'-Vf r; Wm. Griffith, Wc.ilev Grinis, Andrus Gardiner. Geo. Greene. Isaac J. Gnrtith, 
JoneaW. Hobart. Cyrus W.Hecock, Garrett Hoiightaling, Hugh E. Humphrey, David 
C. Hawlov, John Hustv, Michael Howland, (ieo.W. Holmes. Dekalb HunHaeU: Albert 
P. Holmes, died at Newbern Dec. 7, 18(V1; Wm. Kick. Wilber F. Hubbard, Geo. 
Jordan, David Jones, David Jaque, Fred"k Jodrey; John Judge, died at Newbern 
Oct. 15, ]8f>4, of ague; Geo. Jones, died at Morehead*City Dec. 19. isti4; Joseph 
Keene, Lewis M. Kingsbury, Edwin Kane, John Kelley, Patrick Kfihoe, Henry 
Kilboumo. Geo. H. Kilbourne. Barney Kennedy, Edgar Kane, John W. Lewis. John 
L*-", Win. H. Lyons, Nelson Ludington, Henry Landers, Edwin D. Lake. John J. 
Lewis?; Holton Liinders. died at Newbern Oct. 11, 18W. of yellow fever; Edward H. 
Lasher, died at Nt-whern Jan. 22. 1805, of wovnids received fram the explosion of a 
limber ch^st: John Lubey, died in field ho.spital, Raleigh, N. C. Mav ti. 1805; Geo. 
Ijiwton, Dennis .Mullens, John McLeod, Christopher Mathews, Fredk McFall. John 
MuUanev, Luke Mullnnev. Michael JIcKt-an, James McWiunie, Jno. P. McCarty, 
L.«vi F. .Mill.-r. Thos. R. Moon. James McKenna, John H. McLaughlin. Edwin Mil- 
iar; Eugene Jlultbv. dit-d at Newbern Jan. 22. IWk'i: Charles Myers, died at New- 
bom April Si. r^Vl;' Richard Maher, died at Newbern Nov. 21. 1804, of consumption; 
AllMTtMooney. (lied at Newbern Dec. 10, ISiVt; Edward Mack, Cnssander -Miller, 
JaineH .Mee, John Mayors, Henry S. Omans; Owen Owens, died at Newbern Jan. 12, 
l"*!*. of wounds received from the explosion of a limber chest; Thiimas 0'Brii>n, 
JaniOR Patterson, (icorge Phelj)s, Robi-rt Pickett, Wm. Pollitt. Norniandcrs Put, 
K'DbIow Penner, Thomas Pettam, Homer A. Post. Isaac Pier, Cuhiu I'Tter; 
H.nry Patterson, died at Newbern, Oct. 2",!. 18<i-». of ylelow fever; Lucius L. Prcs- 
rott, died at Newbern. Jan. 17, 1805, of wounds received from the explosion of a 
Umbfr cbuHt; James Pendergast, Patrick tiuagloy, Marion Rhodes, Nicholaji Uus- 



300 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

■ell, James Russell, Melrin Root. Dennis Ryan, George Root, Wm. Senbar, John 
Switzerick. Peter Snyder, Van Rensselaer St. Johns, James Stowell; Delevan B. 
Simmons, died at N'eWhern, Xov. Hi. IrttU, of disease; Edward Seifrmond. Patrick 
Solan, Charles A. Smith. Sherman Sidney, Frank Seabold, Barney Sanders. Wm. H. 
Scott, Wm. Smith, Benj. F. Sheppiird, Geo. L. Smith, John D. Stoat. Edward B. 
Stephens; Gustavus Speers, died at Utiea. N. Y., March 6. IStio. of consumption; 
John Smitli, Levi Stt-wart, Jeremiah Tuomey, Geo. H. Tierney. Hn^h Tucker, 
Frederick Turner, John W. Turnier. Johnathan Van Nort, Geo. Van Dyke. Jesse 
Vanderpool, Wm. Ward, John Walker. Jamea H. Welch. Ilarley Williams. Jay 
Worden, Geo. Wilson, Geo. W. Wait, Ezra Barton Wood, Hiram E, Webb, Edgar 
S. Warner, Ira H. Williams, Charles A. Wolver, Geo. W. Young. 



COMPANY "D," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated May f&, 1863 ; two years' men mustered out June 2.] 

Captain — Owen Qavigan, April 25. 1B61; mustered out June 2, 186-3. 

Firtit Lieutenant — Wm. Boyle, ilay 22, 1861 ; mustered out June 2, 1863. Luke 
Brannack. April 10. 186J;same. 

Second Lieitti^nunt — Patrick Dwyer, April 10, 1862; mustered out June 2? 180-3. 

SergeuntA—T>a.n\el Dowllnp, Pa'trick Handlen. Danl. McCartin. Thomas Burke, 
John Nolan, Francis Anderson. Edward Ryan, Thomas McGovern. 

Corporiili, — Henry Finlan, Edward Ryan, James ilcCabe, Dennis Scollins. James 
O'Brian, James Connells. Pat. CuUen, Henry Bozeat. James Ryan, John Mullen. 

J>rvmmer — John Tiemey. 

Fi/er — Daniel Turnier. 

Prir^at^K — Titus .A.llon, James A. Andrews, Michael Bamett, Michael Barnes, 
Bernard Bohen, Wm. Buckley, Thomas Burke, Patrick Burnes, Robert Boyle, 
Michael Boyle. Peter Boylf>, Daniel Burn.'^. Jamea Conley. Joseph Coushlin. Peter 
Conway, Geo. Conway. James Corcoran, Wm. Corcoran. Thomas Cumminss. John 
Cllgett, James Campbell, Patrick Colt-man, Patrick Campbell. Patrick Detran, 
Daniel Doyle. James Donnell, James Dwyer, Dennis Dwyer. Patrick Doyle. John 
Doran, Patrick Dclaney, John Doyle, Wm. Finlan, David Finlan, John Finn, Patrick 
Fallon, John Fallon. Jlichael Fay, Wm. Galvin, Thomas Green, James Calvin, 
Richard Garrettv, Robert Gleason. Timothy Gorman. James Uarvey. Jeremiah 
Gainey, Dennis llafEcy. Thomas Head. Thomas HoUhan. Andrew Haley. Wm, 
Holmes, Sovertrn Hornbeck, John Hofjan, John Howell, Thomas Jack.son, John 
Jackson, Dennis Kane, John Kelley. Patrick Kelleher, Timathy Keef. >[ichael 
Keenan, Richard Kimr. Patrick Karn. Miithael Lac_y. Michael Leo, Louj^lin MeCartin, 
Francis MeCartin. Daniel .MiLou!,-iilin, Dun. McCarthy. John ilcKeon, Jamea 
Moore, Dennis Mon>'Tian, Thomas Murjihy, Edward Jlurphv, Thomas Jfulvey, 
James Mack^y. Wm .^bMiinley, John M'-('li"».^key, Michael Mct*hee. James Murray, 
Michael Mc(tarr. Dennis Mor:\n, John Murphy, A. D. Main, Peter .^tooney, Patrick 
Maloney, Dan. McGraw, Miihael Murphy. John O'Brien. Peter O'Brii^n. Thoniaa 
O'Suliivan, Edward O'Brien. Henrv O'.Veil, .Michael O'Keil, John Purcell. Thomas 
Quirke, An<lrew Hairan. .Andrew lUMtdini:. John Rattipan, Thomas T. Ryan, Geo. 
Reeves, Philip Ryan. Dennis ScoUin. Joiui Shehan. Dennis R. Shell. James .Stuart, 
Oliver Strong. .\lei. Shaw, John Tierney, John Tiemey 2d, James Tracy, Wm 
Tracy, Peter Toohill— 119. 



BATTERY "D," 3p ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered oat July 5, 1865,] 

r<//)ra»>— Stephen Van Heusen, Oct. 31, 18(;3 ; mustered out Julv ."S. 186,%. 

Fimt I.ieuteniinti— John Stevenson, Jr., Jay E. Storke, David b. Hillis, Horatio 
N. Thompson. 

Secnntl /.i>'//cKrt/i//»— Thomas Vanderberg and John J. Brinkerboff. Jr. ; mustered 
out July 5, IKi."). 

Sergeant'— ■A. V. R. Van Heusen, Jr., James A. Leonard. Henry Tcgley. Wm. H. 
Smith, John Edwards, Jumea E. Palmer, Thomas Casey, Elias B. Green, Lewis B. 



MUSTER ROLL. 3OI 

Wtite, J. Rowland Brownell : John M. Drake, died at Newbern. Oct. 27, isr>4, of 
yellow fever; John M. Drake, Jaa. E. Chandler, H. L. Rickerson, Juhu Edwards. 

<>>r;/on;?*— Henry S. Doran, Willard C. Mallory, Wm. Smith. Wni. J. Harp, David 
E. Powers, Wm. B. Swift. Jolin W. McDonald, Thomas McGraw. Orin A. Town- 
•end, Elias J. Dabcook, Nelson T. Brown, Hudson Mickhy. John Simmons: Edward 
Fitzp'rald. difd at Morehead city, Nov. 15, IBW, of yellow fever ; Wm. Cable, died 
at Newbern. Oct. 5, 1SH4, of yellow fever. 

Bit'jUrn — B. Dennis. Andrew Kelley. 

^rf/n^vr*— Nelson Eaton, Perry H. Onderdirk, 

Prir,itfM—yim. Adams, died at Newbern, July 30, 1864, of accidental musket 
rounds; Jos. J. Baekman, Wm. Backman, Ira \V . Brown. Edward H. Benjamin, 
Charles l3urrouj;lis, Wm. Barker, Edmond Breault, AVm. Biselow. Geo. L. Bristol, 
Thoniua Burns, Dewitt Buck, J. R. Barclay. Philip Brownell. Charles W. Barnes, 
lUrain A. Bennett, Charles E. Bennett, Philip Baldwin, Nelson Bates. James C. 
Bachnian. Ueuj. S. Barber, Franklin Benjamin: Edmund Breese. died at Newbern. 
Sept. VA, \t^>i, of yellow fever; Edward Bowe, died at Newbern, Oct. 15, \^M. of 
vellow fever; Patrick Barrv, died at Newbern. Aue. -30. 1HH4, of typhoid fever: 
Dwl>.-lit M. Bottom, died at S'ewbern. Oct. 21, IStvl. of yellow tever; Henry Camp- 
bell. John Conley, Horatio N. Cnrr, Wm. Blaxton. Adelbeit Carr, Chauncey M. Col- 
llBoc. Michael Clay, Abrara B. Cherrv, Edward Cook. Dewitt Cowl. Robert Carr, 
Leriiy Conant, James E. Claiidleon. T^eo. Conklin. James Christy. Patrick Conwav, 
"Wm. H. Coflin; A. L. B. Condit, died at Newbern. Sept. 3U, \f^M. of remittent fever; 
Edmund M. Curtis, accidentally drowned in the Neuse river, near Fort Anderson, 
June 17, lht)4; Lobinski Cameron, died at Newbern. Nov.. ti, IMil. of yellow fever; 
Oeor^e Curtis, died at Newbern. Dec. 23. 1864: Fritz Deiner. Michael Denny. Henry 
Darniau, Frank Defoe, Ephraira B. Dumont. George W. Delmarter. Jas. P.'Darrow, 
Christopher Dillon, James P. Derby, Seabury G. Davidson. James Devereaux. Jar- 
vis E. Daniels; Nichols Dietze, died at Newbern, Oct. 'Si, lt<t>4. of yellow fever; 
Elijah S. Evarts, died at Newbern, Dec. 14, 18M, of diarrhoea: Wm. A. Easterly, 
died at Newbern, Oct. 26, IStVl, of yellow fever; James Fecley. James K. P. Fen/u- 
8on, Patrick Finnineham, Casper Frank. Thomas Fitzgerald; Edward Fitzgerald, 
died at Morehead City. Oct. 15. 1864. of yellow fever; Warren H. Gillett. Wm. Geer, 
Reuben Goodman. George W. Green. Wm. H. Gray, Thomas Giimore. Chas. Gutch- 
es8, Wm. H. Horsley. Daniel Hogan, Robert S. Hawkins. Robert Hauney, Abram B. 
Hart, Samuel Hall; John Hobby, died at Newbern. Oct. 1. 1864. ot remittent tever; 
Hiram Halstead. died at Newbern, Oct. 27. 18fvl, of yellow fever; Daniel Hewitt, 
died at Newbern, April 21, 1805, of consumption; George A. Uuutiugton. died at 
.Newbern, Nov. 1.% \Ht'A, of yellow fever: Lewis E. Ireland. Nathan Judevine, Wni. 
John&)n. Chauncey Jones. Frederick V. Johnson, Webster Jacobin, died at New- 
bfru, Oct. .5, l,-u>J. of yellow fever; George S. Jenkins, died at Newbein. Oct. ly, 
1'^'4. of vellow fever; Wm. Kittrick, Andrew J. King, Henry King; C)rville P. Keeler, 
died at Newbern, Oct. 19, 18t>l, of yellow fever; Henry Kliner, John M. Light. Hurl- 
bert II. Loss, Charles E. L(jve, Henry Landis. Cornelius Lyons. Rowland D. Luns; 
Frank B. Latham, died ot Newbern. Oct. 5, 18H.t. of vellow fever: HoUv Lviies. died 
• t Newbirn. June 8, l.^U, of fever; John McPeak, Frank M. Miller, V\ lu! .Alit.hell, 
I'atrick .McEntee. Thomas McD(mouph. Francis :McDoii!iUl. Thonia.^ McPeak. Geo. 
K. Marsh^ill. David Mann, Wm. Marion, James Miller, Patrick Moraii. John Mul- 
riKilfV, Henry Mickley, Charles G. Myres, Francis .Morrison, Thomas Muri)hy. Ed- 
ward'Murphv. Thomas Millington, Leroy S. Metcalf, George W. Jletcalf. :»l'ichael 
Martin, l^-wls Mosher, Patrick McGraw, James Main, Peter McFarninn. Jas. Max- 
WfU; Joseph Morrison, died at Newbern, April 1, 18(;4; Ora B. Jlitchell, died at 
Newbern, Sept. 16, 1664, of yellow fever; Carlos Morgan, died at Newbern. Oct. VJ, 
l**'!. of yellow fever; Ed. k. Munson, died at Newbern. Nov. 21. 1864. of fever: Wm. 
H. Margeson. died at Morehead City, Feb. 16, iwi5, of diarrhoea: Hugh JlcPeak, 
di.-d at Newbern, June 34, 1S64; John Malone. died at Newbern, Sept. 'M\. \t<>A. oi 
r.-mlttent fever; Al^-x. M'^Kay. died at Newbern. Sept. 12, 1864, of reiintt.-nt ff>ver; 
Patrirk McDonald, died at Ne.vbem. Nov. 20, ISii-l, from accidental wounds; Philip 
McGuire, died at Newbern, Sune-1, 1865, of disease: Henry L. Nobles, Nelson New- 
man. John S. Newbury, John Newhard. Owen Nucent: B. L. Newton, died at New- 
»).-ni, Oct. 16, l^iVJ; Duni-1 Olen. Eli R. Powers. John W. Payne, Jacob R. Post. John 
C. Parker, Homer B. Parker; Orlando Pollock, died at Newbern, Sept. fi, l>ti4. of 
remittent fever: Wm. Quigley, George (^uiek. Jotin Richardson. Henrv Richards. 
Patrick Roach. H. S. Uutlirauff, John H. Kich.irdson, Henry L. Hicliersou, Jo-eph 
Robinson, James Klgnay: Byron Richards, died at Newhern. October 21, 1M>4. of 
jellow fever; Charles H. Rhoades. died at Newhern. Oct. 28, 18fU. of typhus ft-Vf-r; 
Dewitt C. Sia.klin. Geix N. S(»utherland, Leo T. Swartwout, iletiry Seltzer. J^hu 
H. Smith. Stephen Swuk. Charles Straighter, H. K. Stahl. James .M. Stewart. Wm. 
J St.wurt. Mathew Shannon, J<ihn Sanders, Wallace Smith. Albert Smitli, .I'lin 
Sunm.iu.s, Edward Strong, Charles H. Smith; Henry Snath, died at Newhern. O' t. 

U, l.N,i, of yellow fever; Rufus S. Snyder, died at Newbern, Jan. 17, l&Oo, of diseaise; 



302 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

John J. Shermao, Jay V. Stewart. Franklin Terry, Henry Tallman Thomas 
Thornton, bilas A. Tremain, Richard Toxsley, John W. Taylor, James Tobev 
Bennett Tavl,,r, died at Newbern. Oct. 18. 1S64, of yellow fever; Fred. Vandermark- 
Isaac Van Houten, died at Xewbern. Oct. 13. 18M, of yellow fever- Charles h' 
n*^!'!^ ^^'; 'l'*''',^'^ Newbern, Oct. 10, 1S64. of yellow fever; Oliver C. WUkins, Lewii 
B. White; John Ward, died at >ewbem, Sept. 28, 1864, of yellow fever 



COMPANY "E," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Original two years' men mustered out June 8, 1863; the rest formed the nucleus of 
a new Company.] 

Oip^rtin— Theo. H. Schenck, April 25. 1861. 

First Lieuteu(in(j<—D&yid.A. Taylor, May 22, 1861; promoted Jan. 1, 1863. Geo. E. 
Ashby, March 10, 1862. 

Second. Lieutenanfii— Edwa,rd C. Burtia, resigned. J. Fred. Dennis May 22, 1861; 
promoted Dec. 2:1, 1862, to Adjutant. 

JSergeanfn— Henry F. Rider, Austin Haynes, Charles A. Henry, James Harris 

Corporif/-.— Henry C. DuVall, J. M. Coon, Roland Wade, Augustus Bumham. 

Zhvcmmer — Milton Bates. 

Jfj/V/^-Charles W. Clark. 

Priratfi—yfra. C. Atkinson. Wm. Anthony, Wm. H. Anderson, Alonzo D. Abrams, 
■Lewis Adams, Alonzo A. Austin. Geo. W. Austin, Daul R. Adams Horace P Baker- 
Parley Burton, died at Hancock March 5, ISH-i: Charles Baxter. James H. Betts, 
Edward Blake, bamuel Brings. Stephen BriK;;s: Charles Brook.s Andrew Bretweir, 
James Blackman James H. Betts, Geo. H. Brown, Theo. M Brown Wm Blackie, 
Joseph A. Coulter, Joseph E. Crounce. Wm. H. Currie, Sidnev Cunningham, Geo. A. 
Copway Geo. Chadeayne, Joel Coon. V.in Buren Carlton, Henry Davis. Thomas S. 
Devoe, Geo. P. Dean. Rodolphus H. Durphy, Wm. H. Datv, John C Dovle Daniel 
E. Devoe, John Decker, Eber S. Dunbar. Edwin Edmonds'. Thomak E^'an " Samuel 
Edmonds, Thomas Egan, Wm. Evarts, Wm. E. Everts, Hiram Freeman Henry F 
Funk, John W. Frees, Wm. Furguson, Homer D. Fuller, Thomas Foley George 
Fowler, Wm. N F<ister, Michael Fay, James Gaffney, John C. Garrick. Davidson 
Graves, John H.Gregory, Wm. Greene. Seneca Goodman, J. W Gib.son Charles 
W. Garey. Joseph R. trreensel. Charles Green, Myron Harrington, Albert Haywood 
Edward Howard. Geo. S. Holiday, Healey O. Harmon, Edwin A Havens James 
Heaney, James Hinman, Wm. Huntley. Harvey Hawley, Geo. Incersoll Charles 
Johnson, Thos. W. Judson, Theo. D. Jackson, Joseph Kay, Allen Kilburn Charles 
S-.,F^™^^^^. ^??-.'y''[;V''-T-^^'"?°,;^^'^''''"- P'^*^- il'-'Andrew, Geo. McGee. ' Roswell 
Miller, Edwm H. Marble, Joseph Murnson, Leonard Moffatt Thomas J O'Harra, 
Erring Palmer, Andrew Pullis, James E. Portin-ale, JelTerson Portiuu'ale, Edmond 
L. Powers. Sohimon D. Pease. Jam^^s E. Portingale. Wm. G Peters Erastus H 
Pierre, Peter Rassat. R<^uben Remington. Walter H. Rodgers Charles W Rash" 
Konnan Re.vndlds. Charles F. Rynders. Franklin Reed. Geo. W. Remolds Theo' 
Rogers. Orson Sherwood, Harlow Sherwood, .\u','u.stus Smith. John Shea Francis 
Simmons. Elisha W. Stanton, Franklin D. Smith, Marcelhis S. Slater John's Ti^se 
Justin Trim. Ed;:ar H. Titus, Edward Timmons. Julian Townsend Ira Terwillieer 
Wm. V. Towuseud, Stephen Utter. Stephen H. Vandemark. James Van Gorder' 
Q«o. Vanderwat'-r. Fred. Vandenburc. Cornelius Viele, Albert Waudell John 
Ward. Charles S. Ward. Wm. Whaley. Charles T. Whitotleld. Wm. H. H. WiiUams, 
John iL Wilson, traucis Wooley, John C. Williams, Willia Watson. 



BATTERY " E," 30 ARTILLERY. 

(Mustered out Juno 23, 1865.] 

Cftptaint^-Theo. H S<!henck; promoted Sept. 30, 1863. Geo. E. Ashly, Dec 16 
1863; mustered out with battery. •' °"- *"> 



MUSTEK ROLL. . 363 

fir»t LiejU*nan(ii—yii\&n B. Goodrich, Dec. 26, 1864; mustered out with battery, 
Roswell Miller, March 15, 1*^5; same James S. Fuller, May 1, 1863; resigned Oct. 
1864. 

Sfcfftui Litut&nantu — Edward Delester, Oct. 4, 1864; mustered out with battery. 
Heary T. Rider, Nov. 1, 1»U; mustered out May 9, 1864. 

S«rij(anU — Wm. Mouutjov, Wm. V. Townsend, John Peter.son, John M. Coon, 
Henrv C. Smedd, Edmund L. Powers, Jas. J. Atkinson, James Woods. Wm. N. Fos- 
ter, Wm. Hopemamp. W. Watson, Lorenzo Ercanbrack, Edwin W. Brenaan, Wm. 
Howe, Geo. Vandf rsater, Daul. E. Devoe. 

Corprn-al-n — Asa D. W'hitmore, John Evans, John Chafee, Donald McCall, John M. 
Ellis. James Fentou, A. Townsend, Thoa. J. O'Hara, Wm. Blacfcie, Geo. E. Rey- 
nolds, John W. Gibson, Lewis Adams, Daniel E. Devoe, Albert Kilburn, John C 
Doyle. 
Buijlfr* — Stephen Smith. Thos. W. Judson. 
ArUfii-rrn — Harrison Kent, Wm. Galvin. 

/•Hrii/c*— Austin Anesworth, Wm. H. Anderson, Geo. W. Austin. Allen C. Ayres, 
Jeptha L. Ayres, Daniel R. Adams, John Anderson; Charles H. Austin, died at 
KVwbf rn. Nov. 2, 1864, of yellow fever; Wm. C. Atkinson, died at Rochester, N. Y., 
May 11, lWi5; C. J. Ames, Alonzo A. Austin, Alonzo V. Beach. Samuel Brigps, 
Birnoy BrieK», Newton S. Blood. Chauncey E. Bishop, Newton Brett, James Brett, 
Stephen Briggs, John Buch.anan, Charles Brii^cs. Joseph B, Boyer, John Buchanan, 
Wm. Blackie, Daniel Burges, Byron W. Burnett, John Bird, Geo. G. Bentley. 
Ja«per Blakeman. EUas Bovel ; Ed. Burridge. died in camp, Oct. 15, 186'l;Joel 
Coon, Justus CoppernoU, Samuel Carrs, E. K. Chamberlain, Jacob Carpenter, 
Francis Cook, Chauncey Castleman, Daniel Callahan, Geo. A. Copway. Patrick 
Campbell, Geo. W. Chadeayne, Isaac N. Cleveland. Wm. Claxton. Charles Conklin, 
Jay R. Dickenson, Geo. O. Dean, Joseph Daiiey. Orlando Davenport, Thomas S. 
Devoe. Ebert Dunbar, John Decker, Looman Dings, Geo. E. Ellenwood, Wm. 
Evert*, Irving W. Edgerton, Madison Edwards, John Evens, Michael Fay, Alonzo 
J. Fox. Anthony Fitzpatrick, Thomas Folev. Erastus Fowler, Isaac M. Fairchild, 
Jeremiah Francis, James Fenton, Geo. W. fowler ; Alex. Foster, died at Newbern, 
Jan. 11, 1864 ; Wm. Foley, killed in action before Petersburg, Va.. June 24, 1864; 
John Faien, died at Port.smouth, Va., May ;J0, 1865, of disease; Robert Gleason, 
Seneca Goodman, James Graham, John %V. Gibson, Edward C. Gilson, James 
Gleason, Charles W Geary, Charles Green, Clarence Gravlin, Ralph R. Gumsey; 
Edward E. Gibb.s. killed in action at Drury's Blufl. Va., May 16, INi-l: Abner S. 
Gilbert, died at Homer. N. Y.. Dec. 12, 1864, from disease; Martin V. Hotel, Morton 
O. Herrick, James A. Hicgins, Jos. T. Hunter, David Harvey. Daniel Hitt. Andrew 
HoUenbeck. Seth H. Haskill, Edwin A. Havens, Martin Havens, Wm. H. Hawley, 
Harvey Hawley. Thomas Hickey. Riley Ham, Geo. S. HaUiday, Myron G. Herring- 
ton, P.itri('k Hi(;key, Clias. A. Hill. Jasper Howe; Geo. Hotchkiss. died at York- 
town, Va., Mry 1, \^^'A■, Theo. D. Jackson, Wm. Johnson, Charles Johusou, Thomas 
JrfTeraon, Jamea K'in.-^ella. Wm. H. Lewis, Alonzo Loveland, John Lime, Jesse Lee; 
All>«»rt A. Lewl.>i, :^Ii(hael Lynch; H. P. Lucas, died at Newbern, Aug, 6, 1?<6.3; 
Andrew M. Lucas, died Dec. 2, 1861. at Philadelphia; Merritt Lent, accidentally 
killed by the fall of a tree, Virginia, Dec. •«), 1661: Albert Masters, Myron U. 
Mitchell, Isaac Meeker. Joseph Meyer. Leonard Moffatt, Frank E. Miller, Jos. V. 
Miirrisin. Elias Masters, James Murray, John Mooney, John J. ilaxou, Edward 
Murphv, Wm. Murphy, Timothy Murphy, Jlichael Murohv, Albert Mor.se, John 
Myen*. Oria K. Munn, Wm. McGee; Michael 31cGarr, died at Newbern, Aug. M, 
I"--!; Ed. H. Marhle. died at Elmira, N. Y., July 12, 18<i4, of pneumuiiia; Orm K. 
Munn. died at Auburn, N. Y., Aug. 56, I81U, from effects of a hall; John E. Nuttatte, 
Kj hraim North; Simoon K. Nichols, mi.ssing in action at Drury's BlutT, May 16, 
'."•4; Patrick Nagle, Daniel OHerron, Thomas J. O'Hara, Michael Ollara, Irving 
W Ov-rholt; Harrison O'Hara. died at Albany, N. Y., April 1. Va'A: David Peter- 
»"n. Salmon D. Pease. Geo. W. Pierce, Geo. W. f'roudfoot, John Paine, Lewis Pur- 
rhiuM>. L«vi H. Putnam, Dwight W. Powers, James Prosser, David E. Powers, 
Ji-ffenton Portingale, Charles H. Root. Geo.W. Reynolds, Edward B. Rinkcr, Reuben 
Knnnmgton; Franklin Reed, killed in action at Drury's Bluff, Va., .May 16,1861; 
Alfred Spoor, Joseph Spoor, Ransom Smiires, James M.Simpson, Wm. Slattery, 
Henry .strong, Oliver Scandling, Rufus Smith, Judson L. Sennett. Nicholas J. 
i|t"Ut, James Sturgea.s, Wm. H. Stewart. B. A. Shapley, Henry C. Sheldon, Jas. U. 
Helover, Jan. M. Simnson. Thomas Stuith, J. V. Stewart, John Sullivan ; Albert 
Spnngstead, died in Virginia. Aug. 13. \t^\\; Wm. Taylor, Thomas Tioruey, Geo. A. 
Tr»ver. Joseph Teter, Horace W. Titibl.s, T, C. Thomas, Wm. H. Tobin. Andrew 
J Tuttle. Robert Tate, Michael Taylor; Richard Tierney. died at Albany of wounds 
r^'eived Mav 16. l-^'il; Samuel Teter, drowned at sea, by falling overboard from 
»hr Hfn, „f J^raeu, Aug. 6. lyi.}; Cornelius Viele. James Van Gorder, Geo. E. \ au 
P*tten. Hiram Van Aniburgh, Albert Van Sicklen, Wm. L. Viucent. James V an 
Uvrder, S. D. Vauderbeyden, Wm. H. Van Tassel, Wilber F. Woodward, S. B. 



I aa.iK 



304 3° NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Wmiamson, Jas. B. Washburn, Thaddeus Ward, Reuben Week, Wm. Watts, 
Joseph Wj-ant, Francis Woollen, Ira H. Williams, Andrew Weaver, Roland D. 
Wade, John Yager. 



:: COMPANY "F," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[ConsoUdated Sept. 28, 1861.] 

Cap/atn— Nelson T. Stephens. April 2.5, 1861 ; resitrned Oct. 31, 1861. 

Firitt LUatenant — Watson C. Squire, May 'H, \mv. resigned Oct. 4, 1861. 

Second Lieiiiennni — Edward D. Parkf^r. .Vlay ^"J, 18<il: resigned Oct. 4, 1861. 

Sergednta — Edgar B. Warren, David F. Bothwell, Bamer C. Goodridge, Robert 
Haynes. 

Corporals — Daniel Wilcox, Peter E. Hummel, James Mosher, Murray Chatfield. 

Drummer — James D. Cauovan. 
. Fifer—Vfm. E. Sandford. 

Pncate« — Bishop E. Ames, George H. Barlow. John Baker, Charles Beitz. George 
W,' Bennett, David F. Bothwell, Orson Clark, Jaiues Clark, James Collier, Willia 
Collier, Myron B. Cranson, Isaac Cordon, John H. Diivldson, Wm. Dennis, Wm. 
Dresser, Wm. M. Evans, Wm. Frair, Curtis M. Fritz, Daniel W. Goodridge, Peter 
Oreeoman, Frank il. Grosbeek, Elijah E. Greenfield. Myron Hermon; Henry Hoag- 
land, died Dec. 15, 1861; Richard Huaglaud. Anson Hotchkias, George S. HoUiday, 
Michael Howard, Jotham Javiie. Horace S. Johnson. Joseph Kennedy, John S. Le- 
Baron, Orlando Lillie. John F. Lkjwc. Abner Livingston, Wm. Main, Geo. A. Mosher, 
Wm. G. Peters. Dwight Powers: Joseph Handle, died Oct. 2, 18()C; Francis Roonev, 
Wm. Shimer, Marcellus S. Slater, Alfred Spoor, Joseph Spoor, Wm. Swetland. Wm. 
C. Smith, Wm. Tavlor, Giles Taylor. John Theurer, Wm. H. Van Tassel, Myron 
Watts, Charles C. Afrhipple, Wm. Whipple, Warren P. Wood. 



BATTERY "F," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July, 1865.] 

Cb/)<fl»n-»-^Edwin S. Jenney. Oct. 18. 1861; promoted May 19. 186;}. Samuel Clark 
Day, July 1". 18«>i. Edgar H. Titus, Nov. *), l><<i4; mustered out with Battel y. 

Firnt LUuteniints — Alex. H. Duvis, Nov. 25. 18)1; promoted January 1.'). INii" Gus- 
tavus F. ilerriam, Dec. IJ, isiil; discharged for promotion, Oct. 29, 1862. Edmund 
C. Clark, Oct. 2. 1S64. Paul Uirchmoyer, Oct. 17, 1n;2; mustered out Jan. 20, 180.5. 
George W. Leonard, March 8, 18<i4; promote<l to Adjutant. May 2. 

Second Lieulrnanli — Jame.>< D. Outwatcr, Nov. 25. 1«61; di.-;(harged for promotion 
to Gen. Peck's staff. Dec. 8. 1.862. Stephen Van He\isen. Nov. 16, 18ti2; promoted 
July 17. 1863. David D. Hillis, Oct. !7. 1>^12; resigned Nov. 1, 18»«. 

Hirgeants — James II. Milh>r. Juseph Craiiipton. Edward T. Madison, Conrad Eber- 
hart. Oscar Harrington, Warr.-n S. Hciox. Evelvn P. Barber. Riley Faucher. Kici> 
a,-d Souea, John Conway, Edwant McDoane. Win. D> ining. Paul Fay; Marvin .-V. 
G^ylord. died at Portsmouth, Va., Oct. 20, 18t>2; Charles Steiner, died" at Newbern, 
S -pt. 20, lNi2. 

<V/ry/or<(/i— Augustus Voss, Charles A. Reals, Frank Burch, Geo. Ransom. Frank 
Higgiiis. Corriu .M. Ladd, Geo. W. Orossinau. .Michael McCue. Francis E Piatt. 
Elisha S. Cowlca. Harri.son Adams, De Jay Judsoa. Simeon -Baura, Marcus Kelltr, 
Wallace Morley. John Murphy; James S. Chrysler, died. at Newbern. July 15. l.shj; 
Henry F. (iarrett. died on Folly Island. S. C, July 25, 186;!; Fred. D. Worth, died 
ftt Newbern. Nov. lHii2. 

BinjlcrM — Hiram Frame, Dennis Smith. Conrad Ring. 

Arti;i,-erj< — Charles S. Brown, I'at McCullough, John Junld; John W. Gibson, died 
at Newbern. Oct. Id. Iht52. 

PriniteM — Arnold Auer. John P. .\dams, Wm. A.shton, Sebastian Auer; John Ad 
ams, died at Newbern, July 20, 1862, of fever; Abraham Auchmoody, died at Port.s 



,1 ' :, .;>'.» 



MUSTER ROLL. 3O5 

mouth. Not. B. IViO: MUo Bnice, Horace Bnice, John C. Brown. Charles Bauhman 
Orlando R. Bephe, Win. W. Beers. John Bersnider, Geo. W. Bullfinch. Wni. Burns' 
Geo. E. Bricf^s. Beni'<lict Bloom, John H. Breman, John Bossier, Benedict Bloom' 
Conrad Bers. CJeo. Hills, Lorenzo S. Bassett, Wm. Bates, Franklin Bates. Lucas T. 
Bush; Max Bloom, died in the service; Edwin Clark, Geo. E. Coleman, Obadiah p" 
Coleman, John P. Coleman. Wm. A. Cole, James Connor, Thos. H. Cox, Cicero 
Cooper, Orsamus W. Crocker. Alex. Conner, John Conklin, Thos. H. Ch'lnnock; 
Wm. H. Castnt^r. died in the service; Wm. Coffleld, died at Xewbern, Aug. 20, 18ii-j" 
John Conners, died at Beaufort, S. C, Oct. 25, lt<();j; Alex. Coons. John C. F. Davis,' 
Daniel Davis, Or^illf Demine, Russel Dewitt, Henry E. Duman, Ezra Daniels, John 
Davis. Nathaniel T. Drake, James C. Drake, Fred. Durston, Geo. Derrick, Jas. H 
Dunlap; Richard Doolin^, died in the service; Michael Duffy, died in the se^^•ice• 
John Davis, Jos. Eit^eman, Wm. W. Elder; Samuel J. Edwards, died at Newbern,' 
Nov. 1. 1SH4. of yellow fever; Theo. J. Everetts. died at Newbern, Aug. 24. 1862- 
Alex. Fiill>>rton, John Fickers, Orrin M. Foster. Edward Francomb, Jos Fuchter' 
Heinrlck Frolick. Jno. P. Fullerton, Fred, G. Fields; Geo. P. Farrar, died at New'- 
bem, Oct. 17, l>-»>4, of yellow fever; Milo Goodrich, John Gilbreth, Wm. Gradv, 
Jwnea Gross. John Griner, Amos H. Green, Charles W. Goodenow. Andrews Gard- 
ner, Thomas Green, Elliott D. Goodrich, Luther Green, Henrv Green; Albert Gar- 
r«tt. died on Folly Island, July 25, 18t>i; Patrick H. Hart. Max'Herman, James Hill, 
Philip Houghtalins, Moses Houehtalin?. James H. Herrineton. Charles Harris, 
Robert Harris, Geo. W. Hall, Charles Haver, Fred. Hersher, Robert Hoatr, Wm. 
Heath, Andrew Herman. Geo. E. Herrinston. Michael Holden, Augustus Hewitt; 
John H. Henry, died in the service; Killian Hober. died at Jacksonville, Oct. Si, 
!•««: Virgil P. Irons; Valentine Inders, died at Newbern, June 7. 1862; Abram 
James, Elias Johnson, Waterman Johnson. Albert James, Geo. King, John U. 
Keene, James H. Kintjslev, Thomas Kelley, John E. Ladd, Ira Laddi Andrew Lee, 
Edwin C. Loomis, Samuel Lacksinger, Jacob Lambert, John Lucas; Joel Cambert, 
died at Newbern, May 14, 18t52; Geo. G. Lane, died in the service; John Lord, died 
at St. Augustine in hospital, Oct. 20. 1S04; John McCarthv. Daniel McCortnick, 
Fred. D. Mclntyre, Andrew J. MitchelL Charles H. Maxfleld.'Geo. W. Martin. Law- 
rence McCue, Samuel C. Myers, Charles Miller, Coral H. Mills, Geo. Martin, Chas. 
S. McKinley. Herbert A. Maxwell, Leslie G. Maxwell. Wolsey E. Masree, Geo. Man- 
ley, Lawrence McCarthy, Geo. Merley, Charles H. Merrick, Aaron R. McCourter; 
Jacob Miller, died at Newbern, Oct. 14, 18H2; John Miller, died in the ser^-ice- 
Johnathan Newell. Charles G. Newell, Selah North, Philip O'Neill, Elias E. 
Ostrander. Geo. W. Pitcher, Jesse E. Piatt, Charles Price, Clark D. Perkins; 
Robert S. Parks, Wm. C, Parks, Webster Ransom. Randolph Robinson, Curtis 
Reals. Martin E. Reals, Seneca K. Reynolds. Augustus Bohe. Sam'ord Rvder, 



ler, Aaron Sage. Harley Shaw. Jr., Azariah Sheldon, Hiram Sherman. James 
Mor«y. Ben. B. Sitterley. John Solar. James H. Sprague. Jefferson Smith. Charles 
W Sprinuler. Augustus Sturgis, Henrv Smith: Walter Sage, died at Newbern, 
July 15, is»i2; Peter Smith, died in the service; Bvron Tallmadge, Joseph Thorpe, 
Wm, Taylor, Geo. Travis, Mathias Tvson. G. Vanbenburg. Reuben R. Worth, John 



service; Orange P. White, accidentally killed on Foley Island, April 16, Ib&l: Philip 
Zimmerman. 



COMPANY "G," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated May 2i, 1863; two years' men mustered out June 2.] 

r</pf-Tfn*— Charles H. Stewart, April 25, 1861; promoted Sept. 28, 1861. John Wall, 
oept. 28. 1861; mustered out June 2, 186.3. 

Fir^t LifufenmifM—Antoiue E. Robinson. Sept. 28. 1861; resigned Nov. 13, 1862. 
John C, L. Hamilton, Jan. 1, l.vVJ; resigned Mao 1.3, 186.3. 

St.<on<i Lieut'n'inf—L<^wis H. Mowera, April 10. 1962; transferred to 3d Artillerv. 

Si rye< I Ttfj,— John White. Charles B. Quick. Geo. E. Sherwood. John White. Andrew 
B.>ach, John Aiken, Charles B. Bush, Waltor C. Henry, Mason Andrews, J. V. 
tthuxk. 



'5 ' 



.\ ;v/' ucn 



3o6 



3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



Corporals— Augustyis R. Leonard. Milan E. Goodrich, Sylvester Houfrhson, John 
M. Thompson, Lewis Deline, Sidney W. Palmer, James H. Bennett, Anthony 
Stacey. , 

Drummer — Bernard W. Dunn. 

Fi/er — Charles H. Woolsey. 

PriratM—Frunk Agnew. killed at Washinfrton, N. C. Sept. 5, 1862; Charles Aiken, 
Gansevoort M. Allen: Wm. G, Anthony, died at Hancock June 20, 18ti-': Samuel S. 
Andrews, killed at Washinsiton. N. C.. Sept. .5, 1H62; Hulbert S. Andrews. Abel 
Austin, Benj. S. Barber, Morris P. Bnker, Geo. Brown, Sullivan Bates. John C. 
Bingham, James B. Benson, Andrew J. Beach, Isaac S. Bradley, Sam. Brewster, 
"Wm. W. Bush. John Br(ina>;an. John Burridtre, Wm. C. Bell, Milo Burns, Allen C. 
Bennett, Thomas J. Bell, James W. Chapman, Henry Cleraenee, Wm. C. Cole. Delos 
M. Cox, James Close, 3Iadison Clifton, Tlieo. Conklinp, S. C. Cornwell. Wm. T. 
Cowen, John Coleman, John C. Crofoot, Coleman M. Curtis, Everend H. Casterlin. 
Charles Culver. Geo. Chris.«raan, John H. Doitrich, Lewis Deline, Artemas A. 
Dresser, Theo. L. Dunniiii:. Wm. Emerson. James G. Edwards. John Foster. Wm. 
Fowler, John J. Fish, Charles H. Forshay, Nathaniel Fraser, Edson D. Gillett, 
Delphi H. Georpia. Alexander Graham, Aaron Guilfus, Edijar D. Gillett, Lorenzo 
W. Hatch, Joseph Hayden, Geo. Hayward. Asa A. Hoff, Marcus D. Herrick, Joseph 
Horie, James Hunter, David Harvev. A. B. Huxford. James G. Hudson, Alonzo 
Halsey, Morgan L. Joslin.^Alpheus" W. Jackquett. Fred. D.Jones, David Jones, 
Albert G. Kurtz, Alex. Kelsey, Thomas Knowlaud. Wm. H. Kinnev, Monroe Lara- 
waj, Geo. H. Leish. Thomas Lithjjrove, Abijah H. Loveland, Franklin A. Lass, 
Henry F. Little. Byron W. Mabie. .Arthur D. Millard. Hu^h Mont^'omerv, David 
Myriek, James H. Mill.';, Wm. :Martin. Thomas North, Elibha Pearce, Wm. W. Pease, 
John H. Robinson, Edirar Ranson. Wm. Richards, Amos Rolf, Wm. H. Root, Rich- 
ard B. Raner, Marshall M. Satrer, Henry Smith, Thomas Strahan. Geo. W. Stevens, 
Geo. Simmons, Robert A. Stuart. Eiiimett D. Smith. James Shank, Lemuel F. 
Straley, Sam. I. Stralev. Harm<3n S. Taylor. Sauford H. Tavlor, Geo. A. Tappan, 
Charles D. Thompson, Thos. 3L Thurston, John M. Telford. Wm. H. Tucker. Elisha 
Terwillicer, Timothy Rooney. Giles Van Akin, Aufinstus Van Dike. Wm. Van Ant- 
werp, W m. H. B. Wheeler, James R. Whitmore, Geo. W. Winchester, James M. 
Wolf.. Fred. G. Wetherbv, Martin C. Wade, John WilUs, Lewis F. WUbur, Charles 
W. Wheaton, Charles WUliauis. 



BATTERY " G," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 7, 1865.] 

Captains — Wm. A. Kelsey, Sept. 2:5, IWU; mustered out July 7, 1865. D. L. Aber- 
deen, March 8. 18«>4; discharged Deo. 22. lM(i4. 

I'ii-Ht [.iriitcHinitx — Oirilvie E. Ball, Sept. 21, 1K(U; mustered out Julv l.i, 1^65, Wm. 
B. Patterson, March 8, 1>m4; discharged Dec. 31, 1804. J. N. Wilcoxen, April 14, 
1864; discharged Feb. 3. ISfl.j. 

Sevond Lienti'tKnitH — Charles A. Moore. Oct. 2,1864; mustered out Julv 7, 1865. 
Rowland D. Wade, Nov. 21, 1H()4; mustered out July 7, 1S65. Chas. W. Festher, 
3Iarch H, 1N>4; discharged Oct. 14, \>^-A. Bynni II. Kinnie. March 10. 1NJ4; discharged 
July 8, IStU. Geo. A. Oopway, Dt'<'. 1, lS<i»; discharged Dec. .31, IStU. 

StraeitnU — James M. Staples. Geo. W. Dakin. Robert Bell. Walter H. Rodgers. 
Samuel A. Edgar, Ferdinand Becker, Walter S. Barker, Francis Nelty, Joseph E. 
Colter, Geo. W. Dakin. 

t or/ior(i/.t — Henry H. Hitchcock. Franklin A. !\Iilton, Patrick Gibbons, Christopher 
Chrysler, John Marbis. Frederic Smith, Josfph Giuter, Isaac Harvey, James 
Cassady, James E. Stelibings. Jam>>s Fox, Frederic Batters. 

UmiUrn — Augustus Dow, Frank Yale. 

Bl'h h-xiiiitli-H — Ira Wing; Erastus Harris, died at Raleigh, N. C, June 4, 1665, of 
fever. 

^iildUr — Nicholas Hannie. 

^y||||(>ller — Fred. Pratt. 

J'^iirritr — Clement Dixon. 

/•/•/., f/r*— Darius Applfbv. Delos Abbott, Silas A. Adams. Charles H. Ashley, 
Henry J. Anthony. George \V. lUirt. (ieorgi> Bassiis, Wm. H. Buck. 'i'had(h'\is Bar- 
rick. Framis Hliinciin. George E. Bush, Ciirlstojiher Brain. Richard Backer. Philip 
E. Budd, John Burkcr, John Brown, James M. Budd, Joseph Bassus, Charles A. 



I -I 



MUSTER ROLL. 



307 



Bormann, Charles A. Rartlett, John Bivens, Patrick Byrnes, Thomas Butler, Irw n 
Birch, Goor^'•■ W. Bi>lti>n. John Boder, Lorenzo Barker. Willet H. Britton. Fran, is 
Boyle; Victor Bicker, died at Beaufort. N. C, April 19, 18l>.5, of fever; Fred. Ct- 
rall, Adam Curnell, Levi Courtwripht, Jos. E. Cross, John B. Cortwright, Jen.t.ric 
W. Case, Benj. D. Cnrev. Joseph Cosgrove, Wm. Coe, Marcus Coushnet. A. S. C:.i.t. 
Mickle Daily, Lorenzo baniels, Oscar Dean, James DeWitt, Michael Dugan, Chailis 
Deshain. Edward Doultr.u. Robert Edf;ar. Frank Eagle. 3Iartin Frick, Angus' us 
Featherlv, Jacob W. Featherly, Thomas F. Flemniinir, James Fay. John Frant/. 
GeorKe f^rieud, Chaiincey Franklin, Alanson Fink, Reuben Fink. John GreelM-n. 
Dennis GaftuHy. Abraham' Gilcher, Charles C. Gillman. Edsar O. Gilbert. Georf^e \V. 
Oalphin, p;Tiimett Gordon: Wm. H. Gibbs, died at Beauf(.>rt, X. C, April 15. lSi."i. ,,f 
disease; Muthew Gillman. Andrew Henn. John Hamilton. Daniel harroun. Bfuj. F. 
Howard, Wm. Harroun. Henry Helm. Samuel Hall, Patrick Hart. Edwin F. liuu- 
gt>rford. Jas. G. Harris, Stephen P. Hewitt, James R. Hall, Wm. J. Holmes; Jubn 
Henn, Albirt E. Jacfibs, Samuel A. Jackson, Darwin C. Johnson. John Kirkenbaur. 
Jacob Kurtz, Allen Kilburn, Michael Kennedy, John Keeler, Gabriel Kurtz, Fre:!. 
Eertz, Warren Lower, John Loose, Orin Larkins, Joel Lawrence; Barney Lynch 
died at N'ewbern, Oct. 27. 18&4. of yellow fever; Anson Miller. Eli S. McAllister. Ja.s! 
Monaban. Otto Meyers, Patrick MulhoUand, Charles Mudfoid. Freeman Millard, 
George McAllister," Lockland McPhail, ilalcomb McDi>nald. John H. 3[essinL:vr! 
Alfred H. Mead. Thomas Mack. Aaron Marcellus, Timothy Mahoney; Andi-ew Mi - 
Cracken, died at Raleitjh, Jan. 2tj, 18o5. of disease; George Murphy, Patrick McClouch, 
Thomas McHenry, John McLane, Leon Marshall, Daniel McAU. Aufjustus Nen.r 
Jules N'elty. Francis Nye. James O'Harra, James O'Rourke, Wm. Pui,'h. Elijah 
Piatt, George Pearl, T." Perkins. John W. Phelps. Andrew Perkins. Richard A. 
Philips, Charles Piper, Clark D. Perkins; Michael Powers, died at Xewbem. Nov. 
5, IHW, of disease; Chas. Rowe, Thomas Rofe, Stephen Reynolds, John Rvan, John 
Richard, Wm. Ramage, Lafayette Robinson, Wm. H. Rector, George Sv. RclmI. 
Wm. H. Reymore. John Staub, Geor;;e H. Sherman, L'rban B. Smith. Morris Snicn- 
ter, Peter Schwerin, John Springier. Charles Sheriff, Alon'zo Sanders. Charles D. 
- Smith. Wm. Sherman, David L. Shopley. Jacob Setterly, Peter Saulsbury, Charts 
P. Stevenson. Uriah H. Seymour, Jacob Stickle, Michael Scollins; Henry Swan. 
died at Newbem, Xi5v. 5.- lt<tU. of yellow fever; Leonard A. Stockrwell. Jas. Tetir. 
Dewltt C.Tnuiible. Ge<irge W. Trumble, Howard H. Tompkin.s. (jeorge M. Turnier. 
George Trumble, Edward Towner, Alfred A. Thomas, James Thompson, Thoma.s 
Van Duser, Henry Vandeburg, Wm. Van Ryan, George H. Ward. Chas. H. Whcf-l-r. 
Aaron Ward, Edward Winnie, Andrew Warner, Charles H. Whitcomb; Thoi_ias 
Wallace, died at Newbera, Oct. 25, 1864, of .yellow fever. 



COMPANY " H," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated Sept. 28, 1861.] 

Captain — Solomon Giles. April 2.i. ISfil; promoted. 

FlrH /.iV'f/t/ia/d'— Augustus Field. May 22, 1S»51; resigned Oct. 4. ISfil. 

fitcon4l Lieiittuitnt — ilarvin D. Nichols. 31ay 22. IStil; resigned Sept. 1. 1861. 

.<fri/^(7(f.t,— Charles il. Whiteside, Wm. R. Hedges, Willis Watson, Montraville ?>I. 
Heilgfs. 

'■•rj.ontU — Andrew J. Hine, Albert Greenfield, Geo. H. Brown, Edward E. 
Coffln>c<-r. 

J'r,u,u,ur~\\m. G. Faatz. 

>■(/•■''— Masiin Andrews. 

Prir.i', H—Wxi^, E. Acker. Wm. C. Atkinson, Jesse Babcock, John C. Bingham. 
Philip H. Hriuv'^. Henry F. Brown. Aaron F. Brooks. Geo. H. Brown. Wm. H. Hov..', 
Jam. •« Burns. .Jacob Burt. HuUiert Cady, Wm. N. Christian, James Collier, Joi:ii 
Co^-HU, Jam. s loyle, Harvey C.)ppernoll, Piatt Cro.ss, ISenj. R. Dairgett. James \N'. 
Duvls. John En.-K-hart, Peter K. Eldred. Thomas C. Eldred. Ichabod N. French: 
John L. Forii. di.d at Newbern. ARril Iti. ]St;2. of fever; Elia.s Griggs. John Grov. s 
Peter HacWett, D.'unis Harlem. Cornelius Huliphcr, G.'o. M. Jacobs, Charles K. 
Ja4.'ob8, (reo, B. Kenvon. P.'ter Luberteaux, John Long, Patrick Lvnch. Wm. Lei'.h. 
Wm. .M.-Nftt. A'.oiizo W. Mills, Manl.-v M. Mill.s. Wm. L. Myers. 'David H. Norton. 
Jov.pli \V. l',.ai~ .11. Wm. H. l'<ill..k. E.-(iuire C, Pollok. Wm. G. Peter.-^. James Ha I 
ford, Wm. H. Ka.irord. Jabez Rhodes. James E. Rude. Geo. Russell. Jaiii.-^* -M. 
Saunders, Asaph W. ShurtletT, Harlow Sherwood, Lewis N. Streeter, Mart.u 
Thorp, JttiUfS Todd, Isaac Van Alstine, Henry Van Buren, Daniel D. Wut.-i' n. 



308 3D NEW'-VORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

John W. Welch, Edwin L. Westfall, Boardman Whiteman, John C. WilliamH, 
« Jamea Yarton. 



BATTERY "H," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out June 24, 1863.] 

Ca/vifltnj*— Wm. J. Riggs, Nov. 16. 1861 ; promoted Sept. 33, 1864. Enoch Jones, 
Dec. 26, l!^64; mustered out with battery. 

Firnt Lteuten<ints — H^^ratio N. Thomp.son, Nov, 4. 1S64; mustered out June 24, 1865. 
Wm. Quinn, Feb. 17, iNio; mustered out June -H, 1865. John D. Clark. Dec ^, 1861; 
promoted Sept. 30, 186-3. Wm. E. Mereer, Jan. 9. 186i; promoted Sept. 14, 1863. 
John W. Heea. Dec. 3<). 186'^; appointed Captain in 16th Artillery, March 3. 1864. 
Paul Fay, March 3(). is»>4: mustered out Dec. 4, lii64. Paul Birchmeyer, Oct. 17, 
1862; mustered out Jan. 20, ISiJS. 

Sn;ond LUutenant'* — Albert C. Devendorf, Oct. 2, 1864 ; mustered out June 24, 
1865. Geo. Vandewater, Feb. 13, 18*io: mustered out June 24. Charles D. Tryon, 
Oct. 2, 1861. Wm. F. Fields, Jan. 9, 18t'.2; resigned Dec. 3, 186.3. Charles F. King, 
Dec. 3, 186;3; promoted Sept. 24. 1.8W. J. N. Bouta, Nov. 1, 18tU: promoted Feb. 24, 
1865. Edward Delester, Oct. 14, ls64; mustered out June )i^i. 1865. John O'Neil, 
March 8, ls62; died Aug. 10, 1864, at the U. S. general hospital. Va. 

Ser^inntA — Alfred Curtis. Geo. X. Alden, Sylvester C. Baldwin, Joserih J. Bowley, 
Philip Baker, Thomas L. Rowland, David J." Evans, John Morley, Wilson Smith, 
Charles F. King. Lewis W. Coe. John J. Castle, 31. S. Pratt, Josh\ia E. Davis, David 
B. Rice, Ambrose IL Weed, Maynard J. King, James Van Vleck; Joseph Stewart, 
died at Portsmouth, Va., June ii, 1S64. 

CorponiU — Alfred O. Smith. Walter L. Johnson, John N. Powers, Theo. Throop, 
Wait M. Mevers. James Brown, Albert M. Rowley. Marvin D. Bravin, John W. 
Petley, Henry Fox. M. Green. Gilbert H. Perkins, Alfred J. Earnea, Orville M. Pot- 
ter, John M. Parkhurst, Parker Tymerson. 
Bugliri> — Charles Keohl, Chas. H. Smith, Charles F. Osbom, Walter CovelL 
Artijicira — Sandford Slaver. Wm. P. Turner. 
Fari-ierg — James F. Dickenson. Elliott Metcalf. 

Prirute* — Benj. F. Adams. Jas. W. Ashhurne. Henry W. Allen, Theophilus Bush- 
neU, Edward Bryant. Michael Burns. Joseph Bruder. Aaron J. Brewster. Gotleib 
Burke, Chas. L. Baruhart. Jas. H. Baldwin. M. L. Bacon. Alex. F. Beebe, Stephen 
Berry. James Byrne. Elijah W. Bush, David L. Bush. Jay Bates. Silas W. Brown, 
Wm. Baker, Simon Butler, Jay Bates, Sherwood S. Ball; Henry X. Blair, died at 
Newbem, Julv 9. 18(53, of disease; Joshua E. Bryan, died at Newbem Nov. 13, 1S«>4; 
John H. Bird' died at Base Hospital, Va., Aiig. 22. 18»>4; Robert C. Cole, Orange 
Conley, David Coapman, Marshall E. Cook, Samuel Crigler, Geo. Cripler. Charles 
Conklln. Wm. A. Clark. John N. Cadieux, Chas. J. CraudaU, Franklin F. Close, 
James Crawford. Wallace Covell. Jamea E. Chadderton; Isaac N. Cleveland, died 
at Portsmouth. V^a.. April i2. IN'4; Wm. Craver. died. July 27, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived in actiijn before Petersburg; Henry Craver, died at Newbem June 2'), 1862; 
Wm. E. Cornish, died at Newbem April 29. 18<i2; John V. Cole, died at Richmond, 
Va., April 16, l8<)o, of wounds received at hands of persons unknown; Wm. A. 
Clark, Robert N. Davenport. Robert J. Dobson, 3Iorri3 Dee, James M. Dunbar, 
Tho8. B. Demster, Irmin W. Deitz, Pat. Duffy, Joseph Dolphy, Eugene Davenport, 
John Evans, John R. Edwards, Jacob Erion, John H Evans, Orrin Ennis, M. M. 
Elliott, Minor R. Elliott, Abraham Ecker, Johuathan Foster, Elon Fenton, Charles 
Farrier, Briggs Flint, John Finn, Henry F. Funk; Win. Flynn, died at Newbem 
Aug. 2i\ ISii-i; John L. Ford, died at Newbern, April 16, ist)2, of fever; Ephraim 
Goixlnian. Grauk Gardner. Martin Gasser, Wesley (irems, Clinton W. Grems. Jamea 
Graham, Justice Griswold, John W. Hubert. "Daniel Heath, Henry P. Hagan, 
Henry Howe. Wm. Horsley. EUsha R. Holmes, Wm. F. Hannagan. Philip Hoev, 
Henry L. Hull Charles Ike, Beni. Kniffen, Stephen Kauffy, Edward D. Kintrswortb, 
Philip Kell'T. James Kelley, Thomas Kennedy, Wm. Kuupp, Otto Kau^nialL, J. 
Lewis, Alonzo Lampin, Wm. Liliis, Burt D. Li>omis. Wilbur Leete, Lewis LaBumty, 
Henry V. Leach. Albert Lewis; Anthony Legcer. killed atthe battle of Washintrton, 
N. C, Sept. 6, I8<i2; Harrison Lesbit, died in the service; John McLain, Albert 
Myers, Nicholas Murphv, Timothy Murphy, Henry N. Miller, Wm. Jliller. Geo. K. 
Mason, lieo. 31 ultrm, John McCrnhan, I'at. McDermott. James Jlee, David 11. 
Miller, Jas. W. Jloore, Thcnia-s JlcCling, Geo. Mitchell Wm. McGee, John 3[alone, 
Wm. J. Mosiuer, Chas. F. Merchant, Albert ilott, Wm. M. Mayhew, Calvin Miller, 



MUSTER ROLL. 309 

Sn&9 W. Mason, John McCrahan. Lester Martin, Henry H. Neas, Geo. E. NVnn, 
Lewis Xpwmaa, Henry D. Niles, Henry E. Xew, Henry G. New. Albert Xarinny^ 
Wm. OShaufrhnesay. Alex. Oakley. E. Olcott, Jas. W. Putnam, Cas'^ius M. I'mitl 
Thomas W, Piper, Fred. PUinp, "Calvin Philips. Robert Proutj. Mt-rrit Pt-rkin.s. 
Era.st»is Pier. Edward M. Parmelee; Jas. W. Phillips, died at Newport >s'ews. D.r. 
Ifi, IWl, of disease: Wellinfrton Perljins. died at Fort Corcoran, March 1. iN.i. <,t 
effects from the explosion of a shell; Chauncey C. Rowe, Leonard Rayats, Frank 
Rose; Goo. Rose, died in New York city. Feb. 10, 18tj3, of disease; Wm. B. Siuith, 
Harvey W. Snyder, Geo. K. Smith, Jerome J. Sperry, Wm. Sutherland, Ans^n 
Smith. James Smith. Jacob Spoor, John Sullivan, Geo. Shaver, Joseph Shanbarki.-r. 
Leroy Smith. Chauncey G Suits, Royal Snyder, Bernard Staadeumyer. Jus-ph 
Sauford. Wm. Shaver, Samuel Sherburne, Richard R. TruesdeU. Geo." W. Trvun. 
Thos. Thompson, Jas. B. Toby. James Tapper. Jno. H. Thomas. Burnett Tracy. 
Geo. Vanderworker, Thos. VanVleek, Simon v'an Broeklin, Jesse Vanderpool; Isaac 
Van Marter. died in the service: Albert P. Watkins, Jas. L. Walters. Joel L. Wri;;ht. 
Francis White, Chas. Wairner, Chandler "Waterman, Thomas Wilkinsim. Edward 
H. Wentworth, DeC. G. Woodruff. Fred. Wallis, Calvin Wood. Henry Wilkins, Jno. 
J. Woolf, Samuel Whitefleld, Wade Whitetleld, Wesley B. Waterman, Eraatus K. 
WiiaoQ, Levi H. Wright, John Zee; Oscar Zears, died in the service. 



. COMPANY " I," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Original t^o years' men mustered out June 2, 1863; the rest formed a nucleus of a 

new company.] 

Cnpt<iin— John H. Ammon, April 25. 18til; resigned Dec. 16, 1863. 

First Liftitennnt — Geo. W. Thomas, May 22, 18til: transferred to 3d Artillery. 

Sfamd Lieiiteniint— Randolph B. Kimberly. May 22, ISOl; resigned Jan. "4, 1><<>*. 
Wm. A. Kelsey, Jan. 4, lSi;2; transferred to 3d Artillery. James S. Fuller, April 10. 
1862; transferred to 3d Artillery. 

..s^rf/r-^/iAi— Horace Silshy, Thomas J. Sormore, Chas. G. Allen, Wm. R. Hedges, 
John WilUams, A. Wesley 3Iills. Frank B. HalL 

rnr;/t>n//*— Andrew Leiteh. Edward Jenkins, Martin J. Webster, Edward E. 
Cofflnjier, Riilph Somers. Wilbur F. Woodward, Geo. Brill. 

Dntmiiifr — Alonzo Sanders. 

Fiffr — Ira P. Nichols. 

I'ririitr" — Wm. E. Acker, Volney Austin, Jesse E. Babcock, Edward Bahc<i<-k, 
John P. Barber, Ledra Belden, Jesse Babcock, Philip B. Bri^rps. Samuel Barr. 
Jphn M. Beaver, Frank Beardsley, Henry F. Brown, Aaron F. Brooks, Lor.n::o 
Deary, David D. Beeker. Wm. H. Boyle. James Burns, Alexander Heebe, Elijah 
Bowen Geo. Brill, Cornelius B. Brusie. Simeon Brown, John E. Biif)cook. Heiuv C. 
Burdick, Stewart Brotherton, David H. Becker, Geo. H. Coats. James Culii'T. 
Ilulbert Cady, Alvah Cooper. Joseph Cortln<;er. Wm. N. Christian. Fninci^J H. 
Coffln^er. James Coyle. Harvey CoppemoU, Irving W. Combs, Paul H. Crim, .lolui 
P. Carhart, Geo. H. Crocker, Patiick Conklin. Joseph Duseuburj-; Wm. R. Daii, 
killed in action before Furt Macon. April 25. li*l\2: Benj. R. DaizRett. Isaac O.ir.iu. 
Clinton Daniels, F. Backus Davis, Wallace Everson. Peter E. Eldred. John Em:!. - 
hart. Walter W. Fowler, Ichabod N. French, Geo. Forshee. Andrew Fitz;j<'iali|. 
Addison Fer?tison. James Gibson. AU)ert Greenfield, Geo. Glazier, Henn- 
Gohnian, Michael Grant, Hezekiah Hill. Charles Howland, Montraville M. Hedi,-. .<. 
Andrew J. Hine. Geo. Humphrevs. John Howell. Albert Hamlin. Wm. B. II. .vt. 
IsHAc H. Harrinfrton, Aaron F. ftoyt, Jr., .\din W. Hoyt, Abner B. Hojt. u.mi.'K. 
Harrin;;ton, Eewis R. Inily. Geo. M.Jacobs, Steven Jenrier, Joseph Jenner. Kiiwui 
P. Johnson, Wilbur F. Jewell. Geo. B. Kenyon. Thomas J. Lyddon; Patrick Lvti, 1;, 
mlssint; In action at Whitehall, N. C Dec, 1S62; Thomas J. Luriman. J..'hii < 
Lant;lmm. James R. Lnntjham. Andrew Leitch. Cornelius Lowe. James H. L. -:.'. 
Geo. W. Leonard. 2d. Tlieo. Loomis. John Jacob Maier. Wm. Mack. Wm. MiN.m. 
Isaac .Mi-.Ma.xler, John McMaster. Edward McArthur, Manley .M. Mills, lii. ..'i 
Miles. Jimeon T. Jliutr. Horton G. Miller, Wm. L. 3Iyers, Samuel B. Mvers, !!■ i:j. 
F.Nichols. David H.Norton. Josh\ia Osterhout, Geo. Pearce, Jos W. 1". .u ■■•'.. 
James Prosser. Oliver Parmim.-ton ; Emerson Pierre, died at Hairerstown. h. I< i;. 
lSJi•^, Tninian Perry. Rodi;er i^uinn; Charles Rosenbur;:, died at'Ue.uifort. :•! >^ ••' 
lHii2; Milton Race, (i.'o. Russ.ll. Jacob A. Reed. Joseph Revnold.s. Wm. H. IMhi:.-- 
hart. James E. Rude. Jabez Rhodes. James Radford. Wm. H. Radlord. Ai. ri.-t 
Uyan, John Sanders, Fred. W. Stupp, Peter Schymdt, Edwin Slayton, llirani rie'il. 



3IO 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

Charles Stevens. Jas. M. Sanders. Asaph W. ShurtlefC. James O. SulHvan. Fred. 
Simpkin, Geo. Smith. Lewis Tolman. Richard Ter^illijjer: SamuelJ. Toitias. taken 

pri#'iner at Martinsburs. Va.. died at Richmond. Va. ; Wm. Turtle. -James 

Trdd. S.im. G. Thoma.s. Kenj. Ti'Otarla. Daniel Turner. H. N'. Thompson. Abraham 
Van Auken. Isaac Van Alstine. James West. John M. West. Hujrh L. Wier. Samuel 
"Wiseman, Wm. H. White. Chas. M. \Vhite3ide, John W. Welch, Edwin L. Westfall, 
Boardman Whiteman, James Yarton. 



BATTERY " I," 3D ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 8, 1865.] 

CapffiinJ>— John H. Ammon. April 25. 1S61 ; resigned Dec. Ifi, 1863, to become Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of 16th N'ew York Artillery. John D. Clark. Sept. :». IStW: mustered 
out Feb. 16, 1S65. Wm. M. Kirbv. Feb. IT. ISfi."); m\xstered out July 8, lSti.5. 

Fir^-f LUnfenantH — Geor<?e E. ihorwood. Mav 31, l.StU: mustered out Feb. 20, 1865. 
David W. Stewart, Jan. 13. 18<35: mustered out July 8, ISi;."). George W. Leonard. 2d, 
March 8, 1864: promoted to Adjutant. May 6. George W. Thomas, April 2.'5. 1861; 
mustered out 5lay ."iO. 18f4. Wm. Richardson, Aug. 24. 1864; mustered out July 3, 
1(^. Wm. A. Kelsev. July 18. 1SH2: promoted Sept. 2:^ 1864. Jas. S. Fuller, trans- 
ferred. Lewis H. M'owers. transferred. Duncan D. Hillis, March 8, 1864; died in 
Xewbem. Sept. 24, 1864. of yellow fever. 

Se^cnd LUufi^muit.i—Edca.'r W. Seymour. Jan. 13, 1865; promoted July 2, 1S65. Wm. 
H. Crtwdrich. March 14. l.^H.".; mustered out July 8, 1W;.5. James M. Staples. June 19, 
!>■>;: promoted Jan. 20. isri.-). Edgar H. Titus, Feb. 4, 18ti2: promoted July 17, 186^3. 
Paul Fav, Jan 1, 186-3; appointed Quartermaster, Dec. 31, 18t>.3. 

N-/-pr.fn^*— Abner B. Hoyt, Kdwin E. Coffinger. John E. Rabcock, Patrick Cole- 
man, Henry W. Sandford,' Joshua B. Coffin. Wm. O. Congdon, George A.Avery; 
Wm. H. King, died at Newbern, June 15. lSt)3: Charles E. Sherwood, died at Xew- 
bem. Oct- 6. ist»l. of yellow fever: Charles (J. Allen. George H. Crocker, Horatio N. 
Thompson, Peter Colburn, Chas. A. Moore. Martin J. AVebster. 

« v^ry/crt;/*— Abram Van Auken. Gilbert M. Arnold, Hiram Snell, Wm. Howland. 
Nathaniel Tuthill, Wm. X. Tuthill. Irving W. Coombs. Darwin Brockett. Isaac M. 
Glllett, Samuel L. Mvers; James F. Wilson, died at Weedsport, X. Y.. of disease; 
Thomas McLoughlin,' died at Newbern, Oct. 10. 18f)4. of yellow fever; Patrick Ma- 
loney. Daniel D." Watson, George Hall, George H. Smith. 

BhdUrtt — Samuel G. Thomas^ John K. Fox. 

Artlriarg — Luman Piuckney. Wm. Widner. 

Pri'ratt'i — Levi Adsit. Jacob Arbor. George Applegate, George Aldridge: Charles 
-Allen, died at Newbern, April 10. 1S65: Wm. Ashton, Aaron L. Armitage. H. L. ,\r- 
mitage. Ji'hn Ahern, Charles E. Hraiiiard. David H. Bruce. Jos. P. Bnbcock. Jesse 
Babtock. Stewart Brotherton, W'm. Bncklev. Ebenezer Briggs. Henry C. Burdick, 
Albert J. Bennett. David H. Becker. Oscar "P. Bishop. Henry M. Bishop. James C. 
Brennan. Horace Ball, John R. Brownell, Jas. Bninney; Peter Boyle, died at New- 
bern. Nov. :3. 1S64. of yellow fever; John Bennett, ilie'd of wounds received in ac- 
tion at Wise's Forks.' N. C, March N, Ibtio; Elias J. Bii.l>cock: George Beebee. died 
at Raleigh. Mav ;30. 1K().5: Frank Barney. Albert Butler. John S. Bailey, John P- Car- 
hart. Paul H. Crim, Sylvester Clark, "Wm. Curtis. Adnm Cope. Wfn. N. Caswell, 
Jeremiah Christian. George W. Cowls. Henry Craver. Garret F. Carson; Francis H. 
C'lfllnger, died at Newbern, July 26. ist^i; James S. Cannon, died at Newbern. June 
20. l'"''^!, of disease; John Cliggi'tt, Pat. Conklin. Pat. Cnleman. James Casler. Jas. 
C. Conklin. .A.Viram B. Cherry, l.-^iuic Darntt. Clinton Daniels, Backus F. Davis. John 
Doyle. Thomas Deverall. Albert S. Dennison. "Win. E. Dunn. Jr.. John C. Deforest, 
Nei-^m B. Darrin: Wm. Dart, killed in action at Fort Macon. April 25. li'^t>2: Henry 
E. Dunian. John Englehart. Rosell Elwell. Dayton Edwards. Ed. Ea.stham. John J. 
Ellis, .\dilison Fergu.son. Charles E. Fuller. Henry Farquharson. John Foy. John 
Finn, .-Andrew Fitztrerald. Jav E. Farrer. Wm. Fields: Spencer Flamsburg. died at 
Newbern. Nov. 15. l-^t^. of tyjihoid fevi'r; Edward E. Fentlierly. John H. Freeman, 
Peter F"X. Edward Francfimb, John H. Graham. Richard GeVaghty. Warren Gal- 
lant. Asher (Gallant: Charles L. (iurnsey. died at Newljern. Sept. 27, 1S<>4. of con- 
s'lmptie-n: Wm. ri..dshalL died at Newbern. Oct. 4. l.'<*'>4. of yellow fever: Jeremiah 
Gainey. Samuel Gilbert. John H. Graham. Jeremiah Ganey. Andrew (Jet re. John 
^;e^-r«». Charl.s (ioodenow. Juhn It. Gordon. Michael fiorman. George (iral.am. Jas. 
Haley, Wm. B. Hoyt, Aaron F. Hoyt, Adm W. Hoyt, Judsou N, Hoyt, James Hart, 



MUSTER ROLL. 3II 

Mrwn F. Harrington, Clifton J. Havens, Addison J. Hawks, John Hart: Pctpr Hol- 
Uilay. died at Newlit-rn. J<ily 2. It^lS: Wm. Holmes. Aiisustus Henkel, Kichard Hoim- 
land, Isaac Harrington, Kuyal S. Hubbard. Geortce HiirrinKton.Wm. Huliu.s, K.iht. 
Harris. Cliarlt'S Harris, Albert Hamlin. Orrin Irish, Wilbur Jt^well. Isaar- Jac.ilis..u, 
Ffttrii'k Karus, .loliu M. Kinpslev, Anthony Keltenborne. Richard Kolsuh, .Lisrpli 
Kej-naa, lialiriel Kurtz. .Jahn C. Lanpham. Jas. B. Langham. Jas. H. Lfi;;;. Al(;iizo 
Latlirop. Hi-nry H. Lewis. Theo. Loomis. Peter Lanf;dou. John F. Lowe: Levi Lyon, 
drowned in Trent river. Dee. 1'). l^i^U. insane: Curtis C. ^Morgan. John Morris, Wui-ien 
Morris. John Murpny. Legrand Moore. Jas. Jloreland. Henry P. IMallory. H. \V. .Mur- 
ray, (teo. McOlauijiUin, Isaac A. Minard. Jas. J. Minard. David Mason, Henry C. Muu- 
roe, Ilenrv J. Mauu. Daniel McGower, Walter C. Mead, Owen Murtaui,'h:Thos. Mead, 
died at N'ewbern, Oct. 29, 1H64. of yellow fever: W'm. McNett, Michael Murpuv, 
Thomas McLaughlin, Charles Merrit. David McDonald. Albert W. Moulton, M;- 
cha«d Muri>''y- Charles M. Newman. Richard "W. Nutt. Albert B. Norton. Wm, F. 
Northroi). Tliomaa Nolan. Owen 0"Brian. Wm. H. Pollock, Charles Paley. Robert 
Poole. Warren A. Pierce. Georire W. Perkins: Triiman Perry, died in the service, 
Jun.< -'l, ^^*>'y^\ Wm. H. Pollock, Francis E. Piatt. Merritt S. Perkins. John C. Rotl, 
Wm. U. Radford. Jos. P. Ransier. Pat. Ryan, David D. Robinson. Fred. W. Simp- 
kins, Wm. L. Stalker, Henry C. Smith, Jas. H. Smith. Seymour J. Smith. Elzaphan 
SUter, Warren Stearns. Wm. Scheider. George H. Sherwood, George B. Slierwooi', 
Samuel A. Stephens, John Sullivan, George W. Strout, Ebenezer Skinner, Chas. B. 
Swartflgure; Augustus St. Armand. died at Newbem. Jan. 3. 18ij.); Wni. Steph'-nson, 
died at Newbern. Oct. 27. 18t>l, of fever; James M. Sanders. Burt Silsby. Warren 
Stearns. Jas. H. Smith, Abram Smallwood, Henry Smith, Wra. Sweetlaii.l. Josepb 
Tobln. Lafayette Taber, Wm. H. Topping, Giles W. Taylor, John Tremper, Benj. 
Tootalv, Wm. Tidd, Giles W. Taylor. Joseph Tobin. John Taylor, Nathaniel Tump- 
klns. Tune Upham, Isaac Vedder, Thomas Vanderlip. Jesse Venn; Beuj. Webster, 
George W. Warrington, Andrew L. Winters. Elisha Winters, Wm. Workman. Geo. 
H. West, Edward S. We.stfill, H. J. Westfall. Arthur Wright. Charles Walters. Al- 
bert Williams, Wm. H. Williams; Lewis H. Webb, died at Newbern. Oct. Si. IrstK. of 
yellow fever; John Williams, Stephen O. Whitmore, Wm. Widner, Charles E. Wal - 
druu, Clarence A. West. 



COMPAIs V " K," . 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Consolidated Sept. 38, 1861.1 

Cit pt.i In— 3 nmes R. Angell. April 2.5. ISfil. 

Firit I.ifuterui nt— AWiert H. Carr. May 22. 1861: resigned Oct. 31. 

."v,./.H./ /.iVK/^/i.//!?— Lester W. Forsting. Mav 22. IStil; resigned Oct. 31. 

.*vry^</H?,,— Charles D. Thompson, Alex. Chambers, Wm. H. Chase, Jr., Wra. W. 
Bush. 

( '>»r/)rtrf//*— Charles B. Bush, Walter C. Henry, Asa A. Hoff, James H. Bennett. 

Pninnii^r — John H. Robinson. 

Fifer — Geo, Brown. 

/V/n;/.'-— Volney .\ustin. Ledra Belden, John Branagan. Milo Burns. David Bur- 
row.s, Allen C. Bennett. Everend H. Casterlin. Charles Culver. Geo. Chrissnian. 
I>»wis Deline, Duane Draper, James G. Edwards, Chas. H. Forshay, Madi.<ou 
Gower, Delphi H. Georgia, (reo. Hajrward, Thomas Heatheringtou: Jihn Hicks, 
died at Georgetown, April 3. 1882; Edward Hope. Edward Hervey. Wm. Irving 
Alpheus W. Jaciuett. Wm. H. Kinney, Thomas Knapp. Jr., Thomas Knowland, 
Byron W. Mabie. Vincent Odell. Wm. W. Pense, Demick Pease. Martin Richard- 
t>..n, Joseph Reynolds. Edwin P. Robert.s. Andrew Reddings. Thomas Shiihan. Jer- 
ome V. Shank. Geo. Simmons. Geo. B. Simpson. Sandford H. Taylor. (ie.>. A. Tap- 
p<'n. Tliomas M. Tluirston. Wm. J. Treadwell, Oscar S. Tripp, Justin Trim. Martin 
G. Wade, John Willis, Isaac C. Wright. 



COMPANY " K," 19TH INFANTRY. 

[Mustered in Dec. 16, 1861; original recruits mustered out June 2, 186:3; rest formed 
nucleus of new company.] 

r</;)^ri«— James R. Angell, Dec. 16, 1861. 



312 3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

, Firnt Lieuten^ntn—yfm. Richardson, Dec. 16, 1861; mustered out July 3, 1863; T. J. 
Mercereau, April 10, 18»>2. 

Secoiul Li-»n-fe)i<ivt—'Wm. M. Kirbv. 3Iarch 10, 1862. 

Serffeitntx—Bem. J. Yard. Alex.C. Chambers. Wm. H. Chase, Jr., Nathan Gor- 
bam, Warren C. Gardner, Philip A. Faatz. Wm. W. Suits. 

CorporoJii — Norman A. Loekwood. Samuel R. Jones, Hiram Mathews, Alma 
Stevens, Morris Gofl, Albfrt Greenfield. Demmick Pease, Albert Thompson. 

Drummer/)— Vfm. O. Faatz, Wm. H. Sani-hez. 

Priratft — John D. Adams. Webster Belden, Lorenzo Barnard, Theo. Bowers, 
John B. Barnard. Lewis Ball. Henry Brook, died at Newbern. June 5, ]8*l-2: David 
Burrows, Benj. Bowen. James W. Bouta. Harrison Blascier. John A. Becker. John 
H. Bohman, Isaacc Bolster, Autnistus A. Berry, Piatt Cross. Juhuathan Curtis. Wm. 
C. Culver. Geo. W. Crossman, Wm. Crawford. Geo. R. Cook. James Clark. Joseph 
Clark, Lafayette Carr. Thomas Clark. Wm. H. Courtney. Henr\' J. Coul. Jolm J. C. 
Davis, Samuel Davis, Nathan Dumas. John Douglass. Peter W. Deidrich. Richard 
Dean. Hezekiah Etts, John Elphick. Wm. H. Etts, Joseph T. Estes. 3Iich;iel Fra- 
ney. Hurley Farmer. James Farrell. Francis Flood. Henry T. Ginner. Charles 
Greenfield. Warren C. Gardner, Daniel Gower. Madison Gower. E. Sevmour Gris- 
wold. Friedland Gardner, Benj. G. Gibbs: Peter Haekett, killed at Whitehall, Dec. 
17, 1862; John Hicks. Meynen Herman. Michael Howard, Robert Hoff. Charles W. 
Havens, Charles Hitt. Lafayette Huff. Jerome Johnson, John L. Jones. Timothy 
Keefe. Michael Kpenan, Thomas Knapp. Thomas Knapp. Jr.. Joseph Kaltenbome, 
Wm. P. Kies. Stephen Lockwood. Gen. E. Lockwood. Perry Lamphere, Albert Lara- 

J here. P'ter Laberteaux, John E. Leopard, James E. Lock, Carlton B. ^Mathews, 
ohn Mack. Adam Menzie, Morgan McCarthy. Thomas McLaughlin. Samuel I^Iorrill, 
Archibald Morrill. Lewis JlcCarthy. Wm. D. McCormick. John C. Miller, Henry 
Morgan, Oliver Murphy. John NiiLTcnt, Alex. Oakley, Henry O'Neill. Hiram F. 
Page. John Palmer, J(jhn Pulfrev. Edwin M. Pearson. John Phinney, Dennis Rvan; 
Wm. Rvan. killed at Whitehall. t)ec. 17. 1K62: Nelson Reynolds. Henry Rogers, ilar- 
tin Richardson, Samuel Ra.storfer. Thomas Reddin, John Rosser, Nelson Stuvver- 
son, Myers Stuvverson. Wm. H. Stuyvt-rson. Charles G. Satterlee, Geo. Swift. "Wal- 
ter Stevenson, "N'elson Stevens. Nathan Sanders. Johnson Smith. Wra. H. Stewart, 
Samuel Stone. Berlin Swan, Melville Smith, Jay E. Storke. John A. Scott. Wm. A. 
Scott. Mo.*es B. Stevens, Peter C. Stewart. Geo. Stone, Wm. Shaston, Edwin M. 
Stevens. Thomas Swift, Saul Thompson. Oscar Thompson, Edwin Thompson, E. 
P. Terwilli£rer. David Terwilliger. Henry Tottenham, Wm. H. Tucker. Charles E. 
Underwood, Isaac Valmore. Frnderick \'an Alstyne, Edward F. Wheaton, Mande- 
ville Ward. James W. White. Benj. F. Wade, Edward L. Westfall. Daniel Wakely, 
Eber F. West, Horace Wrench. Ueo. Wood, Walter Wells, James A. Weighant, 
Geo. Weat, Isaac N. White, Alanson White, James F. Wilson, Wm. B. Yawger. 



BATTERY " K," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out June 30, 1865.] 

CaptiiinD — James R. AngeL Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to Brevet-Major March 13, 
1865; mustered out June .'JK. 1805. 

Firi-i LUiittiftnt'i—C. Dewitt Starrin. June 21'. 18f>l; brevetted Captain by the 
President Man'h 13. lt<t'.o: mustered out June 3<). IStiS. Benj. G. Gibb. Jan. 13. 18t)5; 
■ mustereel our June ^{0, 1865. Wm. Richardson, Aug. i4. 18*U; transferred. Martin 
Lauiihlin, Nuv. 5. is»il; mustered out Aug 17. 18<"i.1. Thus. J. Merceri-au. April 10, 
1862; promoted Jinie 22. INU. Wm. 31. Kirbv. July 3, I8f>3; promoted to Captain 
Feb. 1.. 1V..1. James Fiiller. May 1. 18^.;J; resigned Oct. W. 18';4. John W. Hees, 
Dec. :3il, I.'«.2: appointed Captain mth New York Artillery, March 3, 18IU. 

Secoii.l l.iriftri,.ii,iH — Geo. B. .\ndrews. March 14. ISt^'); mustered out June 30. 18f>5. 
Richard J. Allen. March 10. lNi2: appointed Captain It^t N. C. Union Vols. July 12, 
1863. Geo. W. Leonard, promoted to .\djutant. Martin Shaffer. Jan. S.5. ]8ri2; re- 
signed Nov. 13. lst;2. Milan B. Goodrich; transferred. Lorenzo Ercanbrack, Nov. 
4, WM: re.-iigned May 11. INo. 

^iern'-iiuti, — Alanson White, Charles E. Underwood, Wm. H. Chase, Jr.. Wm. P. 
Kiss, Edwin M. Stevens. Wm. L. Van Antwerp. Edwin 31. Pearson. James W. Bonta, 
Warren C. Gardner: James Cl'.ne. taken prisoner at Beech Grove. N. C, Feb. 2, 
• 8t)4, and still niis,<ing at the muster out nf Battery. 

Corpora It— Geo. K. Cook, Wm. A. Scott, Wm. H. Root, Jas. G. Edwards, Patrick 



MUSTER ROLL. 313 

Dillon Joel M. Sprafrue, Peter Laberteaux, Giles Van Atin, Charles Hitt, Hubert 
LimphiT.'-. Lafayi-ttH Carr, died in the service; Geo. R. Cook; Sanford H. Taylor, 
tiiken prisoner at lieech Grove, Feb. 2, 1864, and missing when Batttry mustered 
out. 

^„„;^r*— Frioland Gardner, Addison Gardner. ^ „• , 

ArllficriH-ViU-r W. Dedriuk, Jessie Groesbeck, Luman D. Prnkney. 

n'lii/DitfT — '\Vm. D. Crawford. 

PrirnU»—Aho\ Austin. C. J. Ames, John G. Ames. Michael Anderson, John D. 
Adams Wm. \V. Du.'^h, Augustus S. Barry. Isaac Bolster. Perry Blanchard. James 
Bj-nson Charle.s I). lirackett. Thomas Barry, James Beers, Joshua Bell. Chas. 
Bastian Wm. Bnnkstahler, David BurrouRhs, Jesse Brown Buck, James Baker, 
Perry L Hrjant Mii-sf'S Bridgers, Wm. Bridfers. Gustavus Brown. Michael Burns, 
Thoma« J Hell, -Mifhael Brien; Samuel Brewster, died at Newbern. April 5. ISM; 
John lliirriil;,-e, died at Yorktown, of disease, April Itj, 18t54: James Bessy, died 
July •■> l"^'! of wounds received in action June 30: Horatio N, Brill, died on hos- 
pital ship </>.), Wdshinrflon, in Hampton Roads. Oct. I. 1804; Harrison Blazier. 
taken prih<.u<T Feb. 2, 1864. and died at Andersonville prison. April 12, 1864; Isaac 
BoUter. H. J. Coul. Madison Clifton, Henry M. Clemence. Amos B. Chapman, 
Mt.-hiK-l C.ivanash. Charles W. Comstock, John O. Coulter, James G, Chadderdon, 
Tiiiiotliy Cronou, Uobt. CuUen. Milton W. Couch. James Cad well. Edward Conhng, 
Milton Clark, Cyrus P. Chase, Michael Coakley, Geo. Coleman; Theo. tj. Cook, died 
at rort.smouth, Va.. May 29, 1865; Stephen C. Cornell, died at Newbern, June 2:^, 
iVkJ: .Iiimes Clark, died on hospital ship G<'0. VTashington. in Hampton Roads, Oct. 
22, is<i4; Jo.seph Clark, died at Point of Rocks, James River, Feb, i:i 186.5; Geo. 
Carr, taken prisoner Feb, 2. 1864 — died at Andersonville prison, Aug. 22, 1864; 
Th.'O, Conklin. Win, O, Culver, James Campbell. Peter Conway, Georfre Conway, 
F.zra Colson: Thomas Clark and Wm, H. Courtney, taken prisoner Feb. 2, 1864. and 
since missing: Richard Dean. Andrew Dickson. J. Dennis. Geo. F. Drake. Peter 
Darling, Wm. Devoe, Truman Dewitt, Jacob W. DeLong; John W. Daultim, died at 
N.-wbern, March 11, 1864. of fever; Timothy Dillon, died on hospital ship (no. 
tt\iK/ii,ti!fo7i, Nov. 8, 18t>l: Silas Ellsworth, Jacob Eckert. Jacob Eekerson. Ezra 
Eokerson, Moses Elkins, John J. Foster. Jr., John Fallon, Nathaniel Eraser, 
Jerome French, Jt>hn Forman; Patrick Fallon, taken prisoner, Feb. 2, 1864— died 
at And.>rHouville prison June 4, 1864; Daniel Gower. Andrew Geng. Horace Gndlev, 
Timothy Goslin, Jinniiah W. Gibson, James Gill, John Garry, 3Iuhael Guilford, 
Geo. Gwvcr, Frank Graham. John Griffing, Harmon Goodsell: Edgar D. Gillett, 
di.-d at Ncwbi.Tn, <^(t. 22.186-3; Henry Genner and Seymour E. (tH.-^woUI, taken 
prisoners, Feb. 2. I'm.!— died at Andersonville prison, April 24, 1864; Timothy Gor- 
man, riiitiie— died at Andersonville. June 17, ISW; Robert Hoff. Lafayette Hofl. Geo. 
P HofT. A. n. Haxfwrd, .Uonzo Halsey, Geo. Haywood, Wm. Holmes, John Holmes, 
fuear F. lljinl.Til.arg, Michael Hammond, E. B, Hunt, Charles Hensou. George 
Heurton. Wm, S, Harn. Jas, G, Hudson; Micheal Henesy, taken pri.suner. Feb. 2 
1-^V— di-d at AndiTsouville, Sept. 10, 1864; David Har\'ey. Wm. Irsuig. Hallowell 
P, Jame.s. Jas. O. Johnson; James R. Jewell, taken prisoner, Feb. 2. 1N>4— died in 
Anderscnvillo prison. April -^6, 1864; Alex. Kelsey, Jos, Knapp, Albert Kelley, 
Andrew J. KcUcv. Albert Keelcr, Charles D. Knowles, Cyrus M. Knight; Joseph 
K"ltenborne, taken prisoner, Feb. 2, 18t>4— diea at Andersonville prison, July 1., 
I'xVt; Geo. H. Knowks. died at Weedsport, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1865. of diseast ; Richard 
King, Pat. Kelley, James E, Locke, Geo. E, Lewis, Walter Lainphere. Albert 
Lamphere, James Lvsit. Jr., J. Letbbridge. Joseph Lindsley, Franklin Lisk.Abuer 
D. Lefner. Monroe Laraway; John E. Lippard. taken prisoner Feb. 2. \SA. since 
niis.sing; Lewis MeCarty, Orin McCartv, James H. Mills, Wm. Martin. \V m H. 
Martin, John Merritt. James Mace, Wra.'B. Maracoug. Irvine T. Melutyre, Michael 
Marahack, James McWharf, Rodney Marsh, Joseph Maier, John McCluskey; Peter 
Moou.-v, stray, •(! from camp, taken prisoner, and died at Andersonville prison, 
Julv, IN^t: (Jeo. S Mallett, died at Newbern, Oct, U, 18M, of yellow fever; Adam 
Meuzie. taken pri.'^oiitr, Feb, 2, 18W— died at Andersonville prison, June 16, 1804; 
A. D. Mein, Win. D. MeCormick, Leonard Morrell. Archibald Moirell, John C, 
Miller, Geo. Norton, ,Tohn Owens, Francis Ottiuan, Benj, OslMune, Berlin Orton, 
Charles Orton, Jolin Phinuey, Wm, Par.soiis, Michael Post, Michael Pitney, Alex, 
P-rrln. Robert Paul; Erastus Parker, died at Newbern, June U, I'M'^i; Newton U, 
Phelps; Wm. W. I'ease, taken prisoner Feb. 2, 1SG4, and since missing; Ira Right- 
mver, Joel C. Kaiisier, Frederick Renvoe: James Redmond, died in the service; 
J.'hn Rosser, Berlin Swan, John A, Scott. Orin E, Scott, Wm. Shearston. Geo. 
Swift, Edgar Sprague, John H. Simpson, Ira J. Stephens, Benj. F. Stamp. Sylvester 
Snyd.r. Geo. N. M;.i\v. Henrv K. Stahh Wm. H. Simpson. Albert Stockton. Henry 
St. . kt..n, Jolm H. ShalTer, Jav E. Storkc; James Shank, died at Newbern. Oct. h\ 
I"^-l. of f,-ver; Lemuel F. Straley, died at Fortress Munroe, Sept. 27. l.'^W; S. J. 
f^tralev, died in prison at Richmond, V.. April 1, INkI, of starvation; Melville Smitn 
and Alex. Shaw, taken prisoners Fob. 3, 1861— died at Andersonville priaun, April '-, 



314 3D NEW- YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 

T^I^°r"s:^^''"-iP''"°*''J'*"'?^'^"- ^^^""^ prisoner. Feb. 2. lSft4. and since missing- 
moTs T-, vW^r "''^F Tottm:rham Elisha Terwilli^er. Thomas Timmons. Hall 
w^ H ^- V"^- ^t"\^'V;'"4^^""' •'^'- ^ Tenner. Elijah K. Thomas. Alvin .M. Titus 
T^J^-Jr-^'''''- •?''^° '^^Jf ^^T^- '*'<^'> "^t Fortress Munroe. Dec. 18. IS.U; Oscar S 
kIV^'1'„ V ''"* P"^""^"" ^."^'■Z-- l-'il-diffl at AndersonviUe prison. Oct. 7. \m- 
?Aln r^ ° '^''^^% K^''^,"" ^ '"'" ^"'"•'"- '^"^^ ^- ^an Buren and Henry Van Buren, 
taken prisoners. Feb. :>. isi;v_<li.vi at AndersonviUe prison. April 21. l,s.;f Isaac 

T-i,^°W Wh> PV•''"''•'^^''^^^.r•• ^'^'^'v •'"^ ^^^^^^ missin-; Charles W. Wh^aton, 
W^n« ^-.nl.^ w w'"''? ^i ^^H'''*',x.^^^*^^F. Wilbur. Charles Williams. Walter 
Hai^;^ H wh- -1 ^'n'^-- ^'xT-'', J- ,^^r'' '^^°'"^« Whipple. Cornelius Waldron, 
Harvey H. Whipple Daniel Wolford. James WUson. Robert Wilkenson. .John Wal- 

W^hfTJ^^H- V"". V '""k- '^'I'^r,''' ^- ^'i"iams. Elbert A. Williams: Frederick G. 
v«i in •T^m'^'^*'^*^'^-^^^'''^- "^''l^ '^- ^^''''^- "^^"'- B- Wheaton. died at Xewbem. 
P«h"9 i*ii 'v^*^^'"?''^, fe^'*^r:.-/ames West and Georce West, taken prisoners, 
f «°- ^ if>f— 'iiefl in AndersonviUe prison; Francis Weeks, taken prisoner, Feb. l 
1864, and since missing; Joseph Young. cu. *, 



BATTERY " L," 30 ARTILLERY. 

[Mustered out July 7, 1865.] 

,Q^?<So'"'"^*~'^^^ ^- '^^^' ^^^- -"• 'S^l; resigned June 13, 1863. A. Lester Cady. June 

V*-/*^^L "'^'^^'^'■S^'^ ^^'^- '^' 13M. Lewis H. ilQwers, Feb. ^4, 1865; mastered out 
July <, iMti,>. 

First /Jeiifenant.9-Geo. S. Hastinss. Aug. 30. 1862; discharged Jan. 4. 1865. Wm. 
a. camp, Dec. 28. 18b4: discharged ilarch 8, 1S65. Fred. E. Hastings. June 13, 186:3; 
discharged Jan. 22. istio. & • . • 

^v/)j?'/ L>-e>ife>ian>^-Edvra.rd H. Wardwell, April 15. 1863: resigned Aug. 30. 1864. 
i*ao W. Graham, Dec. 7, ISGl ; transferred to 3d New York Cavalry. Chas. H. 

Serge,! nt,>—Wm. W. Crocker. Henry C. Page. Lucius S. N'ewcomb. Oliver Williams, 
John Russell. Wm. R. Murray. Hatlera P. Llovd. Ch.as. A. Clark. Rufus Ainsworth. 

(^}rpor,v/..i—G^o. G. Wri-ht. Samuel A. Stoddard. Geo. W. Calvine. Geo. Birdsall, 
il^ U-.Hmt,on; Archibald .MoDomUd. taken prisoner at Plvmouth. X. C. April 2i). 
l«^— died at AndersonviUe ; Benj. F. Bacheldor and John B. Johnson, died in the 
service; James Cowan. 

.S,/^^rir«— Andrew G. Furgeson, Adolphus Whitney, Henry C. Burd. 

.dr^/fo^r*— Porter D. Rawson. Paul Caulteaux. 

/>rjr,//ew— Francis M. Alherty, Zephaniah Allen, Wm. Albertv. Wm. Ainsworth. 
Vci?" ^"nstrong, and George Atwo.)d. taken prisoners at Plvraoiith. X. C April 2<). 
on *^'ijLV<"d >n AndersonviUe pri>i.,n; John A. Brooks. Giistavus Barker. Robert 
Bullock ■Wm. A. Blood, Wm. E. Rucklev. David Bailev. John Bartle. Geo. Brown; 
HartweU Bartlett. John Baker. WilL-ird b. Blake. James H. Button. Chas. Bucklev, 
and Roswell H. Barnes, taken pri.^oners at Plvmouth. X. C. and died at And^rson- 
^",f ' J; ■"• ^- Chapin. Georu-e Camp, (Jeorge W. Cvpher. Hiram Cusick. John Co.k- 
weu. >Vm. Carnahan. James Calkans. Alpha L. Culver, Robert Cantwt^U; lieorse A. 
Crounse. Benj. F. Corhiu. Henrv V. Clute. Henrv Chadburn. and Charles Carnahan. 
taken prisoners at Plvmouth. N. C. April 2t\ iwvi, and died in Anders.mville pri.son; 
Jiartin Crosby, and A. W. Comstoek. died in the .service: Georce Durvee. Oman 
Uavia. Edward J[. Eastwood. Geor-e Elseffer, Josiah F. Ferrin. Philemon Farrall, 
uennis Finne^an, John Filborn, Henrv Frost; James Flmn, Charl.s Fitch. Thos. 
ritzgerald. and Albert (rrifflth. taken pri-soners at Plvmouth. April 20. 1.h<>4. and 
^'^■«1* -^"''"rsoiiviUe prison: Lawrence Green. Dalis" M. Goodhue. Charles R. 
I 'i J?" T?'' '*''''■'' ^'^''•*lift. (li'^'l ill the .'.ervice; WiUard Gould. Wallace Houghton. 
Jonn V Harm..iid. Charles Humplirev. Arthur Huniphrev. Charles Horton. Charles 
Hart. Georire A. HoUman; Edward J". Hiint^>r, Wilber M. H.-vt. Charl.>s H. Hatha- 
way, and \\ ni. F. Hosfi.nl. taken pris.^nnrs at Plymouth. X. L'.. and died at Ander- 
sonviUe: Edwin T. M, HurlbfTt. Benj. X. HoUister. Charles H. H..men. Jas. Johns, 
Henrv C. Knowldon. Ri.'hmond Ketclium; George W. Keenev. Svlvanus King. Abra- 
ham Lent. S. H. L.ipham. and Abram Lee. taken prisoners 'at iPlvmouth. April 2(t, 
1"^. and difd at -Viider^onville pris.m; Francis Leonard. Iliram'E. Lomnis. Thos. 
McGuire. P.itrick Marrin. Orin S. M.Cr-'arv, Wheaton J. M.TriU. Ch.as. A. Moreau, 
31. R. Mo.^hrr, (ieorge .Miller. James McCluire. Henrv McMinch: John McCrink. 
Hector C Martin, J. G. Miner, and James McCrink, taken prisoners at Plvmouth, 



MUSTER ROLL. 315 

\t,ril CO ISAI and (M^^d in Andersonville prison; Georpe JI. Mead, and Michael Mc- 
iflire died in the ievviee: Win. P. Nichols. Riley J. Newton, and Samuel Nichols, 
uiiton' pi-i.-^i'MtTs al rivniouth, April 20, 1«<U, and died in Andersonville prison; 
Tlii'mas OdelL Cha;'.. sOtis, Wm. Prince, Oliver G. Parmelee. Silas P. Purdy. Chas. 
(; Phflau, (;eor<:f AV. Piper, Wm. Patterson; Jos. W. Perkin.s, Philander Pratt, 
anil \ll«ert PipiM-, tali.'ii prisoners at Plymouth, April 20, IfiW— the first two died at 
\n(ler*oiivinf, thf last at Florence, S. C; Kirnm Boost, Erastus Rankin. Enoch J. 
i'.ti-^sfU. Orlr;i:dii i!, h.mlson. Wm. Roach, John A Russell, Stephen Root. Albert 
Ui. hards. Klias Itiiliards; Thurman Rich, and Leprand D. Rood, captured at Ply- 
'.•uiutli. April -I'. ;m>). and died at Andersonville: Walter Saekett. Jcmos Smith. Au- 
-'rew J. Secor, Cti.irles Sunderland. Phares Shirley. Mason C. Smith. Jas. Surfield, 
N.-ls«in Sht])ar<i, U. J. Safford and Timothy Shockney. captured at Plymouth, April 
i* 1S«.4. and ili- d at Andersonville prison; Seben H. Schenck. and Geo. W. Stevens, 
di'-din thesiTvico; Seymour Sherman, died Aug. 9, 18M, atNewbem; Lewis P. Thay- 
er Henry TiU.ui, Jr.. Samuel Terrill, SvlvesterVan Buren, B. V. L. Winnie, Elting 
wlvoLsev, Tli.iiiias Williams, Chauncey ^Vetmore. Hamilton S. Whitney, John Wool- 
s.-y; Ja'clib 11. Weller, died on United States hospital ship BuJtic, Dec. 1, 18M; Ed- 
w.ird Welch .mid Emmett Wood, captured at Plymouth, April 20, 18t>4, and died at 
Audersouville. 



BATTERY " M," 3D ARTILLERY. 

[Mastered June 26, 1865.] 

Capt.iina—Snmys V. White, Jan. 2.5, 1863; resigned Sept. 30, 1862. John H. Howell, 
Nov. 18, l>t>,>: mustered out June 26, 1865. 

Fimt L>eitt^„(nih~\Vjn. H. Sanford, June 19, 18ft4; mustered out June 26, 1865. 
Julius C(.le, Feb. IS. lst;.5; mustered out June 26, 1865. Nicholas Hanson. Jan. 25, 
l-''>-.'; di.-.oharj.-ed Oct. 5. ISW. Nelson S. Bowdish, Jan. 25, 1^«')2; resigned April 2, 
InW. Samuel H. Toby. F.^b. 24, 180:}; appointed Quartermaster April S). 1.S6.1. 

S^fvn'1 /./V/'//'?/(//(^«— Edward W. Brennan, Sspt. 24. 1>^CA: mustered out June 26, 
1>k5. Geo. II. Taylor. Feb. 18, 1865; mustered out June 26. 1865. Dwisht C. Scott, 
July ir. lfM\:); pr..n:..ted Sept. 23, 18tV4. Martin Shaffer, Jan. 2,% 1862: resitrned Nov. 
U, IStA.'; re-cuimmssionod Oct. 16, ISCA; resigned Aug. 16, 18t>4. James VanMeck. 
S.-pt. 14. Htll; mu.stered out Feb. 13, 1865. Hiram R. Lehman. Jan. 25, 1,'^J2; resigned 
June 27. IJ-i.:!. 

.>>rf/e<ni^«— Nicholas J. Smith, Sara. J. Yaples. Albert Becker. Jasper E. Hathaway, 
l^urton G. Grover. Joseph F. Raphael Jonathan L. Handford. John H. Fricot, 
James McCaj-, Alonzo Ludd, John H. Cockett, Ogilvie D. Ball, Horatio N. Gates, 
Ezru C. Jayncs. 

t'orj.'n-ir/x—Kawin Small. Charles H. Smith. Chauncey N. Brown. Daniel Pinckney, 
J.Ti>me Mattice, Charles A. Bartholomew. O. Merreuess. John H. Gordon. J. Sey- 
laour Beard.-lfv. Charles H. Clapp. John E. Dana, Charles E. Pike. Geo. G. Green. 
' t.urlesF. Odell. Geo. Manley, G. Peter Sandt. Ira Twitchell; Geo. Peck, died at 
-N.-wbern, April l-i 1862. of fever; Vinton Becker, died at Newbern. April 2*). !><>•-, 
• i fever; Cliarks F. Odell, died at Roanoke Island Sept. 2, 1862; Lamott K. 
I'fvendorf. 

V.'(/;//r/-*— Edwin R. Waterman, Smith H. Case. 

.1r///jVf/-j*— Louuzo I). Austin. Wm. Palmer. 

/'./rriVr— KumvcU P. Olds. 

/•/•(■/•((^r.*— Dtiiiii.-s IJ. Armstrong, John P. Austin. John Ahern, Charles Allen. Wm. 
Atidersuu. Aiis.>l Austin. David Aikens, Peter Annstronp, Albert S. Allen. Jacob 
y liradt, E.khar.U liillnian, Wilson Burgcs.s, Henry Backu.s, Hebron Burton, 
K'Me Bovt'c. (ii'i>. (i. Bf-ntley, Edgar J. Best. Jos. K. Bassford. Nicholas F. Bel- 
l.ik'-T. John ISoutUrovd. Charles D. Bingham, Peter Bradv. Jos>ph Bennett, Oscar 
E lir.md: Jnhii A. Brown, died at Roanoke Island. Oct. i2, IHi-J: Benj. Bond, died 
"t Newborn. Nov. 7. ISiVl. of fs-phus fever; Charles C. Campbell. Wm. Clemens, Wm. 
•■■ C'ox. SandtT-Mn Ci-.-as»'y, " Howard Chappel, DpIos W. Creve. Elias A. Cooper, 
C.irL.rt Cliainlarlain. Hiram Coin, Heman Cole. Lorenzo Cornish: Albert R. Cregs, 
<l:>'d at Point of Kocks, James river, Feb. :i. l.sr,,"); Luman Dings. Joseph Dnulphey. 
\\ m. H. Drum. John A. Dul.on. Peter Dingham; Joseph Dibble, died at Fortress 
.M.mroe, .Mardi 2ii. ISii.",, of disease; Albert C. Devendorf, S. ElwelU Florence 
[ 'ipere, H> luv Kshman, Lawrence Eckhart, Dravton Eno, Abner English, Lorenzo 
tckhart, Daniel Edwards, Madison Edwards, Simon B. Fow^ler, John Ferguson , 



3i6 



3D NEW-YORK VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. 



Spencer S. France, Clemence Gravlin, John Greer, Andrew Greer, Frank Gildav, i 
Benj. Garlock, Joel G. Garrison, \Vm. Gilfoyle, Samuel W. Green, Elijah S. j 
Georgia, Alphonzo Gross, Ralph R. Guernsey, ililan B. Goodrich. Thomas J. Her- j 
rick, Jonathan Herriik, David Handy, Allen Houghton, James A. Hunt, Benj. P. j 
Hulbert, Lewis B. Ham, Nelson Hoose, Charles D. Hoose, Selath Howe, Wni. A. ] 
Hopkins, John Hamlin, Wm. O. Han-ey, Geo. Hart, Benj. M. Hoagland, Charles S. t 
Howell, Charles Hanson, Jasper Howe, Charles Harty, Charles Head. David Hinds, \ 
"Wm. Hall; Charles K. Holman, died at Ithaca, N. Y., June i. 1S62: Henry G. Hardy, ! 
Napoleon B Johnston. Tremain J. Jaques; Miles A. Jones, died at Xewbern June. j 
3, 1862; Abner il. Kirk. Wm. Kahley, Washincrton I. Kinch: Daniel Ketchum, died at I 
Newbem. Sept. '^. lSt)3: Seth Knowles, John H. Lavender, Wm. Landers. Benj. Lamy, ! 
Edward Laton, Alfred Little, Henry Lambert, Alfred C. Lonsan. John Lydamon. i 
John Linch; Elisha S. Lantord. died at Roanoke Island. Aug. U.'lStii; Chas. Murphy, i 
Robert Morris, Edward Markem, John Mavers, Levi 3Iaybee. Dennis MeAvoy, j 
Philip Mowers, Philip H. Michael.s. Wm. Marks, Isaac Moore, Silas W. Mason, j 
Myron ilelins: Edwin N. Maxwell, died at Hatteras Inlet, Nov. 2, 1862; John Miller, 1 
died at Fortress Monroo. Sept. 13, It^W; John McArdle, died Nov. 1. 1S64, on the 1 
passage to Fortress Monroe; Thomas Nolan, Julius M. North, Geo. Nichols. James ! 
Sfelson, Daniel C. Osborn, John O.sborn, Jas. A. Platts. Henry C. Pinckney, Geo. E. J 
Patten, Thomas Palmer, Seth C. Platne-r, Herman Prime, Jas. M. Pierce, Asa W. ] 
Phillips, Wm. Piper, James Palmer. Timothy Parsons, "Wm. H. Pratt, Peter L. I 
Provett, A. Patchen, Van Rensselaer D. Pierson, Henry C. Platner; James Pinck- ! 
ney, died in New York city, Nov. 21, 18*53; David O. (Juigley. James Roche. Frank j 
Bare, Thomas Riley. John W. Robinson, Lewis Robbius. Fred. Shellman, Martin V. ! 
Secore, Christian S'chlee, Wm. Sweetland, John W. Smith. John F. Stevenson. Isaac j 
Smith, James SmitlL Richard Smith. Wm. R. Swick, Andrew L. Stinard. Lawrence ' 
Snyder, Henry C. Smith, Whiting Smith, Abram Smith. Wm. H. Spencer. Ales. I 
Stewart, King B. Swartwood. W.ishington B. Swift: Harmon Sawyer, died at New- \ 
bern, Oct. 21. 18»>3; William Snedeker, died at Portsmouth. April <", 18fU; John Tay- ! 
lor, Charles E. Tice. Henry M. Trutmeyer, Miron Thomas; Clark J. Titus, died at 1 
Hatteras. Nov. 19, lH<i2; Jacob Ulrich, John K. Van Allen. Andrew Vandenberg, | 
Garrett Van Vor.st; James F. Wicks, died in Newbern, June 20, 1862: Daniel P. Win- \ 
ney. died at Hatteras. Oct. 5. 1802; Jacob Westbrook. Horace Wellman. Leroy A. j 

Weldon, Henry Wicks. Morris R. Wisuer, Peter Waters. Jos. B. Watson, Watson 1 
G. Wilsev, Wm. WelLs, Jas. S. Wisner, Alvey WafSe, Jas. Wilkinson, Wm. H. 
Welch, Allen D. Walcott, Luke D. Wymbs, Wm. H. Yale, A. YarnaU, Theo. Young. 



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